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pointed and narrow. Then comes an oddly patched and altered west end, with one decorated window high up and by no means in the centre; while the south wall shows a row of four, also decorated and very good.
The canons were evidently at one time dissatisfied with the height of their church, and the exterior effect has been much interfered with by an extension above the corbel-table of the original roof. The transept windows—to which we next come—are more elaborate than those of the nave, and the choir has lancets grouped on the north side in three and two, and on the south in twos only. There was no aisle, even as a later addition, and the windows in the north wall of the nave are high up so as to clear the level of the cloister, which had a wooden pentice roof. The east window is usually called Perpendicular, but its details correspond with the lancets, and there is good reason to consider it late Early English, though that is not the period which we should expect to find represented in this precise situation. The old door to the “dorter” is visible in the north transept, and high above it is a window evidently so placed to clear the roof of that apartment. Thecloister has extended farther westward than the nave of the church, by which means, in spite of its unusual northern site, it may have caught some southern warmth and light.
1 Or rather was when these words were written.
Eggleston must have been a humbler place than St. Agatha's, and when we come in our next chapter to trace the almost invariable addition of an aisle or a part of an aisle to the churches of the canons, we shall see how modest was the ambition which contented itself with raising the roof of this short and aisleless nave. At the Cistercian Abbey of Sawley, in Ribblesdale, there is a parallel instance of the extension of the cloister westward of the church ; but there the so-called nave is so minute as to leave little doubt that no more of the church was ever completed than was needed for the purpose of a choir. For it must never be forgotten that many a ritual choir extended beyond the transept crossing and far exceeded the dimensions of the architectural presbytery. At the Premonstratensian Abbey of Bayham in Sussex the position of the cloisters is still more strange, for they begin at the extreme west of a long nave, and do not extend far enough eastwards to meet the transept. There, too, a separate passage, which does duty for a north aisle,
1 Mr. Hope, I believe, explains this as the result of a fourteenthcentury enlargement eastwards by the erection of a new presbytery and transept.
runs only part of the way from the transept towards the west, and leaves the end of the nave in its original narrow simplicity.
As we turn again towards Barnard Castle, though the new and well-intentioned Bowes Museum haunts and torments our sight, the views that inspired Sir Walter Scott, and Creswick, and Turner, still follow one another in delightful succession. We see the warmish stone of the town and its roofs of slate and brightest tile, the glittering white of the distant farms and cottages, the purple and russet of the moor, and, for foreground, the green and flowery meadows, and the wooded rocks that half conceal the rush and sparkle of the Tees.
THE Priories of Bolton in the West Riding, Kirkham in the East, and Guisborough in the North, are grouped here in virtue of the fact that all three are houses of ordinary Canons Regular of Saint Augustine. They will each, therefore, help, if only a little, to illustrate that connection between religious orders and religious architecture which has been the central thought of the present series of papers.
· The most important thing to remember in studying the remains of Augustinian houses, whether Premonstratensian or otherwise, is their close connection with parish churches. In other orders the same, or an analogous connection, was occasional : with the canons alone it was normal.
The ordinary monastic church, which had no connection whatever with the church of a parishexcept where, as at Bernoldswic, it swallowed up