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and free themselves from the obedience of it, by their particular judgment ?
Ans. If you understand by your church the church catholic, probably I should answer, no; but if you understand by your church, that only, which is in subordination to the see of Rome; or if you
understand a council of this church, I answer, yea.
Arg. That was the catholic church, which did abide in the root of apostolic unity: but the church of Rome at that time was the only church that did abide in the root of apostolic unity : Ergo.
Quest. What mean you by apostolic unity?
Ans. I mean the unity of that fellowship wherein the apostles lived and died.
Quest. Wherein was this unity ?
Ans. Herein it consisted, that they all professed one faith, obeyed one supreme tribunal, and communicated together in the same prayers and sacraments.
Solut. Then the church of Rome continued not in this apostolic unity; for it continued not in the same faith wherein the apostles lived and died': for though it retained so much in my judgment) as was essential to the being of a church, yet it degenerated from the church of the apostles' times, in many things which were very profitable; as in Latin service, and communion in one kind.
Arg. Some church did continue in the same faith wherein the apostles lived and died: but there was no church at that time, which did continue in the apostles' faith, besides the Roman church : Ergo.
Ans. That some church did continue in the apo-,
stles' faith in all things necessary, I grant it; that any did continue in the integrity of it, and in a perfect conformity with it in all things expedient and profitable, I deny it.
Quest. Is it not necessary to a church's continuing in the apostles' faith, that she continue in a perfect conformity with it in all things expedient and profitable?
Ans. A perfect conformity in all things is necessary to a perfect continuance in the apostles' faith but to an imperfect continuance an imperfect conformity is sufficient; and such, I grant, the Roman church had.
Quest. Is not a perfect continuance in the apostles' faith necessary to a church's continuance in the apostolic unity ?
Ans. It is necessary to a perfect continuance in apostolic unity.
Arg. There were some one company of Christians at the time of Luther's rising, which was the catholic church : but there was no other company at that time, besides the Roman : Ergo, The Roman at that time was the catholic church.
Ans. There was no one company of Christians, which in opposition to, and exclusion of, all other companies of Christians, was the catholic church.
Arg. If the catholic church be some one company of Christians in opposition to, and exclusion of, all other companies, then if there were some one company, she was in opposition to, and exclusion of, all other companies : but the catholic church is one company of Christians in opposition to, and exclusion of, &c. Ergo, There was then some one company, which was the catholic church,
in opposition to, and exclusion of, all other companies.
The minor is proved by the testimonies of the fathers, both Greek and Latin, testifying that they understood the church to be one in the sense alleged.
1. If this unity, which cannot be separated at all, or divided, is also among heretics, what contend we further? Why call we them heretics ?-S. Cypr. Epist. 75,
2. But if there be but one flock, how can he be accounted of the flock, who is not within the number of it?-Id. ibid.
3. When Parmenian commends one church, he condemns all the rest; for, besides one, which is the true catholic, other churches are esteemed to be among heretics, but are not.-S. Optat. lib. i.
4. The church therefore is but one: this cannot be among all heretics and schismatics.-Ibid.
5. You say, you offer for the church, which is one: this very thing is part of a lie, to call it one, , which you have divided into two.-Id. ibid.
6. The church is one, which cannot be amongst us, and amongst you; it remains, then, that it be in one only place.-Id. ibid.
7. Although there be many heresies of Christians, and that all would be called catholics, yet there is always one church, &c.-S. Aug. De Util Credend. c. 7.
8. The question between us is, where the church is ; whether with us, or with them; for she is but one?-Id. De Unitat. c. 2.
9. The proofs of the catholics prevailed, whereby they evinced the body of Christ to be with them, and by consequence not to be with the Do
natists; for it is manifest that she is one alone... Id. Collat. Carthag. lib. iii.
10. In Illud Cantic. vi. 7. “There are sixty queens, and eighty concubines, and damsels-without number; but my dove is one,” &c. He said not“My queens are sixty, and my concubines,” &c. but he said, “My dove is but one;" because all the sects of philosophers, and heresies of Christians, are none of his; his is but one, to wit, the catholic church, &c.-S. Epiphan. in fine Panar.
11. A man may not call the conventicles of heretics (I mean Marcionites, Manichees, and the rest) churches; therefore the tradition appoints you to say, "I believe one holy catholic church,” &C.S. Cyril. Catech. 18.
And these testimonies, I think, are sufficient to shew the judgment of the ancient church, that this title of the church one, is directly and properly exclusive to all companies besides one; to wit, that where there are divers professions of faith, or divers communions, there is but one of these which can be the catholic church. Upon this ground I desire some company of Christians to be named, professing a diverse faith, and holding a diverse communion from the Roman, which was the catholic church at the time of Luther's rising: and if no other in this sense can be named, then was she the catholic church at that time; and therefore her judgment to be rested in, and her communion to be embraced, upon peril of schism and heresy.
Mr. Chillingworth's Answer.
Upon the same ground, if you pleased, you
might desire a protestant to name some company of Christians, professing a diverse faith, and hold ing a diverse communion, from the Greek church, which was the catholic church at the time of Luther's rising; and, seeing he could name no other in this sense, conclude, that the Greek church was the catholic church at that time. Upon the very same grounds you might have concluded for the church of the Abyssines, or Armenians, or any other society of Christians extant before Luther's time. And, seeing this is so, thus I argue against your ground.
1. That ground which concludes indifferently for both parts of a contradiction, must needs be false and deceitful, and conclude for neither part: but this ground concludes indifferently for both parts of a contradiction; viz. That the Greek church is the catholic church, and not the Roman; as well as, that the Roman is the catholic church,
, and not the Greek: therefore the ground is false and deceitful, seem it never so plausible. : 2. I answer, secondly, That you should have taken notice of my answer, which I then gave you; which was, that your major, as you then framed your argument, but as now, your minor, is not always true, if by one you understand one in external communion; seeing nothing hindered, in my judgment, but that one church, excommunicated by another upon an insufficient cause, might yet remain a true member of the catholic church; and that church, which, upon the overvaluing this cause, doth excommunicate the other, though in fault, may yet remain a member of the catholic church; which is evident from the difference about Easter day between the church of Rome and the