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forbids the adoration of images, abounds in good precepts, and, judged by its influence, is certainly a great work.

To the Mahomedan schools of the Middle Ages, especially those of Spain, at Cordova, Seville, and elsewhere, are we indebted for the revival of learning in Europe, which during the ages immediately succeeding the introduction of Christianity, had sunk into a semi-barbarism, so barbarous that they are now termed the “ dark ages.” In these Mahomedan schools chemistry and medicine assumed the rank of sciences; arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and astronomy were taught, the latter mixed with astrology. Poetry, music, and the arts also received a due share of attention. This Moslem culture grows out of the religious and intellectual movement among the Arab tribes on the hot shore of the Red Sea. It has extended Northward to Kasan and Samarcand, as well as Southward into India and Africa ; and the Arab prophet is regarded as the first of men and of teachers by millions wro were born and died under a climate less “enervating” and “exhausting " than that of Mecca.

VIII. The Bible originated in Palestine, and there Christ was born. This last and supreme instance of the intellectual and moral obligation of the colder to the warmer lands, is one which will come home to every one. The figures and imagery of our most sacred book remind us of its all but tropical origin. “As rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land,” is its symbol of refreshment and comfort; while the imagery drawn from the colder North, and its contrast of the bleak winter out of doors with fireside warmth, are altogether wanting in the Bible, although found in Horace and other classic poets.

The Bible is a book which has more readers and influence than any other in Europe or America. The Psalms of David, the books of Job, Isaiah, and others, have received the encomiums of the most talented men of modern times, including both Christians and infidels. The Bible has given a tone and inspiration to the best literature of Christendon, of which we have prominent examples in the two greatest epic poems of modern times; those of Tasso and Milton. We owe all Christian types of architecture to the religion of the Bible, also, the painting and sculpture to elucidate its subjects, and adorn its churches and cathedrals, the sacred music, vocal and instrumental, at church and at home, the books about the Bible, the sermons preached, the schools and universities founded by Christians,—all to this influence from the South country.

The other religions of the world have had a similar effect upon the literature and civilization of their various countries, causing their wonderful architecture, sculpture, paintings, and works in poetry and prose.

Thus we see that the best and most civilized religions of the world, as now prevailing in most enlightened and civilized nations, comprising by far the largest portion of the world's people, originated in warm climates, tropical and semi-tropical. To these religions we are indebted for a large part, it not the largest part, of the literature of the world, and its best literature, which is thus the product of warm climates.

IX. In North and South America the superiority of the civilization of their native populations within the tropics, over that of the cold temperate climes of the same hemisphere, is also well known. Peru and Mexico at the time of the discovery of America by Columbus were the seats of powerful and civilized empires. The city of Mexico had its gardens, fountains, palaces and temples. Montezuma had his fish-pools, zoological and botanical gardens, when these last were unknown in Europe. Common schools and institutions of learning were there, also an academy of science and art, and the city was adorned with statues and paintings. In astronomy they knew the movements of the planets and divided the year into months and seasons, as is shown by their calendar-stone, which was dug up in the public square of the city of Mexico. The pyramid of Cholula covers about 44 acres of ground, four times as much as the largest pyramid in Egypt. Peru was about equal to Mexico in its civilization.

X. I have now given a cursory view of the religions and civilization of the principal tropical and semi-tropical nations, and have only to give a mere glance of the Northern and temperate regions of Europe, where the Teutonic and Scandinavian religion prevailed during many centuries. Odin was their god of war, and war was their chief and most honorable occupation, and in this they were often more than a match for the more civilized nations of the South ; often conquering the Roman armies, and finally the Roman Empire in Europe. To die in battle, fighting bravely was a sure passport to Heaven, where, in the halls of Odin, they drank beer and feasted on swine's fesh. Their religion gave rise to their literature as shown in their Eddas and Sagas, and other writings in poetry and prose, all of which dwell mostly on blood shed in the chase, in single combat of man with man, or in battles fought with their enemies.

As has been said, they also were Aryans who came into Europe, North of the Caspian Sea, while their brethren of the same great family went Southward, and were progenitors of the people of Persia, India, Greece and Rome. Here is a great experiment, which it took very many ages to make; which proves unmistakably the superiority of warm climates for mental development and progress in civilization, as seen in the works of Persia, India Greece and Rome, compared with the people of Northern Europe. They were all Aryans, and what but climate has made the difference ?

