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gacity which inspired an Aristotle and a Bacon, like nature's oracles,
to prophecy, what the experience of future ages should confirm.
Art. 12. Johann-Georg Zimmerman Mitglied der Koeniglich Preuf-

fischen Academien, &c. Zurich. 1763.
A Dissertation on Medical Experience. By Mr. Zimmerman.

Mr. Zimmerman is a very celebrated physician in the Canton of Berne, in Switzerland. His principal design in this very sensible tract, is to obviate some misapprehenfions, which he conceives have arisen with regard to medical experience. It is a popular errour, he obo ferves, to imagine that every one is capable of medical observation, as if experience in this art could be obtained by the mere habriual use of the senses. It is true, concinues he, that in the mechanic arts, the practice of them is absolutely necessary; nor can the knack, acquired by habit, be supplied by speculation ; but in an art fo complicated and Scientific as that of medicine, a world of previous knowledge is necessary to enable the observer to comprehend what he sees, and to gather experience from observation. A mere practitioner or empiric, grown old in the practice of prescribing or adminiftring medicines, is supposed by the ignorant to be a man of experience ; though it is certain that these people seldom see the fick, and never their disease. Our Author observes there is a wide difference in this respect between the antient empirics and the moderns; the former depending on the evidence of their own senses, on that of preceding observers, and on comparing the symptoms of unknown diseases with such as were already known : whereas the modern empirics even neglect to unite the study of diseases to that of their remedies,

In treating of the ute of knowledge, and its influence on physical observation, Mr. Zimmerman makes a very just diftinction between erudition and science ; advising the medical student to apply himself rather to the useful than the ornamental parts of learning. A proper course of reading, says he, may supply the place of whole years of practice; but, it would not only require a very extraordinary natural genius, but a longevity of many centuries, to acquire by practice alone all that is already known in the art of healing. It was a saying of Rhazes, that, he should rather prefer a learned Physician, who had never seen a sick person in his life, than a pra&itioner who should be ignorant of the discoveries and practice of the ancients. Mere Practition, ers, says Mr. Zimmerman, decry that kind of knowledge which is acquired by reading; and to prove it useless endeavour to propagate the notion that the art of Physick mould always vary with the climate. In answer to this, he justly remarks, that the different appearance of distempers in different ages and climates, may create a necessity for varying the doses, times of application, and even sometimes the choice of our medicines; but the effential characters of a disease remain ever the same, nor can require any essential variation in the method or the remedy to be employed against it: We treat for instance the dyfentery in the same manner and with the same success in Europe as in India, and the bark is a sovereign cure for the ague in every country upon earth, We fill discover moft diseases by the fymptoms, by which Hippocrates described them of old, and the abieít physicians in Europe

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continue successfully to adopt the principles of that great antient in all important cases. Art. 13. Abregé Chronologique de l'Histoire de Pologne. 12mo.

Warsaw. A Chronological Abridgment of the History of Poland. This abridgment is written in imitation of Henault's History of France, and appears to be well executed ; which is paying the Author no little compliment, if Mr. Bayle's observation be true, que bien abréger eft de tous les ouvrages de plume le plus dificile.

Art. 14. Diatribe de Cepotaphio *, &c. A Differtation on the Cepotaph, or the ancient Method of

Burying the Dead, among the Egyptians, Hebrews, &c, By M. B. M. Van Goens. Svo, Utrecht. 1763.

This learned, and not incurious, dissertation, is said to be written by a young lad of fourteen. It is remarkable that the United Pro. vinces have produced a number of these juvenile Geniuses; witness the celebrated Grotius, the three brothers William, Theodore, and Andrew Canter, with many others : Scaliger indeed mentions, as a thing incredible, the great number of learned youth that abounded in his time, in this country. Whether it be owing to physical or moral causes, that the Dutch literati are in their youth so much before, and in age fo much behind those of other nations, we presume not to enquire.

As to the design of this tract, next to that of displaying the learning of its author, it appears to be a well-intended remonftrance against the horrid and deteltable modern cuftom of burying the dead in churches, and church-yards, within the walls of populous cities.

Κηποταφιον, from Κηπος a garden, and Tαφος a tomb. Art. 15. Discours Moraux, pour servir de fuite a Philofophe Chretien. Þar M. Formey. 12mo.

