bridge, there was an upper chamber, which being name aloud, that all the shore rang of it; and thought weak in the roof, it was supported by a that Hylas from within the water answered his pillar of iron of the bigness of one's arm in the master, but, that which is to the present purpose, midst of the chamber; which if you had struck, with so small and exile a voice, as Hercules it would make a little flat noise in the room thought he had been three miles off, when the where it was struck, but it would make a great fountain, indeed, was fast by. bomb in the chamber beneath.

156. In lutes and instruments of strings, if you 152. The sound which is made by buckets in stop a string high, whereby it hath less scope a well, when they touch upon the water, or when tremble, the sound is more treble, but yet more they strike upon the side of the well, or when dead. two buckets dash the one against the other, these 157. Take two saucers, and strike the edge of sounds are deeper and fuller than if the like per- the one against the bottom of the other, within a cussion were made in the open air. The cause pail of water; and you shall find, that as you put is the penning and enclosure of the air in the the saucers lower and lower, the sound groweth concave of the well.

more flat; even while part of the saucer is above 153. Barrels placed in a room under the floor the water; but that flatness of sound is joined of a chamber make all noises in the same chamber with a harshness of sound; which no doubt is more full and resounding.

caused by the inequality of the sound which So that there be five ways, in general, of ma- cometh from the part of the saucer under water, joration of sounds: enclosure simple; enclosure and from the part above. But when the saucer with dilatation; communication; reflection con- is wholly under water, the sound becometh more current; and approach to the sensory.

clear, but far more low, and as if the sound came 151. For exility of the voice or other sounds; from afar off. it is certain that the voice doth pass through solid 158. A soft body dampeth the sound much and hard bodies if they be not too thick: and more than a hard; as if a bell hath cloth or silk through water, which is likewise a very close wrapped about it, it deadeth the sound more than body, and such a one as letteth not in air. But if it were wood. And therefore in clericals the then the voice, or other sound, is reduced by such keys are lined; and in colleges they use to line passage to a great weakness or exility. If there- tablemen. fore you stop the holes of a hawk's bell, it will 159. Trial was made in a recorder after these make no ring, but a flat noise or rattle. And so several manners. The bottom of it was set doth the “ aëtites” or eagle-stone, which hath a against the palm of the hand; stopped with wax little stone within it.

round about; set against a damask cushion; 155. And as for water, it is a certain trial: let thrust into sand ; into ashes; into water, half an a man go into a bath, and take a pail, and turn inch under the water; close to the bottom of a the bottom upwards, and carry the mouth of it silver basin; and still the tone remained: but even, down to the level of the water, and so press the bottom of it was set against a woollen carpet; it down under the water some handful and a half, a lining of plush; a lock of wool, though loosely still keeping it even that it may not tilt on either put in; against snow; and the sound of it was side, and so the air get out: then let him that is quite deaded, and but breath. in the bath dive with his head so far under water, 160. Iron hot produceth not so full a sound as as he may put his head into the pail, and there when it is cold, for while it is hot, it appeareth will come as much air bubbling forth as will to be more soft and less resounding. So likewise make room for his head. Then let him speak, warm water, when it falleth, maketh not so full a and any that shall stand without shall hear his sound as cold, and I conceive it is softer, and voice plainly; but yet made extreme sharp and nearer the nature of oil, for it is more slippery, as exile, like the voice of puppets: but yet the may be perceived in that it scoureth better. articulate sounds of the words will not be con- 161. Let there be a recorder made with two, founded. Note, that it may be much more hand-fipples, at each end one : the trunk of it of the somely done, if the pail be put over the man's length of two recorders, and the holes answerable head above the water, and then he cower down, towards each end, and let two play the same lesand the pail be pressed down with him. Note, that son upon it as in unison; and let it be noted a man must kneel or sit, that he may be lower whether the sound be confounded, or amplified, than the water. A man would think that the or dulled. So likewise let a cross be made of Sicilian poet had knowledge of this experiment; two trunks, throughout, hollow, and let two for he said, that Hercules's page, Hylas, went speak, or sing, the one longways, the other trawith a water-pot to fill it at a pleasant fountain verse; and let two hear at the opposite ends, and that was near the shore, and that the nymph of note whether the sound be confounded, amplified, the fountain fell in love with the boy, and pulled or dulled. Which two instances will also give him under water, keeping him alive; and that light to the mixture of sounds, whereof we shall Hercules missing his page, called him by his speak hereafter.