It may be said that the Southern Aryans had the advantage in being near the more cívilized Semitic peoples of Babylon, Nineveh, Phænicia, and also of Egypt. But the Northern Aryans of Europe were, during many ages, neighbors to the civilization of Greece and Rome, which they often saw during their wars, and from which they profited little. On the contrary, they caused the dark ages to overspread the larger portion of Europe for many centuries, during which, much of the ancient of Greece, Rome, and other countries was destroyed. Until the art of printing was discovered, in the Fifteenth Century, there was very little knowledge among the people of the greater part of Europe, and that little was mostly with the priests. Written books were expensive ; besides, they were mostly on controversial matters pertaining to religion, and in the Latin language. But the translation of the Bible and the multiplicity and cheapness of printed works, mostly in the common languages of the country, gave a new impetus to civilization by bringing to the North the civilizing influences of the South.

Most of the famous writers of Europe, past and present, were, and are, classical scholars, and have been, as it were, inspired by the works of Greece, Rome, and other semi-tropical or tropical nations. Bunyan, whose Pilgrims' Progress has more readers in the English language than any other book, except the Bible, could not and would not have made his book without the Bible, which is a semi-tropical work. Milton spent years in Italy studying the works of Dante, Tasso, and other Italian authors, and also the more ancient ones of Greece and Rome. Byron wrote the best of his poetry in Italy and Greece. Camoens, the national poet of the Portuguese, wrote his great epic, the Lusiad, in a rocky grotto, near Macao, in the Moluccas of the tropics. Friedrich Schlegel says, “ the Lusiad of Camoens far surpasses Ariosto in richness of color and luxuriance of fancy;" and Humboldt, that “ Camoens abounds in inimitable descriptions of the never-ceasing connection between the air and sea.”

Even now students in music, painting, and sculpture resort to Italy to become more perfect in their studies.

A few words in regard to our own land. From what has been said we learn that whatever superiority the Northern States may have over the Southern in literature and science and the arts, the cause is certainly not race or climate, for we are all of one race, and our climate is more favorable than theirs for mental improvement.

In law and politics we have always been their equals, if not their superiors. Before the late civil war, it was often said at the North that Southern statesmen at Washington were superior to. those of the North ; that, although in the minority, they shaped the legislation of the country. Be this as it may, since the war, Gordon and Hill of Georgia, and Lamar of Mississippi in the Senate, are at least equal in debate to the most talented Senators of the Northern States. Law and politics had always been a favorite study with Southern young men, and the prominence given to this study may explain in part the deficiency in literature and science prevailing at the South. Here it was a prevailing opinion that white men could not do field work; that such work must be done by the negro; but the experience of the last few years proves that white men can do field work. It has also been a prevailing opinion, and still is, that our climate is unfavorable for mental study-hence, with few exceptions, there has not been the mental study requisite to make poets, philosophers, etc. The experience of the next few years will also prove the fallacy of such an opinion.

The Southern cotton states, with their productive soil and fine scenery, as shown in the Western Carolinas, the Northern parts of Georgia and Alabama, and also in Western and Northwestern

Texas, offer a rich field for the poet, the artist, and lover of the grand and beautiful. It is a land fit for making the most beautiful, pleasant, and desirable homes in the world.

A knowledge of these things is of practical value to us. It gives confidence in our climate and home resources. It should stimulate us to make universities, colleges and schools equal to the best of any country; that our children of both sexes may have just as good advantages for study and learning at home as abroad. In short, those will reap a rich reward who are willing to undergo the exertion necessary in the pursuit of everything which has a tendency to improve their minds.

S. B. BUCKLEY, Ph. D. AUSTIN, TEXAS.

A PLEA FOR A STRONG NAVY. W H ILE our two great political parties are fighting over again

W in Congress or in their campaigns the battles of the rebellion, while they are disputing whether our insignisicant army should not be made more insignificant, the weakness of our navy is inviting insult to our flag upon the seas. It is possible for European iron-clads of even the second rate to enter our harbors uninjured in spite of our ships of war or of any guns mounted in our forts, to hold our chief cities at the mercies of their armaments, and to extort from our merchants tribute enough to build three navies. We are not even secure from invasion by foreign troops. The fleets of England alone could escort across the Atlantic all the armies of Europe, and the battle field between ourselves and foreign invaders, which should be the wide barrier of the sea, would thus become our own shores. Suppose some foreign power should attempt an invasion with a well-trained army of two hundred thousand men under the convoy of a powerful fleet. If we had an effective navy, such an expedition could never cross the ocean. But with our present fleet, our only defence would be the liability to a disastrous storm, and if no such accident should intervene, the expedition could without doubt choose its own landing place. And what would probably be the result? It is by no means sufficient to tell us that we are brave. Experience demonstrates that a regular army, manæuvring upon open plains, such as

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