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When Aleyn left Mr. Farnaby, he went into the family of Edward Sherburne, Esq., to be tutor to his son, who succeeded his father as clerk of the ordnance, and was also commissary-general of the artillery to King Charles I. at the battle of Edgehill. The next piece which our author produced, a poem in honour of King Henry VII. and the important battle which gained him the crown of England, was published in the year 1638, under the title of The Historie of that wise and fortunate prince Henrie, of that name the seventh, King of England; with that famed Battaile fought between the said King Henry and Richard III. named Crook-back, upon Redmore near Bosworth.
Besides these three poems, there are in print some little copies of commendatory verses ascribed to him, and prefixed to the works of other writers, particularly before the earliest editions of Beaumont and Fletcher's plays. In 1639 he published the History of Eurialus and Lucretia. This was a translation; the story is to be found among the Latin epistles of Æneas Sylvius. The year after, he is said to have died, and to have been buried in the parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn.
(Circa 1600-1671.) Henry Hutton, the fifth son of Edward Hutton, a member of an “ ancient and genteel family in the county palatine of Durham," having been educated at Oxford, where he graduated A.M., became perpetual curate of Witton-Gilbert, two miles from Durham, where he died, at an advanced age, 24th April, 1671. He was the author of Follie's Anatomie, or Satyres and Satyricall Epigrams, with a compendious history of Ixion's Wheele, printed in 1619, and a reprint of which forms one of the many titles of the Percy Society to public gratitude.
Hutton was a caustic and vivid writer, and has sketched with some humour a picture of the habits and manners of his time. Many of his observations were drawn from passing events; and the incidental notices of Sir John Harington, Tom Coryat, Taylor the Waterpoet, and George Wither, form not the least interesting portions of his work. Follie's Anatomie appears to have been Hutton's only production.
(Circa 1600-1658.) John Cleveland was born at Hinkley, in Leicestershire, of which place his father was vicar, but we do not find in what year. He received his grammatical education in the same town, under Richard Vines, a zealous puritan, and was afterwards sent to Christ's College, in Cambridge. He was soon distinguished for his uncommon abilities, more especially for his talents as an orator; and when he became of proper standing, was elected a fellow of St. John's College. He continued here about nine years, the delight and ornament of that house, says Wood; and during that time became as eminent in poetry as he was in oratory. At length, upon the breaking out of the civil war, he was the first champion that appeared in verse for the royal canse against the parliamentarians, for which he was ejected from his fellowship as soon as the reins of power came into their hands. Upon this he retired to Oxford, the king's head-quarters, as the most proper place for him to exert his wit, learning, and loyalty at. Here he began a paper war with the opposite party, and wrote some smart satires against the rebels, especially the Scots. His poem called The Mixed Assembly, and his Character of a Committee Man, are thought to contain the true spirit of satire, and a just representation of the general confusion of the times. He was so very active with these weapons, which nature and his own application had furnished him with, that he was highly respected not only by the great men of the court, but also by the wits and learned of the University. He addressed an oration, Winstanley tells us, to King Charles I., who was so well pleased with it, that he sent for him, and gave him his hand to kiss, with great expressions of kindness. When Oliver Cromwell was a candidate to represent the town of Cambridge, as Cleveland engaged all his friends and interest to oppose it, so when it was carried but by one vote, he is said to have cried out with much passion, that “that single vote had ruined the church and kingdom.“
From Oxford he went to the garrison of Newark-upon-Trent, where he was so highly respected by all, especially by Sir Richard Willis, the governor, that he was made judge advocate, and so continued till the surrender of that place, showing himself, says Wood, a prudent judge for the king, and a faithful advocate for the country. While he was at Newark he drew up a bantering answer and rejoinder to a Parliament officer, who had written to him on account of one Hill, who had deserted from their side, and carried a great sum of money with him to Newark. The garrison of Newark defended itself with much courage and resolution against the besiegers, and did not surrender but by the king's special command, after he had thrown himself into the hands of the Scots; which order of his majesty Cleveland warmly resented in a poem called The King's Disguise. As soon as this event took place, he was thrown into a jail at Yarmouth, where he remained for some time, under all the disadvantages of poverty and wretchedness. At last, being exhausted with the severity of the confinement, he addressed Oliver Cromwell in a petition for liberty in such pathetic and moving terms, that his heart was melted with the prisoner's expostulation, and he set him at liberty.
Having thus obtained his liberty, he retired to London, and settled himself in Gray's Inn; and as he owed his release to the Protector, he thought it his duty at least not to act against him. But Cleveland did not long enjoy this state of ease and study, for an intermitting fever seizing him, he died upon the 24th of April, 1658. On the 1st of May he was buried in the church of Saint Michael, in the city. His works, consisting of poems, characters, orations, epistles, &c., were printed (1677), with his portrait before them.
(Circa 1600.) John Philips, the maternal nephew and disciple of John Milton, “ from whose education (writes Edward Phillips) as he hath received a judicious command of style both in prose and verse, so from his own natural ingenuity he hath his vein of burlesque and facetious poetry, which produced the Satire against Hypocrites, and the Travestied Metaphrase of two books of Virgil, besides what is dispersed among other things. Nevertheless, what he hath written in a serious vein of poetry, whereof very little hath yet been made public, is in my opinion nothing inferior to what he hath done in the other kind."
