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Here, as at Kirkstall, the nave had eight bays ; but the total length of the latter was greater by 20 feet, and its width by 18 feet at the transept; though in breadth of nave and aisles there is only a difference of a few feet. The transepts at Roche had each two eastern chapels in place of the three which we have seen at Kirkstall ; but in one respect it is probable that Roche was the more magnificent of the two. Neither the nave nor, it is supposed, the tower or transepts of Kirkstall were vaulted ; but at Roche the tower and transepts were, and the nave may well have been. On the south side of the presbytery, which was only 37 feet long, are three sedilia under canopies of later date, and on the north are the remains of a rich and lofty decorated canopy. The windows of the presbytery were round-headed ; and on the south side of the south chapel a round-arched window still exists, and beneath it a piscina, also round-arched ; but at the east of the chapels larger windows were substituted in the fourteenth century.

The arches of the triforium were pointed, but those of the clerestory round, according to the usage of the Cistercian Transition. Whether the apportionment of round and pointed arches was strictly and exclusively guided by structural considerations, or whether there was any theoretical objection to the adoption, for external use, of the newer style, seems to me a little uncertain. Perhaps, while the builder's needs and instincts were driving the Cistercian to adopt, for vaulting and other internal purposes, the more scientific construction, his conservatism as an ecclesiastical architect made it hard to shake himself free from the tradition of external symmetry and seemliness.

The monastic buildings at Roche seemed to have crossed or overhung the stream at three points at least, and in this respect, among others, the situation may be compared with that of Fountains.

Some distance due east of the kitchen-garth the stream, which here takes a north or north-east direction, has been diverted through a long range of buildings, of the end of which, commonly called the mill, considerable remains still exist. There is good reason to think that we have here the ruins of the infirmary. Not, however, till the “covering up” of the landscape-gardener is cancelled by the spade or the excavator, 1 can we hope fully to repair, even in imagination, the “pulling down” for which, alas ! no real remedy is to be found. Then, and not till then, may we realise the work that, thanks to the monks

1 It is satisfactory to learn that this is now (1890) being done.

of Newminster and the lords of Maltby and Hooton, was done in this valley in the “troublous times of

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anguish and rebuke," and dream that we see beneath the shadow of the venerated rock the majestic neighbour with which for centuries Maltby was familiar. Meanwhile, though there is neither speech nor language, the past is not silent, but along the ages, in a continuity that refuses to be broken, one day telleth another and one night certifieth another, and even here, from the grave of “lost causes, and forsaken beliefs, and unpopular names, and impossible loyalties," there rises among common things and modern men a presence as of Lazarus, solemn with memories of death, and dazed with glimpses of eternity.

VIII

JERVAULX

At the head of Wensleydale, and eastward of the little town of Hawes, rises the Yore. The torrents from the neighbouring fells are the nursing-mothers of the infant stream in whose breast is to be mirrored so much of romance, of history, and of religion. Changeful and petulant—a rill in the drought, a river after rain—it passes from the broad-based hills and quiet moors to a richer and a tamer land, till at last it is mated with the Swale at Borobridge, and in the dignified importance of the Ouse we forget the wild wanderings of the unwedded Yore. But meanwhile many a lonely force has lashed and swelled the stream, and many an unforgotten scene has been enacted on its bank. At Bolton Castle the tears of Mary Queen of Scots have fed it, and at Middleham it has quenched the thirst of the Kingmaker.

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