162. A bellows blown in at the hole of a drum, more treble and more base, according unto the and the drum then strucken, maketh the sound concave on the inside, though the percussion be a little flatter, but no other apparent alteration. only on the outside. The cause is manifest: partly for that it hindereth 167. When the sound is created between the the issue of the sound, and partly for that it blast of the mouth and the air of the pipe, it hath maketh the air, being blown together, less mov- nevertheless some communication with the matter able.

of the sides of the pipe, and the spirits in them

contained; for in a pipe, or trumpet, of wood, and Experiments in consort touching the loudness or sofl- brass, the sound will be diverse; so if the pipe

ness of sounds, and their carriage at longer or be covered with cloth or silk: it will give a diverse shorter distance.

sound from that it would do of itself; so if the 163. The loudness and softness of sounds is a pipe be a little wet on the inside, it will make a thing distinct from the magnitude and exility of differing sound from the same pipe dry. sounds; for a base string, though softly strucken, 168. That sound made within water doth comgiveth the greater sound; but a treble string, if municate better with a bard body through water, hard strucken, will be heard much farther off. than mad in air it doth with air. “ Vide experiAnd the cause is, for that the base string striketh mentum 134." more air, and the treble less air, but with a sharper percussion.

Experiments in consort touching equality and in164. It is therefore the strength of the percus

equality of sounds. sion, that is a principal cause of the loudness or We have spoken before, in the inquisition softness of sounds; as in knocking harder or touching music, of musical sounds, whereunto softer, winding of a horn stronger or weaker, ring. there may be a concord or discord in two parts ; ing of a hand-bell harder or softer, &c. And the which sounds we call tones; and likewise of ime strength of this percussion consisteth as much or musical sounds; and have given the cause, that more in the hardness of the body percussed, as the tone proceedeth of equality, and the other of in the force of the body percussing : for if you inequality. And we have also expressed there, strike against a cloth, it will give a less sound, what are the equal bodies that give tones, and if against wood, a greater, if against metal yet a what are the unequal that give none. But now greater; and in metals, if you strike against gold, we shall speak of such inequality of sounds as which is the more pliant, it giveth the flatter proceedeth not from the nature of the bodies themsound; if against silver or brass, the more ring- selves, but as accidental ; either from the roughing sound. As for air, where it is strongly pent, ness or obliquity of the passage, or from the douit matcheth a hard body. And therefore we see bling of the percutient, or from the trepidation of in discharging of a piece, what a great noise it the motion. maketh. We see also, that the charge with bul- 169. A bell, if it have a rift in it, whereby the let, or with paper wet and hard stopped, or with sound hath not a clear passage, giveth a hoarse powder alone, rammed in hard, maketh no great and jarring sound : so the voice of man, when by difference in the loudness of the report.

cold taken the weasond groweth rugged, and, as 165. The sharpness or quickness of the per- we call it, furred, becometh hoarse. And in cussion is great cause of the loudness, as well these two instances the sounds are ingrate, beas the strength; as in a whip or wand, if you cause they are merely unequal: but if they be strike the air with it; the sharper and quicker unequal in equality, then the sound is grateful you strike it, the louder sound it giveth. And in but purling. playing upon the lute or virginals, the quick 170. All instruments that have either returns, stroke or touch is a great life to the sound. The as trumpets; or flexions, as cornets; or are drawn cause is, for that the quick striking cutteth the up, and put from, as sackbuts; have a purling air speedily; whereas the soft striking doth rather sound; but the recorder, or Aute, that have none beat than cut.

of these inequalities, give a clear sound. Never

theless, the recorder itself, or pipe, moistened a Experiments in consort touching the communication little in the inside, soundeth more solemnly, and of sounds.

with a little purling or hissing. Again, a wreathed The communication of sounds, as in bellies string, such as are in the base strings of banof lutes, empty vessels, &c., hath been touched doras, giveth also a purling sound. “ obiter," in the majoration of sounds; but it is fit 171. But a lutestring, if it be merely unequal also to make a title of it apart.