DR. JAMES SMITH.
(1605-1667.) “ James Smith, son of Thomas Smith, rector of Merston in Bedfordshire, and brother to Dr. Thomas Smith, some time an eminent physician of Brazen-nose, was born,” says Wood, “ in the said town of Merston, matriculated as a member of Christ Church in Lent term,
1623, aged 18, and soon after was transplanted to Lincoln College, where he continued for some years a commoner; thence he was preferred to be chaplain at sea to Henry Earl of Holland, who was admiral of a squadron of ships sent for a supply to the Isle of Ré. Afterwards he was domestic chaplain to Thomas Earl of Cleveland, who had an especial respect for him, for his ingenuity and excellent parts. In his service he continued six years; had a benefice in Lincolnshire, which he kept for a time; and in 1633 took the degree of bachelor of divinity by accumulation, being then much in esteem with the poetical wits of that time, particularly with Philip Massinger, who called him his son ; Will Davenant, John Mennis, &c. From his benefice in Lincolnshire he removed to King's Nympton in Devonshire; and leaving a curate there, he went as chaplain to the before-mentioned Earl of Holland, Lieut.-general of the English forces in the first expedition against the Scots. Returning thence soon after, he settled at King's Nympton, where he resided during all the changes of government, by compliance with the power that was uppermost. After his majesty's return, he was made one of the canons of St. Peter's Cathedral in Exeter, archdeacon of Barnstaple, chaplain to Edward Earl of Clarendon, and in July 1661 he was actually created doctor of divinity. In the next year he became chanter of Exeter, in the place of Dr. S. Ward, promoted to the episcopal see of that place; and in 1663 was presented to the rectory of Alphington, in Devonshire (at which time he resigned King's Nympton and his archdeaconry), where he finished his course. His chief works that are of poetry are in Musarum Deliciæ, or the Muses' Recreation, containing several pieces of poetic wit; and in Wit Restored, in several select poems; which book, I say, is mostly of our author Smith's composition. At the end of which is his translation, a poem called The Innovation of Penelope and Ulysses, a mock poem; and at the end of that, also, is Cleveland's Rebel Scot, translated into Latin. He also composed “certain anthems”—not the musical, but poetical part of them—which are to this day, used and sung in the cathedral church at Exeter. At length, paying his last debt to nature, at Alphington, on the 20th of June, 1667, his body was conveyed to King's Nympton, before mentioned, and was buried in the chancel belonging to the church there, near to the body of Elizabeth, his first wife."*
“Dr. Smith lived in cheerless times,” adds the editor of the Wit's Recreation (1817), “and amongst a sour people. Mirth was then a mortal sin; and however innocent a fair, fat, laughing face might be, it was considered as the portrait of Lucifer; and poetry, except
* Wood, Athen. Oxon. vol. ii.
Sternhold and Hopkins's (if that be an exception), as little less than the sign of a reprobate mind, void of all grace. It is strange that he had the hardihood to publish his poems during the usurpation; but the Restoration was at hand, when such a muse could breathe freely in an atmosphere perfectly congenial to him.
"6"Lasciva est nobis pagina, vita proba est,' seems, from all we can learn of them, very applicable to our poet and his coadjutor Sir J. Mennis; and it must be owned that the admission leaves an abundance to marvel at in a religious' knight and a doctor of
(1605-1645.) William, eldest son of the Thomas Habington, Queen Elizabeth's godson, who was compromised by the Gunpowder-plot, was born at Hendlip, November 5, 1605, and was educated at the Jesuits’ College at St. Omer's, and afterwards at Paris, with a view to induce him to take the habit of the order, which he declined. On his return from the continent, he resided principally with his father, who became his preceptor, and evidently sent him into the world a man of elegant accomplishments and virtues. Although allied to many noble families, and occasionally mixing in the gaieties of high life, his natural disposition inclined him to the pleasures of rural life. He was probably very early a poet and a lover, and in both successful. He married Lucy, daughter of William Herbert, first Lord Powis, by Eleanor, daughter of Henry Percy, eighth earl of Northumberland, by Katherine, daughter and co-heir of John Neville, Lord Latimer. It is to this lady that we are indebted for his poems, most of which were written in allusion to his courtship and marriage. She was the Castara who animated his imagination with tenderness and elegance, and purified it from the grosser opprobria of the amatory poets. His poems, as was not unusual in that age, were written occasionally, and dispersed confidentially. In 1635 they appear to have been first collected into a volume, which Oldys calls the second edition, under the title of Castara.
His other works are, the Queen of Arragon, tragi-comedy. The author having communicated the manuscript to Philip Earl of Pembroke, lord chamberlain of the household to King Charles I., he caused it to be acted, and afterwards published against the author's consent. It was revived, with the revival of the stage, at the Restoration, about the year 1666, when a new prologue and epilogue