Berlin. 1764. Moral Discourses, intended as a Supplement to the Christian

Philosopher. By M. Formey. These discourses differ from those of the three preceding volumes, published under the above-mentioned title, in nothing more than the form.

These are confessedly downright sermons, and may therefore possibly have more weighe than the former discourses ; but, like other heavy bodies, we do not think they will circulate so fast as works of a lighter turn. Art. 16, Die Geschichte des Kunst des Alterthumbs, &c. 4to.

Dresden. 1764. An History of the Arts of Antiquity. By M. Winkelman, .

The very learned Author of this work treats of the rise and progress of the useful and polite arts, from the earliest ages to those of ancient Greece and Rome, in a very satisfactory and entertaining manner.

Art. 17

Art. 17. Oeuvres Diverses de M. de Joncourt, Docteur et Pro

fesseur en Philosophie. The Miscellaneous Works of M. de Joncourt, Professor of

Philosophy at the Hague. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1764. The talents of the ingenious and learned M. de Joncourt are too well known, in the literary world, to need any information from us on this head. The volumes before us contain, among various translations from English authors, the following original pieces. Maxims Philofophical and Moral, in imitation of the reflections of the Emperor Antoninus.—Hercules's Dream, an imitation of the Greek of Xenophon. -- An Essay on Infinity.-- An Arithmetical Paradox.--An Effay on Harmony-A Preface to a translation of the Dialogue of the Dead. -Observations on certain maxima and minima in common life:-On the Eloquence of the Fair Sex.-- An Esay on Hope.-A Discourse concerning those who think themselves ill-treated by the world.-AR Essay on the Deity. On moral obligation. On the art of dying well.

- The Reader cannot expect to find such a variety of subjects treated very much at large ; our Author however, is never so concise as to become obscure ; but displays with equal success throughout this entertaining and instructive miscellany, the various abilities of the Philofopher, the Moralist and the Divine.

Art. 18. Entretiens entre un Solitaire et un Homme du Monde. Dialogues between an Anchorite and a Man of the World,

12mo. Cologne. 1764.
If M. de Voltaire, who has lived much longer than most of his con
temporaries, were actually no morę, , and we had so much faith in
Ghosts, as to think they could assume the genius, as they are said to
do the figure, of persons defunct, we should be apt to think his fade
had here taken up the pen, as a proof that the grave could not con-
quer his indefatigable activity and industry,' We know there are
people who would be ready to say, and with justice epough in
that case, Peace, peace, perturbed Spiril! But, as we believe and hope
Mr. de V. is ftill living, and as we have no faith in ghofts, we must
look upon the Writer of these dialogues as a living counterfeit, and
not a dead one.

Dialogue I. Between Solitaire and Mundoso.
So! Ha! son! By what wonderful providence do I see thee among
these rocks?
Mun, Ha! father! How the devil came

you

here? S. I hope, son, for your relief and comfort-You seem in distress.

M. Yes, faith, I'm in bad case enough. I was thip-wrecked on the coast two days ago, about three leagues off.

S. In the late storm! I saw your veffel in distress, and put up my fervent prayers to St. Anthony for your

relief. · M. We were obliged to you, father, but I fancy St. Anthony was otherwise employed ; for he suffered our vesel to go to the bottom. Nay, if praying to the Saints could have done, we had enough of that on board. 'Tho it poslibly was not their fault neither; we had not a good leaman in the hip. With the help of half a dozen English fai

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lors, St. Anthony might have got.us off the coast, but it was not to be expected that the Saints fould heave out an anchor or work the ship.

S. And are you the only survivor of the persons on board ?

M. No. There were four of us, till like fools we went to loggerheads about the few trifles we saved from the wreck.

$. Is it poflible?

M. Yes, very possible, father ; but, as I thought it idle to quarsel about property, till I had found some means of preserving life, I left my comrades to decide the dispute by themselves.

S. Bless me! What a world have I escaped !
M. Why, father, was you cast away here too ?

S. No, son, not literally; but, disgusted with the world, I retired to this place, to avoid its temptations, and to contemplate on the things of Heaven.

M. A very proper spot! For you can see little else than the sky. I dare say you may see a llar at noon-day, almost as plain as if you were at the bottom of a well. But pray, good father, cannot you help one to a licile sustenance ? I have eat nothing but a few shell-filh these three days.

