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Museum Ruslicum et Commerciale; or seleet Papers on Agricul
culture, Commerce, Arts, and Manufactures. Drawn from Experience, and communicated by Gentlemen engaged in these Pursuits. Revised and Digested by several Members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Svo. 2 Vols. 12s. Davis.
F it be true, that the worst of avarice is that of sense, the pub.
lic, we apprehend, will hardly, be persuaded, that the neglect of a certain respectable Society, to publish the papers communicated to them, is not a defect in their conduct or institue tion. This neglect of the Society, however, as a body corporate, hath been in some measure repaired in the present publication, by several of its individual Members, who have been public-spirited enough to second the design of the Editors, and arfift them in the prosecution of the work. This design is, in the words of the preface, To collect and concentrate the experia ence of the learned in Agriculture and Arts into a small compass; so that the Reader of these volumes may know the fentiments, and see the practice, of those who are most eminently skilled in the works of Nature, or moft earnestly intent on the improvement of art, and may profit from the experience of others, without sharing their toils, their difficulties, or disappointments.
To this end, we are told and promised, that this Collection does and will contain, not only such curious papers as have been presented to the Society above-mentioned, of which copies are from time to time procured of their respective Writers, but also various other important articles from the most ingenious Naturalifts and Artists in Europe and America, Vol. XXXI.
It were needless to expatiate on the utility of a design which is so very apparent ; its execution will, nevertheless, admit of fome animadversion. It is to be wished, in the first place, that the Editors had taken the liberty to fhorten the feveral papers contained in this work, and correct the style; they being, for the most part, extremely verbose and tedious, and sometimes not more prolix than obscure. It may be pleaded, indeed, that elegance of style is unnecessary in preceptive tracts and practical oblervations: but elegance of style is not what we contend for: it is by no means necessary to amuse the Husbandman, Artist, and Manufacturer with fine writing ; conciseness and perfpicuity, however, are absolutely necessary to all didactic or instructive performances. But, perhaps, if the Editors had taken the liberty we advise, they might have offended some of their Correspondents, over tenacious of their own mode of expression; tho' it is notorious, that, in fubjects of this nature, those who have the greatest share of experimental knowlege, have not always the happiest method of communicating it. There is another motive also, which might weigh with the Editors in their retention of a great deal of that unnecessary verbiage with which this Collection is overloaded; and this is, that quantity is peculiarly necessary to their mode of publication. The Authors of a periodical work, have not even the advantage of a stage-coach, that of going empty when they have no passengers: they muft bring a certain weight to town, tho' it be of mere luggage. It is this circumstance which gives us reason to fear, that not only the merit of the work, but the credit of the original pieces inserted in it, will be affected by such less curious and valuable papers as the Editors may be under a kind of necessity to admit, in order to fill up their itated number of fheets. It is not to be doubted, indeed, as they observe, that a publication, opened particuJarly for collecting and preserving papers on these important subjects, will induce Gentlemen to contribute all their useful obfervations; which, but for such a ready repofitory, would be lost, or so published, as to be of little service to the commu. nity. But we are not a little apprehensive, that five sheets per month, of really useful Observations, may be sometimes with difficulty obtained, especially after a time, when the several subjects are farther exhausted. Nay, we cannot help thinking, that notwithstanding the pains the Editors took to cultivate an early correspondence, there appears a dearth of matter so early as the latter end of the first volume; where we find a paper relative to a curious method of propagating trees, faid to have been invented by one Mr. Barnes. This method was published fome years ago, and, as we have reason to believe, originally invented by that industrious Labourer in the literary vineyard, Dr. John Hill+; universally allowed to be the most inventive of all practical Husbandmen. What adds to the impropriety of republishing this paper among original letters, without taking notice of its former publication, is, that it is pretended to be communicated by a Correspondent, one Mr. W. T. B. who affirms, that he hath tried the faid method with success. Now, it is in vain, while such artifices as these are made use of*, that the Editors may think to enhance the credit of their work by lamenting, That they are not permitted to disclose the names of their Correspondents; some of whom ftand so high in the learned world, that their fanction would carry into practice many excellent precepts, which have now nothing to support and recommend them, their own intrinsic merit excepted. We would advise the Editors therefore, of this respectable publication, to shew themselves for the future, above these little arts of book-making, by candidly owning what they may think themselves obliged to borrow; as we make no doubt they will always have a sufficient quantity of original matter besides, to ensure a continuation of the fuccess they have already met with and deserved.
