winds which are frequent in the northern parts of Europe, in clear weather, in the months of March or April.

• In ascending the highest part of the mountain, called the Sugar-loaf, which is very steep, our hearts panted and beat vehemently, fo that, as I observed before, we were obliged to rest above thirty times, to take breath; but whether this owing to the thinness of the air causing a difficulty of respiration, or to the uncommon fatigue which we suffered in climbing the hill, I cannot determine; but believe it was partly owing to the one, and partly to the other. Our guide, a fim, agile, old man, was not affected in the same manner with us, but climbed

up with ease, like a goat; for he was one of those poor men who earn their living by gathering brimstone in the Cauldron and other volcanos, the Pike itself being no other, though it has not burned for some years past, as may be plainly understood by the nature of its fubitance; and indeed all the top of the island shews evi. dent marks of some terrible revolution that has happened in Teneriffe ; for the sugar-loaf is nothing else than earth mixed with ashes and calcined stones, thrown out of the bowels of the earth: and the great square stones, before described, seem to have been thrown out of the cauldron or hollow of the Pike, when it was a volcano. The top of the Pike is inaccessible in every way but that by which we went up, viz. by the east-fide. It's steepest part is on the north-west, towards Garrachica. We tumbled some loose rocks down from that quarter, which rolled a vast way, till we lost sight of them.

• Having surveyed every thing worthy of observation, we returned to the Estancia, where our horses were left; the whole time spent in descending from the top of the Pike to this place was only half an hour, although the ascent took us up about two hours and a half. It was now about ten in the morning, and the sun shone so excessively hot as to oblige us to take shelter in the cottage ; being exceedingly fatigued, we lay down there, intending to sleep, but could not for the cold, which was fo intense under the shade, that we were obliged to kindle a fire to keep ourselves warm.

After taking some repose, we mounted our horses about noon, and descended by the same way that we went up, and came to some pines, situated above the clouds: between these pines and the Pike grows no herb, frub, tree, or grass, excepting the forementioned retama. About five o'clock in the evening we arrived at Orotava, not having alighted by the way to ftop, only sometimes to walk where the road was too sleep for riding. The whole distance we rode in the five hours spent in coming down from the Estancia to Orotava, we computed to be



about fifteen English miles, travelling at the rate of three mile3 an hour: suppose we then deduct five of these for windings and turnings, the distance from the sea to the Estancia, in a strait line, will be about ten miles; which, if carefully compared with the ascent of the road, I reckon will make the perpendicular height of the Estancia to be about four miles; to which add a mile of perpendicular height from thence to the Pike, the whole will be about five English miles : I am very certain I cannot be mistaken in this calculation above a mile either way. There is no place in the would more proper for an observatory than the Estancia: if a commodious warm house or cottage was built upon it, to accommodate astronomers while the moderate weather continues, viz. all July, August, and September, they might make their observations, take an account of the wind and weather of the region above the clouds, and remark their nature and properties. But if any person intends to visit the Pike, I would advise him to wait for fine clear weather, carry'a good tent, plenty of water, and some provisions along with him, that he may be enabled to remain at the Estancia four or five days ; in which time he might go twice or thrice to the top of the Pike, and make his observations at leisure.'

The island of Hierro has been long famous in history for a tree, which distills water from its leaves. This phænomenon is by fome represented as miraculous, while others deny the existence of it. Our author tells us that there is actually such a tree in the island, and that its leaves conftantly distil a quantity of water sufficient for every creature in the island. It is situated on the top of a rock, at the extremity of a narrow gully or gutter, about a league and a half long, which commences at the sea. This famous tree is about three feet in dia. meter, thirty feet high, and the circumference of all its branches one hundred and twenty. The latter are remarkably thick and extended, and the longest about an ell from the ground. Its fruit resembles the acorn, and tastes something like the kernel of a pine-apple *, but is softer and more aromatic. The leaves resemble those of the laurel, but are longer, wider, and more curved; they come forth in a perpetual fucceffion, so that the tree is always green. On the north side of the trunk are two large cisterns of rough stone, each twenty feet square, and twelve deep: one contains water for the drinking of the inhabitants, and the other that which they use for their cattle, &c. Every morning, near this part of the island, a cloud or mift arises from the sea, which the south and easterly wind force against the steep cliff, so that the cloud having no vent by the gutter already mentioned, gradually ascends it, and from thence ad* Not the anana, but the fir, or pine-apple.

1! !rwert?

vances lowly to the extremity of the valley, where it is stopped by the front of the rock which terminates the valley, and then refts on the spreading branches and thick leaves of the tree; whence it diftils in drops during the remainder of the day. Other trees, several of which grow near it, perform the same office, and the inhabitants fave some water from them, though much less than from the fountain tree, which they call Till. This tree yields most water when the Levant or easterly winds have prevailed for some time; it being only by these winds that the clouds or milts are driven to it from the sea.

We shall conclude our account of this performance with the description Mr. Glas has given us of the manners and customs of the present inhabitants, referring the reader to the work itself for a more particular account of these celebrated islands.

« The natives of these islands, although their deportment is grave, are extremely quick and sensible. The women are remarkable for their vivacity and sprightly conversation, which far exceeds that of the French, English, or other northern nations. This agreeable lively humour is not peculiar to the inhabitants of those islands, but is common to those of the temperate countries, particularly the northern part of Africa.