S. Gladly, fon, walk in, there is my cell ; I was juft going to dinner, when I first heard you..

M. I thank ye, father.---Ha!. fine fish! good sallad ! wine too! a Snug retreat! You would live here very comfortably, father, if you had any body to converse with now and then. A pretty little pratling female might make e'en this folitary spot agreeable : but I have no notion of a man's living, like an unit, by himself.

S. Religion and Philosophy furnish me with reflections that supply the place of conversation,

M. As to Religion, I made a vow to St. Dominic, when I was laft at Lisbon, that so long as his Inquisition endured, I would never open my lips about the matter. But, with regard to Philosophy; I have been in England, father, and have laid in such a cargo, that I believe I am your match. Come, let us start a subject of dispute.

S. I mean not to differ; what should I dispute for?
M. To shew your Philosophy, certainly.
S. And is that the use of Philosophy ?
M. Doubtiess.

S. Then an Anchorite cannot be a Philosopher, as he has nobody to dispute with.

M. True, and I will undertake thereupon to convince you that a life of solitude is the most useless life in the world.

S. I hope not altogether. Drink, son, eat. You are welcome.

M, Excellent wine, this! - I did not think these rocks produced fuch refreshing sallads, Yes, father, your folitary philofophy is all out of fashion. It is discovered by the moderns, that a man may be as devout in a cathedral as in a cell, and may cultivate philosophy as well on the Exchanges of Amsterdam and London, as if he were cast away on Robinson Crusoe's island. In a word, father, it is to be demon. strated-delicate fish !--that an Anchorite is an ufeless being, and cannot possibly be of service to any human creature. Most delicate filh, indeed! S, Not even to a hip-wrecked mariner

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M. Egad, father, you have caught me. I see that a man should be Silent at meals ; his brains are not worth a farthing while he is filling his belly. I beg your pardon. It must be owned, you have very el. sentially served me, as my late craving, and now fated, afpetite can teftify.

S. Learn hence, fon, how readily ingratitude arises from want of reflection ; you may from this instance also learn che vanity of that philosophy which confifts only in words. Know that, as Nature hath made nothing in vain, fo Providence will not suffer any thing that is innocent to be useless. “ Virtue, say you men of the world, confifts in doing good to others, and how can a man do good to others who lives by himself?" Great, however, is the merit of him that hath courage to withdraw himself from temptation and does no harm. IFI do litile good to my fellow-creatures, 1 do them less ill. In the world I should do more of both. But, even supposing the love of solitude an errour, let the providential service I have now afforded you, in this dem solate situation, teach you, that Heaven will not permit even the blindness and errours of mankind to render them tocally useless to each other.

In this dialogue, the Hermit appears to have the advantage of the
Voyager ; but in the succeeding, the latter reaps the greater triumph
for this flight defeat, and prevails on the former to return again to'
Society.
Art. 19. Verbandelinge over de Eigenschappen, &c. 4to. Leyden,

1764.
A Dissertation on the Attributes which necessarily flow from the

Existence of a necessary Being. By Mr. Witteveen. To which are added three other Differtations on the same Subject. Written by the other Candidates for the Stolpeian Prize, given by the University of Leyden,

If the discussion of metaphysical questions served to no other end
than, as logical exercises, to employ the distinguishing faculties of the
mind, we could not deny their utility. It is certain also that this is
generally the best use that is made of them; the ideas applied to the
terms, in such disquisitions, being for the moft part arbitrary and chia
merical : so that though the scholar may not advance in real knowlege,
he may acquire an habitude of acuteness and precision in thinking, which
he could acquire by no other means. We think therefore the Legacy,
made by the late M. Stolp, for supporting an emulation in the students
of Leyden, with regard to metaphysical disquisitions, extremely useful;
and are glad to see that the judges, who dispose of the prize, discoun-
tenance the unnecessary introduction of theological subjects.
Art. 20. Verhandelingen vitgegeeven door de Hollandsche Maats

chappy der Weetenschappen te Haarlem. Vol. 7. 8vo. Haar-
lem. 1763
The Transactions of the Philofophical Society of Haarlem.

This volume, which is the feventh, contains twenty memoirs, on different subjects; among which is one, by Professor Camper, on the

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