pointed the Mediator and Intercessor by whom the Father is reconciled to us. He therefore that trusteth by his works to merit grace, doth despise the merit and grace of Christ, and seeketh, by his own power, without Christ to come unto God, whereas Christ hath said expressly of himself, “ I am the way, the truth, and the life.” This doctrine of faith is handled by Paul, almost in every Epistle, Ephes. ii. “By grace are ye saved through faith ; and that not of yourselves ; it is the gift of God : not of works,” &c. And lest any here should cavil that we bring in a new found interpretation, this whole cause is under-propped with testimonies of the Fathers. Augustine doth in many volumes defend grace and the righteousness of faith, against the merit of works. The like doth Ambrose teach in his book, “ Dè vocat. Gent.” and elsewhere: for thus he saith in the fore-named place, “ The redemption made by the blood of Christ would be of small account, and the prerogative of man's works would not give place to the inercy of God, if the justification which is by grace were due to merits going before, so as it should not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of the labourer.”

This doctrine, though it be contemned by the un. skilful, yet the godly and fearful conscience doth find by experience, that it bringeth very great comfort: because that consciences cannot be quieted by any works, but by faith alone, when as they believe asa suredly, that God is appeased towards them for Christ's sake, as Paul teacheth, Rom. v. “ Being jus. tified by faith, we have peace with God.” This doctrine doth wholly belong to the conflict of a troubled conscience, and cannot be well understood, but where such as have had no experience thereof, and all that are profane men, which dream that Christian righte. ousness is nought else but a civil and philosophical justice, are evil judges of this matter. In former ages, men's consciences were vexed with the doctrine of works, they never heard any comfort out of the Gospel. Conscience drave some into the desert, into monasteries, hoping there to merit favour by a monastical life. Others found out other works whereby to merit favour, and to satisfy for sin. There was very great need therefore to teach this doctrine of faith in Christ, and after so long time to renew it; to the end that fearful consciences might not want comfort, but know that grace and forgiveness of sins, and justification, were apprehended by faith in Christ. - Another thing which we teach men is, that in this place the name of faith doth not only signify a bare knowledge of the history, which may be in the wicked, and as in the devil, but it signifieth a faith which believeth, not only the history, but also the effect of the history, to wit, the article of remission of sins, that we have grace and righteousness and remission of sins through Christ. Now he that knoweth that the Father is merciful to him through Christ, this man knoweth God truly, he knoweth that God bath care of him, he loveth God, and calleth upon him : in a word, he is not without God in the world, as the Gentiles are. As for the devils, and the wicked, they can never believe this article of the remission of sins, and therefore they hate God as their enemy, they call not upon him, they look for no good thing at his hands. After this manner doth Augustine admonish his reader, touching the name of faith, and teacheth that this word faith is taken in Scripture, not for a knowledge, as in the wicked, but for a trust and confidence, which doth comfort and cheer up disquieted minds.

Moreover our divines do teach, that it is requisite to do good works, not for to hope to deserve grace by them, but because it is the will of God. Remission of sins and peace of conscience are apprehended only by faith. And because that the Holy Spirit is received by faith, our hearts are presently renewed, and do put on new affections, so as they are able to bring forth good works. For so saith Ambrose, “ Faith is the breeder of a good will and of good actions. For man's powers, without the Holy Spirit, are full of wicked affections, and are weaker than that they can do any good deed before God. Besides they are in the devil's power, who driveth men forward into divers síns, into profane opinions, and into very heinous erimes. As was to be seen in the philosophers, who, assaying to live an honest life, could not attain unto it, but defiled themselves with open and gross faults.” Such is the weakness of man, when he is without faith and the Holy Spirit, and hath no other guide but the natural powers of man. Hereby every man may see, that this doctrine is not to be accused as forbidding good works, but rather is to be commended, because it sheweth after what sort we must do good works. For without faith the nature of man can by no means perform the works of the First and Second Precepts. Without faith it cannot call upon God, hope in God, bear the cross, but seeketh help from man, and trusteth in man's help.' So it cometh to pass, that all lusts and desires, and all human devices and counsels, do bear sway, so long as faith and trust in God is absent. Wherefore Christ saith, “ Without me ye can do no

thy power there is nought in man, and there is nothing but that which is hurtful.”

(Art. XX. in the Edition of 1538 is too long for insertion.)

XXI. Touching the worship of saints, they teach, that the memory of saints may be set before us that we may follow their faith and good works, according to our calling, as the Emperor may follow David's ex. ample in making war to drive away the Turks from his country: for either of them is a King. But the Scrip. ture teacheth, not to invocate saints, or to ask help of saints, because it propoundeth unto us one Christ, the Mediator, Propitiator, High Priest, and Intercessor. This Christ is to be invocated, and he hath promised that he will hear our prayers, and liketh this worship especially, to wit, that he be invocated in all afflictions, 1 John ii. “ If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, &c.”

[Concerning the worship of saints, they teach, that it is profitable to propose the memory of saints, that by their examples we may strengthen our faith, and that we may follow their faith and good works, so far as every man's calling requireth, as the Emperor may follow David's example in making war to beat back the Turks, for either of them is a King. We ought also to give God thanks, that he hath propounded so many and glorious examples of his mercy in the saints of his Church, and that he hath adorned his Church with most excellent gifts and virtues of holy men. The saints themselves also are to be commended, who have holily used those gifts which they employed to the beautifying of the Church. But the Scripture teacheth not to invocate saints, or to ask help of saints, but layeth only Christ before us for a Mediator, Propi. tiator, High Priest, and Intercessor. Concerning him we have commandments and promises, that we invocate him, and should be resolved that our prayers are heard when we fly to this High Priest and Intercessor, as John saith, ch. xvi. “ Whatsoever ye sball ask the Father in my name, he will give it you," &c.; and, John xiv. “ Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that I will do.” These testimonies bid us fly unto Christ, they command us to believe that Christ is the Intercessor and Peace-maker, they bid us trust assuredly that we are heard of the Father for Christ's sake. But as touching the saints, there are neither commandments nor promises, nor examples for this purpose in the Scriptures. And Christ's office and

honour is obscured when men fly to saints, and take to them for mediators, and invocate them, and frame

unto themselves an opinion that the saints are more gracious, and so transfer the confidence due to Christ

unto saints. But Paul saith, “There is one Mediator by between God and man.” Therefore Christ especially * requireth this worship, that we should believe that he

is to be sought unto, that he is the Intercessor, for i whose sake we are sure to be heard, &c.]

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