« The Baron de Montesquieu has been very particular in telling us what effect the air and climate has upon the temper and genius of the inhabitants of different countries ; but although no attentive traveller can be persuaded to agree with him in his notions of these things, yet we may venture to assert with truth that the natives of the temperate climates are naturally endowed with more fenfe, penetration, and quicknefs of apprehension, than thofe of the countries situated to the southward of them : for, to whatever cause it may be owing, it is certain that the northern nations, Blacks, and Indians, are a heavy, phlegmatic, and stupid people, when compared with the Libyans, Arabs, Spaniards, and Canarians: but this difference cannot be so well observed as in such of these people as have not had the advantage of education, but are left entirely to nature.

· The great families in those islands would be highly offended if any one should tell them that they are descended from the Moors, or even the ancient inhabitants of these islands; yet I imagine it would be no difficult matter to prove, that most of their amiable customs have been handed down to them from those people, and that they have inherited little else from the Gothic side but barbarity. Yet the Canarian gentry, and all the Spaniards, are proud of being thought to have descended from the Goths, The gentry of these islands boast much of their birth, and with reason; for they are descended from some of the beft families in Spain. It is said that the Count of Gomera is the true heir to the honours of the house of Medina Czeli, but is not able to affert his just title, because of the great influence the prefent Duke has at the court of Madrid, from his immense fortune. The gentry here have some privileges, which I cannot fpecify, but they are trifling. I remember when a Scots gentleman of family, a physician in Canaria, wanted to obtain the rank of nobility in that island, he was obliged to produce a certificate from his native country, that there had never been a butcher, taylor, miller, or porter in his family. This was not very difficult to procure, as he came from a remote part of the Highlands of Scotland, where very few follow any handicraft. It is -' not to be wondered at, that the trade of a butcher Abould not be esteemed, or that of a taylor, which last is a profillion rather too effeminate for men to be employed in, but why millers and porters should be held in contempt, is hard to imagine; especially the former, who are an inoffensive set of men, and absolutely necessary in almost every country: it is true, indeed, that here they are great thieves, for each family fends its own corn to the mill, where, unless it is narrowly looked after, the miller generally makes an handsome toll. Í have been informed, that when any person is to suffer death, and the proper exccutioner happens to be out of the way, the officers of justice may seize the first butcher, miller, or porter they can find, and compel him to perform that dilagrecable office.

I remember, that once when I touched at the island of Gomera, to procure freth water, I hired some miserable, poor, ragged fishermen, to fill our casks and bring them on board : some time after, I went to the watering-place to see what progress they had made, when I found the casks full, and all ready for rolling down to the beach, with the fishermen standing by, conversing together as if they had nothing to do. I reprimanded them for their floth in not dispatching the bufiness I employed them in ; when one of them, with a disdainful air, replied, “ What do you take us to be, Sir? do you imagine we are porters ? no, Sir, we are seamcn.” Notwithstanding all my intreaties, and promises of reward, I could not prevail on any of them to put their hands to the casks to roll them to the water-file, but was obliged to

hire porters.

In another voyage I happened to have several Canarian feamen on board, among whom was a boy from Palma, who had been a butcher's apprentice or fervant; the feamen would not cat with him for a long time, until I came to understand it,



when I obliged them to mess all together, though my order was not obeyed without much grumbling and discontent.

« Another time, a patron of one of the Canary fishing-boats came aboard our ship, on the coast of Barbary, and breakfatted with us; besides ourselves, there were then at table a Jew (our interpreter) and a Moor; when the patron (or master of the bark) took me aside, and gravely reprimanded me for bringing him into such bad company; “ For (added he) although I am obliged by necessity to earn my bread by the fishery on this coaft, yet

I am an old Christian of clean blood, and icorn to fit in company with many in Sancta Cruz who are called gentlemen, yet cannot clear themselves from the charge of having a mixture of Jewish and Moorish blood in their veins."

• The gentry of these islands are commonly poor, yet extremely polite and well bred. The peasants and labouring poor are not without a considerable share of good manners, and have little of that surly rusticity which is so common among the lower kind of people in England; yet they do not seem to be abashed or ashamed in presence of their fuperiors.

• The servants and common people are excessively addicted to pilfering, for which they are feldom otherwise punished than by being turned off, beaten when detected, or imprisoned for a short time. Robberies * are seldom or ever committed here; but murder is more common than in England, the natives of these islands being addicted to revenge. I do not remember to have heard of any duels among them, for they cannot comprehend how a man's having courage to fight, can atone for the injury he hath done his antagonist.-The consequence of killing a man here, is that the murderer Aies to a church for refuge, until he can find an opportunity to escape out of the country: if he had been greatly provoked or injured by the deceased, and did not kill him premeditately, or in cold blood, he will find every body ready to affist him in his endeavours to escape, except the near relations of the murdered person. Nevertheless quarrels are not so frequent here as in England; which may in part be owing to the fatal consequences they are attended with, or the want of coffee houles, taverns, or other public houses; and also by reason of the temperance of the gentry in drinking, and their polite behaviour, with the little intercourse there is among thein.

• The common people do not fight together in public like the English ; but if one person offends another, so as to put him in a violent paflion, the injured party, if he is able, takes vengeance on the aggressor in the best manner he can, without regard to what we call fair play, until such time as he thinks he

This is Arange, if as Mr. Glass says, the common people are so addicted to pilfering. Rev. July, 1764. F


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