in its parts, giveth a harsh and untunable sound: 166. The experiment for greatest demonstration which strings we call false, being bigger in one of communication of sounds, is the chiming of place than in other; and therefore wire strings bells; where, if you strike with a hammer upon are never false. We see also, that when we try the upper part, and then upon the midst, and then a false lutestring, we use to extend it hard between upon the lower, you shall find the sound to be the fingers, and to fillip it; and if it giveth a double species, it is true; but if it giveth a treble, Experiments in consort touching the more treble or more, it is false.

and the more base tones, or musical sounds. 172. Waters, in the noise they make as they 178. It is evident, that the percussion of the run, represent to the ear a trembling noise; and greater quantity of air causeth the baser sound; in regals, where they have a pipe they call the and the less quantity the more treble sound. nightingale-pipe, which containeth water, the The percussion of the greater quantity of air is sound hath a continual trembling: and children produced by the greatness of the body percussing; have also little things they call cocks, which have by the latitude of the concave by which the sound water in them; and when they blow or whistle passeth; and by the longitude of the same conin them, they yield a trembling noise ; which trem-cave. Therefore we see that a base string is bling of water hath an affinity with the letter L. greater than a treble; a base pipe hath a greater All which inequalities of trepidation are rather bore than a treble; and in pipes, and the like, the pleasant than otherwise.

lower the note-holes be, and the further off from 173. All base notes, or very treble notes, give the mouth of the pipe, the more base sound they an asper sound; for that the base striketh more yield; and the nearer the mouth, the more treble. air than it can well strike equally: and the tre- Nay more, if you strike an entire body, as an ble cutteth the air so sharp, as it returneth too swift andiron of brass, at the top, it maketh a more to make the sound equal : and therefore a mean or treble sound; and at the bottom a baser. tenor is the sweetest part.

179. It is also evident, that the sharper or 174. We know nothing that can at pleasure quicker percussion of air causeth the more treble make a musical or immusical sound by voluntary sound; and the slower or heavier, the more base motion, but the voice of man and birds. The sound. So we see in strings; the more they are cause is, no doubt, in the wcasond or windpipe, wound up and strained, and thereby give a more which we call “aspera arteria,” which, being quick start-back, the more treble is the sound; well extended, gathereth equality; as a bladder and the slacker they are, or less wound up, the that is wrinkled, if it be extended, becometh baser is the sound. And therefore, a bigger string smooth. The extension is always more in tones more strained, and a lesser string less strained, than in speech: therefore the inward voice or may fall into the same tone. whisper can never give a tone. And in singing, 180. Children, women, eunuchs, have more there is, manifestly, a greater working and labour small and shrill voices than men. The reason of the throat than in speaking; as appeareth in is, not for that men have greater heat, which may the thrusting out or drawing in of the chin, when make the voice stronger, for the strength of a we sing.

voice or sound doth make a difference in the loud175. The humming of bees is an unequal ness or softness, but not in the tone, but from the buzzing, and is conceived by some of the dilatation of the organ; which, it is true, is likeancients not to come forth at their mouth, but to wise caused by heat. But the cause of changing be an inward sound; but, it may be, it is neither; the voice at the years of uberty is more obscure. but from the motion of their wings: for it is not It seemeth to be, for that when much of the heard but when they stir.

moisture of the body, which did before irrigate 176. All metals quenched in water give a sibi- the parts, is drawn down to the spermatical lation or hissing sound, which hath an affinity vessels, it leaveth the body more hot than it was; with the letter 2, notwithstanding the sound be whence cometh the dilatation of the pipes : for we created between the water or vapour, and the air. see plainly all effects of heats do then come on; Seething also, if there be but small store of water as pilosity, more roughness of the skin, hardness in a vessel, giveth a hissing sound; but boiling of the flesh, &c. in a full vessel giveth a bubbling sound, drawing 181. The industry of the musician hath prosomewhat near to the cocks used by children. duced two other means of straining or intension