+ See Review, vol. XX. page 568.
• Will the Editors say, they were really imposed on by a Correspondent? This would argue them not to be quite so conversant with sub. jects and tracts of this nature, as they probably desire to be thought.
Conclusion of the Account of Dr. Duchal's Sermons. See our
last, page 287. IN N our last Number we gave a short sketch of the Doctor's
character, and an account of the fix first Sermons of the sea cond volume; we now proceed to the rest.
In the seventh, the Doctor shews what is to be understood by glorifying God, and in what sense the divine glory is to be the end of our actions. In the eighth, he endeavours to explain the scripture doctrine of the Mediation of Christ. The method he observes in treating this subject is as follows :-He lays before his Readers, in the first place, the scriptural account of the matter, summed up as briefly as possible ; fecondly, he enquires into the ends to be served by the mediation of our Lord, and thews how the various parts he acted, answered these ends; after which, he makes reflections upon the whole, with a particular view to the removal of some difficulties, which have been thought greatly to embarrass the subject.
• The scriptural account of this matter, says he, is as follows: That mankind having universally perverted their way,
and having been in a state of moral darkness, guilt, and corrup-
(s ; in substance the same with that which the God of na-
cross; therefore God hath also highly exalted him ; hath placed him x-.1. his own right hand; subjected all things to him ; made him
head over all, and gave him all power and authority, in heaven
• These are the main things taught us in Scripture, concern-
The Doctor, in the next place, considers the ends to be answered by this interposition of the only begotten Son of God, and tells us, in general, that the raising of mankind, dead in
trespasses and sins, to a holy and divine life, and to the happiness which is annexed to it, was unquestionably the great end.
In order to shew how the part our Saviour sustained, and what ke did and suffered, tend to promote this great design, the Doctor observes, that he was of the highest importance to this end, as he became a light to the world; giving his Disciples the clearest and fullest instructions, and with the greatest and most unquestionable authority; putting them into the only true way to salvation; delivering them from ignorance and darkness; from the bondage of superstition, and furnishing them with those principles which are the sources of all that is good and happy.
As our blessed Saviour diffused that most glorious light which, of all things, was most necessary to answer his great and good design, of Thewing men what they ought to do; so, does his mediation, we are told, suggest to them fome most powerful motives to obedience; such as are wonderfully fitted to work on ingenuous minds. The love of the Fa her towards mankind, and his earneftness for their falvation, appear most remarkably in this dispensation. The manner in which our redemption and salvation is effected, namely, by the incarnation, the sufferings, and death of the Son of God, is of most persuasive tendency to engage the heart, to fill it with a just sense of those things which concern our salvation, and with the most useful sentiments.
God fendeth his own Son, in Aesh, who came (in obedience to the Father) to accomplish an end, which did the highest honour to the Father; and shewed, through the whole of the part he acted, a meric the most consummate that ever was exhibited on the theatre of this world. As the reward of this, the Father exalts him to the higheft and most important station; investing him with all power and authority; placing the conduct of our salvation in his hands ; particularly giving him authority to pardon the fins of the truly penitent, and to confer life eternal on them. This method of receiving the penitent into favour, and the honour which is done by it to our Mediator, that, through bis hand, all blessings and advantages should come to us; is the most folemn teftimony which God could give to mankind, of his regard to what is excellent and worthy : that nothing is, in his estimation, to be compared to it; and that the highest honours and happiness will always be conferred upon the greatest merit. But then, it is not possible to consider the matter in this light, without seeing, that where such approbation of, and regard are shewn to, exalted merit, there must be, at the same time, a proportionable displeasure at fin; for, that penitents receive the remission of it, by an authority conferred as the reward of the most consummate merit, cannot but point out to