attend to their Cutcherrees, and keep their Native Writers employed, almost as much on the Sunday as on any other day. Were this strictly prohibited, unless in cases of emergency, I am of opinion, that those who have thus thoughtlessly violated the Sabbath would begin to think more seriously and correctly upon the subject, and refrain from incurring the displeasure of Government.

Fifthly-All kinds of Diversion should be prohibited on that Sacred Day. How incongruous must it appear to the Natives, to see Gentlemen go from Church to the card or billiard-table, and spend the Sabbath Evening in feasting, dancing, and mirth. These evils I have often had occasion to deplore, but could not, only for want of a Government Regulation forbidding them, prevent. When the late Colonel Trotter first took command of Palamcottah, the Junior Officers were accustomed to spend the Sunday Afternoon at the Fives Court! This he immediately put a stop to, by stationing a sentinel at the entrance, with a written order that no one was to play there on the Sabbath, which he was desired to shew to every Gentleman that came. This had the desired effect; and the practice was never repeated as long as Colonel Trotter lived. Easy were it for Government

to apply a similar remedy to every such flagrant impropriety of conduct.

Sixthly-Even the Natives in the Service of Government should be required to pay some respect to the Sabbath. It is a violation of the Fourth Commandment* to employ "the stranger within our gates" on that day: and I know, from my own experience, and that of several Europeans who never employed Native Workmen on Sunday, and required all about them to reverence the day, that they cheerfully comply with the requisition, and, when acquainted with their motive, actually honour the Gentlemen who demand of them this tribute of regard. Sir R. Brownrigg, when Governor of Ceylon, ordered that all shops, bazars, and other places of trade, whether belonging to Heathens, Mahomedans, or Christians, should be shut up on the Sunday, from 1 P.M.,on pain of fine or imprisonment. And I remember a Captain of the Madras Army informing me, that when, at Colombo, he wished to remove some baggage on a

* I am aware that the application of this command to the present race of Hindoos has been questioned. A writer, under the signature of Philo-kalon, published a Letter on the subject, in the Calcutta Journal of January 31, 1820, which I was requested by a friend to answer. As the question is of great importance, I shall give both Philo-kalon's Query, and my own Reply, in an Appendix to this Work.

Sunday, he could induce no Cooley to carry it for him; such was the respect paid to the Sabbath by all classes of Natives, in consequence of the Governor's order! It is in the power of the Indian Government to procure a similar reverence for that Sacred Day, at every European Station throughout its dominions; and I feel persuaded, that, in doing so, the British Character would be raised in the Natives' esteem.

These Regulations should be published in the vernacular language of every Station, for the information of all classes of Natives: for it is of importance to the Government, that the inhabitants should at length know how to distinguish between the Acts and Regulations of the Rulers, and the misconduct of their Agents; otherwise the character of the former will continue to suffer from the delinquencies of the latter.

By such precautions as are here suggested, I am confident that a great improvement will be effected in the Anglo-Indian Character. They will do more to consolidate our Eastern Empire, than any merely political arrangements that have ever been adopted. They will tend to command the respect and attachment of the Natives. And when that object is accomplished, I will not hesitate to

predict, that our possession of India will be retained to a period far beyond the most sanguine expectations, on the nicest calculations, of the Statesman or Philosopher. But if no such means are adopted to improve the British Character in India, and ingratiate the English with the Natives, then will there be equal grounds to anticipate the downfal of our Eastern Empire, at a period not very remote. The Natives cannot be expected to submit to the government of Foreigners whose irreligious character they despise, when they shall once possess the power of delivering themselves from their rule.

The Abbé Dubois with justice remarks, that the present degraded and idolatrous state of India" reminds us of the great obligations under which we stand to the Divine Author of Revelation, the common Father of all Mankind, for having, without any previous deserving on our part, chosen us, among so many Idolatrous Nations, to be His adopted people. What ought not our gratitude to be to Him for this, the greatest of all His Divine favours?" (p. 136.) To this I will only add, that when we do know the value of Revelation, we shall feel bound, by gratitude to its Author, to communicate its doctrines and precepts to those under our controul. If we

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neglect this obvious duty, we shew that we know not how to appreciate the heavenly boon, and that our hearts are devoid of gratitude to the Donor: and in the want of this principle is implied every thing odious to God!

"Ingratum si dixeris, omnia dicis."

To draw this Work to a close-If the propositions laid down in the preceding pages are established, and the conclusions fairly drawn, it is plain that the sure method of preserving the dominion which the Almighty has so graciously and so wonderfully bestowed upon us in the East, is, to promote the accomplishment of His design, to extend His Empire also over the hearts of the millions of Immortal Beings whom he has brought under our sway. Thus let us follow the guidance of His Providence; and then may we expect that He will continue to us the means of fulfilling His purposes towards the Natives of India, until their Redemption be complete.

On the other hand, we see also, that to neglect the duty which we are so obviously commissioned to perform, is the most probable way of provoking the Almighty to pluck the laurel from our brow, despoil us of our wealth, and lay our honours in the dust!

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