177. Trial would be made, whether the in- of strings, besides their winding up. The one equality or interchange of the medium will not is the stopping of the string with the finger; as produce an inequality of sound; as if three bells in the necks of lutes, viols, &c. The other is were made one within another, and air betwixt the shortness of the string, as in harps, virginals, each; and then the uttermost bell were chimed &c. Both these have one and the same reason; with a hammer, how the sound would differ from for they cause the string to give a quicker start. a simple bell. So likewise take a plate of brass 182. In the straining of a string, the further it and a plank of wood, and join them close together, is strained, the less superstraining goeth to a note; and knock upon one of them, and see if they do for it requireth good winding of a string before not give an unequal sound. So make two

it will make any

at all: and in the stops of three partitions of wood in a hogshead, with holes lutes, &c., the higher they go, the less distance or knots in them; and mark the difference of their is between the frets. sound from the sound of a hogshead without such 183. If you fill a drinking-glass with water, partitions.

especially one sharp below and wide above and VOL. II.-5

fillip upon the brim or outside; and after empty | ancients, that an empty barrel knocked upon with part of the water, and so more and more, and still the finger, giveth a diapason to the sound of the try the tone by fillipping; you shall find the tone like barrel full; but how that should be, I do not fall and be more base, as the glass is more well understand; for that the knocking of a barrel, empty.

full or empty, doth scarce give any tone.

187. There is required some sensible difference Experiments in consort touching the proportion of in the proportion of creating a note, towards the treble and base tones.

sound itself, which is passive: and that it be not The just and measured proportion of the air too near, but at a distance. For in a recorder, the percussed, towards the baseness or trebleness of three uppermost holes yield one tone; which is a tones, is one of the greatest secrets in the con- note lower than the tone of the first three. And templation of sounds. For it discovereth the the like, no doubt, is required in the winding or true coincidence of tones into diapasons; which stopping of strings. is the return of the same sound. And so of the concords and discords between the unison and Experiments in consort touching exterior and in diapason, which we have touched before in the

terior sounds. experiments of music; but think fit to resume it There is another difference of sounds, which here as a principal part of our inquiry touching we will call exterior and interior. It is not soft the nature of sounds. It may be found out in the nor loud : nor it is not base nor treble: nor it is proportion of the winding of strings; in the pro- not musical nor immusical: though it be true, portion of the distance of frets, and in the pro- that there can be no tone in an interior sound; portion of the concave of pipes, &c., but most but on the other side, in an exterior sound there commodiously in the last of these.

may be both musical and immusical. We shall 184. Try therefore the winding of a string therefore enumerate them, rather than precisely, once about, as soon as it is brought to that exten- distinguish them; though, to make some adumsion as will give a tone; and then of twice about, bration of what we mean, the interior is rather and thrice about, &c., and mark the scale or an impulsion or contusion of the air, than an difference of the rise of the tone: whereby you elision or section of the same: so as the percusshall discover, in one, two effects; both the pro-sion of the one towards the other differeth, as a portion of the sound towards the dimension of blow differeth from a cut. the winding; and the proportion likewise of the 188. In speech of man, the whispering, which sound towards the string, as it is more or less they call “susurrus” in Latin, whether it be louder strained. But note that to measure this, the way or softer, is an interior sound; but the speaking will be, to take the length in a right line of the out is an exterior sound; and therefore you can string, upon any winding about of the peg. never make a tone nor sing in whispering; but in

185. As for the stops, you are to take the num- speech you may: so breathing, or blowing by the ber of frets; and principally the length of the line, moùth, bellows, or wind, though loud, is an intefrom the first stop of the string, unto such a stop rior sound; but the blowing through a pipe or as shall produce a diapason to the former stop concave, though sost, is an exterior. So likewise upon the same string.

the greatest winds, if they have no coarctation, 186. But it will best, as it is said, appear in or blow not hollow, give an interior sound; the the bores of wind instruments: and therefore whistling or hollow wind yieldeth a singing, or cause some half dozen pipes to be made, in exterior sound; the former being pent by some length and all things else alike, with a single, other body; the latter being pent in by its own double, and so on to a sextuple bore; and so mark density: and therefore we see, that when the wind what fall of tone every one giveth. But still in bloweth hollow, it is a sign of rain. The fiame, these three last instances, you must diligently as it moveth within in itself or is blown by a belobserve, what length of string, or distance of lows, giveth a murmur or interior sound. stop, or concave of air, maketh what rise of 189. There is no hard body, but struck against sound. As in the last of these, which, as we another hard body, will yield an exterior sound; said, is that which giveth the aptest demonstra- greater or lesser : insomuch as if the percussion tion, you must set down what increase of concave be over-soft, it may induce a nullity of sound; but goeth to the making of a note higher; and what never an interior sound; as when one treadeth so of two notes; and what of three notes; and so softly that he is not heard. up to the diapason: for then the great secret of 190. Where the air is the percutient, pent or not numbers and proportions will appear. It is not pent, against a hard body, it never giveth an exteunlike that tlose that make recorders, &c., know rior sound; as if you blow strongly with a bellows this already: for that they make them in sets : against a wall. and likewise bell-founders, in fitting the tune of 191. Sounds, both exterior and interior, may be their bells. So that inquiry may save trial. made as well by suction as by emission of the Surely it hath been observed by one of the breath; as in whistling or breathing.

