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diæval garb. Upon the completion of this romance, the author, “thinking it shameful to remain idle,” set about the other romance with which his name is connected, the History of Prolesilaus, Son Ipomedon, a work extending to 11,000 lines.

PHILIP DE RAMES.

(Circa 1190.) Philip de Rames, a trouvère in the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I., was a member of a wealthy Anglo-Norman family, having its seat in Suffolk or Norfolk. He is known to us as the author of two metrical romances : the first, entitled La Manekine, sets forth the persecutions of a daughter of a king of Hungary at the hands of a cruel mother-in-law in Scotland; the other, the romance of Blanche of Oxford and Jehan of Dammartin, is interesting as a highly graphic representation of the baronial manners of the period. La Manekine has been published by M. Michel (1840); the other romance by Le Roux de Lincy.

MAURICE DE CRAON.

(Died 1216.) Maurice de Craon, an Anglo-Norman, high in favour at the court of Henry II., and having large landed property in Surrey, is known to us as an Anglo-Norman poet. After filling various diplomatic appointments, Maurice de Craon died in 1216. His son Peter succeeded alike to his estates and to his song-writing. The productions of both father and son have been published by M. Trebutien (Caen, 1843). :

RENAUD OF HOLLAND.

(Circa 1190.) Renaud of Holland, in Lincolnshire, is noticeable here as the author of an Anglo-Norman love-song, which Mr. Wright has published in his Anecdota Literaria.

SIMON DU FRESNE.

(Circa 1190.) Simon du Fresne, a friend of Giraldus Cambrensis, and himself a canon of Hereford Cathedral, is the author of a French metrical abridgment of the De Consolatione of Boethius. He is also known to us as the writer of numerous Latin epigrams and short poems, chiefly in defence of Giraldus Cambrensis from the attacks of Adam Dore and other poetical antagonists.

NIGELLUS WIREKER.

(Circa 1190.) Nigellus Wireker, a precentor of Canterbury Cathedral, was the intimate friend of William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, and aided his efforts to reform the monkery of the period, by various writings in Latin verse and prose, which enjoyed large popularity both at the time and in subsequent ages. His chief poetical work is the Speculum Stultorum, a satire in Latin elegiacs on the follies and corruptions of the time, and more especially upon the monastic orders. The hero, Brunellus, an ass— designed as a personification of the monks-being discontented with his evil condition and his short tail, goes forth in search of the better state and the longer appendage. After experiencing various misfortunes, he resolves to become a monk; for the purpose of selection, he reviews the several orders, but finds occasion to condemn them all, whereupon he proceeds to form the design of an entirely new order. He has made some way in his speculations on the subject, when he is seized upon by his old master, and compelled to return to servitude, his tail shorter than before, a portion of it having been lost in one of his misadventures.

GEOFFREY DE VINESAUF.

(Circa 1198.) Geoffrey de Vinesauf (Galfridus Anglicus), an Englishman, who seems to have been engaged in the service of Henry II. and Richard I., is known to us as the author of a treatise, in Latin hexameters, on the art of poetry. This Nova Poetria, as it is generally designated, a dull, wearisome poem,—“only interesting,” observes Mr. Wright, “as being the key to the general style of the Latin poetical writers of the 13th century, which was formed on the rules given in this work,long enjoyed very considerable popularity.” The poem is dedicated to Pope Innocent III., in whose court the author was for some time resident as envoy from Richard I., who, we are informed by John, sub-prior of Bamborough (writing in 1483), desired to obtain the papal pardon for some fault he had committed. The work itself must, however, have been written after Richard's death, that event being commemorated in it with a grief which in its vehemence assails even the day (Friday) on which the king deceased. It is to this exaggerated affliction of the poet that Chaucer thus humorously alludes :

« O Ganfride, dere maister soverain,

That, whan thy worthy King Richard was slain
With shot, complainedest his deth so sore,
Why ne had I now thy science and thy lore,
The Friday for to chiden, as did ye?
(For on a Friday sothly slain was he);
Than wold I shew you how that I coud plaine

For Chaunticlere's drede and for his paine."
Several other works have been variously attributed to Geoffrey de
Vinesauf; but the Nova Poetria would seem to be the only poem with
which his name can be satisfactorily identified.

JOSEPH OF EXETER.