Experiments in consort touching articulation of will refer them over, and place them amongst the sounds.

experiments of speech. The Hebrews have been 192. It is evident, and it is one of the strangest diligent in it, and have assigned which letters are secrets in sounds, that the whole sound is not in labial, which dental, which guttural, &c. As for the whole air only; but the whole sound is also the Latins and Grecians, they have distinguished in every small part of the air. So that all the between semi-vowels and mutes; and in mutes curious diversity of articulate sounds, of the voice between “ mutæ tenues, mediæ,” and “ aspiratæ;" of man or birds, will enter at a small cranny incon- not amies, but yet not diligently enough. For the fused.

special strokes and motions that create those 193. The unequal agitation of the winds and sounds, they have little inquired : as, that the the like, though they be material to the carriage letters B, P, F, M, are not expressed, but with of the sounds farther or less way; yet they do the contracting or shutting of the mouth; that the not confound the articulation of them at all, letters Nand B cannot be pronounced but that within that distance that they can be heard ; the letter N will turn into M; as “ hecatonba” though it may be, they make them to be heard less will be hecatomba.” That Mand T cannot be way than in a still : as hath been partly touched. pronounced together, but P will come between;

194. Over great distance confoundeth the arti- as “emtus” is pronounced "emptus ;” and a culation of sounds; as we see, that you may hear number of the like. So that if you inquire to the the sound of a preacher's voice, or the like, when full, you will find, that to the making of the whole you cannot distinguish what he saith. And one alphabet there will be fewer simple motions rearticulate sound will confound another, as when quired than there are letters. many speak at once.

199. The lungs are the most spungy part of 195. In the experiment of speaking under the body; and therefore ablest to contract and water, when the voice is reduced to such an dilate itself: and where it contracteth itself, it exextreme exility, yet the articulate sounds, which pelleth the air; whích, through the artery, throat, are the words, are not confounded, as hath been and mouth, maketh the voice: but yet articulation said.

is not made but with the help of the tongue, palate, 196. I conceive, that an extreme small or an and the rest of those they call instruments of extreme great sound cannot be articulate ; but that voice. the articulation requireth a mediocrity of sound : 200. There is found a similitude between the for that the extreme small sound confoundeth the sound that is made by inanimate bodies, or by aniarticulation by contracting; and the great sound máte bodies that have no voice articulate, and by dispersing: and although, as was formerly said, divers letters of articulate voices: and commonly a sound articulate, already created, will be con- men have given such names to those sounds as tracted into a small cranny; yet the first articula- do allude unto the articulate letters; as trembling tion requireth more dimension.

of water hath resemblance with the letter L; 197. It hath been observed, that in a room, or quenching of hot metals with the letter Z; snarlin a chapel, vaulted below and vaulted likewise in ing of dogs with the letter R; the noise of screechthe roof, a preacher cannot be heard so well as in owls with the letter Sh ; voice of cats with the the like places, not so vaulted. The cause is, for diphthong Eu ; voice of cuckoos with the diphthat the subsequent words come on before the pre- thong Ou; sounds of strings with the letter Ng ; cedent words vanish: and therefore the articulate so that if a man, for curiosity or strangeness' sake, sounds are more confused, though the gross of the would make a puppet or other dead body to prosound be greater.

nounce a word, let him consider, on the one part, 198. The motions of the tongue, lips, throat, the motion of the instruments of voice; and on the palate, &c., which go to the making of the several other part, the like sounds made in inanimate alphabetical letters, are worthy inquiry, and per- bodies; and what conformity there is that causeth tinent to the present inquisition of sounds: but the similitude of sounds; and by that he may because they are subtle, and long to describe, we minister light to that effect.

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