(Circa 1198.) Joseph, surnamed Iscanus, from the place of his birth, Exeter, lived in the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I. He accompanied the latter monarch to Syria, probably in the capacity of minstrel, of which class of persons there were many in his army, whom he treated with profuse liberality. The great work by which Joseph is known (his De Bello Trojano) was finished when Henry II. was preparing for the Crusade, and may fairly be conceived to have recomiended him to the favourable notice of the Lion-heart, who, a poet himself, and, moreover, above professional competition, was well disposed to encourage metrical merit, so long at least as it abstained from making himself the topic of any thing in the nature of satire or censure. De Bello Trojano is by far the finest of the mediæval Anglo-Latin poems, and approaches, indeed, so nearly to the excellences of the classic ages, that when first printed (1541), and for several subsequent editions, it went under the name of Cornelius Nepos. The style, however, as Mr. Warton remarks, is a mixture of Ovid, Statius, and Claudian, who in Joseph's time were the most popular writers of antiquity. The diction is pure, the periods round, and the numbers harmonious. The subject is the fabulous history that was circulated in the middle ages under the name of Dares Phrygius. The other great work of Joseph of Exeter (his Antiocheis) is unhappily lost. The only portion of it that remains has been preserved to us by Camden. The date of Joseph's death is quite uncertain. Bale writes of him as flourishing in 1210.

GULIELMUS PEREGRINUS.

(Circa 1197.) Tanner mentions as a poet of England one Gulielmus Peregrinus (William the Traveller), who accompanied Richard I. into the Holy Land, and sang his achievements there in a Latin poem, entitled Odoeporicon Ricardi Regis, dedicated to Herbert archbishop of Canterbury, and to Stephen Turnham, a captain in the expedition. He is called by Tanner“ poeta per eam ætatem excellens.”

ALEXANDER NECKAM.

(1157-1217.) Alexander Neckam, called from his birth-place Alexander de Sancto Albano, was born at St. Alban's, September 1157; and his mother being honoured with the wet-nurseship of Richard I., who was born on the same night with himself, he became foster-brother of the Lion-heart. His tendencies, however, were quite in a different direction; he applied himself from early youth to learning, and with such success that, before he was out of his teens, he was intrusted with the school of Dunstable, and at twenty-three had become a distinguished professor in the University of Paris. On returning to England he conducted for a year his old school at Dunstable, and then, desirous of becoming a monk, applied to the Abbot of St. Alban's for admission in these terms: “Si vis, veniam ; sin autem, non." The abbot, wishing to be as terse as his applicant, replied, punning upon his name, “Si bonus es, venias : si nequam, nequaquam ;" whereupon Neckam withdrew in a huff and entered himself of the Augustine

monastery at Cirencester, of which, in 1213, he was elected abbot. He died in 1217, at Kemsey in Worcestershire, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral, punning pursuing him even to his epitaph, which ran thus :

“ Eclipsim patitur sapientia, sol sepelitur ;

Cui si par unus, minus esset flebile funus ;
Vir bene disertus et in omni more facetus;

Dictus erat nequam, vitam duxit tamen æquam." Neckam, whose works embrace the whole circle of science, comes within our scope as one of the best Latin poets of his age. Mr. Wright, in his Biographia Britannica Literaria, gives an elaborate account of his grammatical and other productions, and large extracts from his chief poems.

WILLIAM THE TROUVERE.

(Circa 1197.) William le Trouvère, as he is generally called, by himself inclusively, though he adds that his baptismal name was Adgar, was an Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastic in the reign of Henry II., who wrote a series of Miracles of the Virgin and Saints' Legends, in Anglo-Norman verse. Among them is the Legend of Theophilus, which was very popular in the middle ages.

MAURICE OF WALES.

(Circa 1197.) Maurice, a Welshman, and a friend of Giraldus Cambrensis, by whom he is highly eulogised, is the author, according to Bale, of Epigrammata quædam, and of Carmina et Epistolæ.

MAURICE OF FORDE.

(Circa 1197.) Maurice, a monk of Forde Abbey in Somersetshire, is the author of a poem De Schemate Pontificali, and of a book of Carmina.

JOHN DE ST. OMER.

(Circa 1197.) John de St. Omer was a native of Norfolk, and a member of some monastic order. He is the author of a work entitled Norfolchic

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