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and many more: but we will speak of them | enter, then long seething will rather soften than distinctly.

indurate them; as hath been tried in eggs, &c. 83. For indurations by cold, there be few trials therefore softer bodies must be put into bottles of it; for we have no strong or intense cold here hung into water seething with the mouths open on the surface of the earth, so near the beams of above the water, that no water may get in; for by the sun, and the heavens. The likeliest trial is this means the virtual heat of the water will enter; by snow and ice; for as snow and ice, especially and such a heat, as will not make the body adust or being holpen and their cold activated by nitre or fragile; but the substance of the water will be shut salt, will turn water into ice, and that in a few out. This experiment we made; and it sorted thus. hours; so it may be, it will turn wood or stiff It was tried with a piece of freestone, and with clay into stone, in longer time. Put therefore pewter, put into the water at large. The freeinto a conserving pit of snow and ice, adding stone we found received in some water; for it was some quantity of salt and nitre, a piece of wood, or softer and easier to scrape than a piece of the same a piece of tough clay, and let it lie a month or more. stone kept dry. But the pewter, into which no

84. Another trial is by metalline waters, which water could enter, became more white, and like have virtual cold in them. Put therefore wood or to silver, and less flexible by much. There were clay into smith's water, or other metalline water, also put into an earthen bottle, placed as before, and try whether it will not harden in some rea- a good pellet of clay, a piece of cheese, a piece of sonable time. But I understand it of metalline chalk, and a piece of freestone. The clay came waters that come by washing or quenching; and forth almost of the hardness of stone; the cheese not of strong waters that come by dissolution; for likewise very hard, and not well to be cut; the they are too corrosive to consolidate.

chalk and the freestone much harder than they 85. It is already found that there are some na- were. The colour of the clay inclined not a whit tural spring waters, that will inlapidate wood; so to the colour of brick, but rather to white, as in that you shall see one piece of wood, whereof the ordinary drying by the sun. Note, that all the part above the water shall continue wood; and former trials were made by a boiling upon a good the part under water shall be turned into a kind hot fire, renewing the water as it consumed, with of gravelly stone. It is likely those waters are other hot water; but the boiling was but for of some metalline mixture; but there would be twelve hours only; and it is like that the experimore particular inquiry made of them. It is cer- ment would have been effectual, if the boiling tain, that an egg was found, having lain many had been for two or three days, as we prescribed years in the bottom of a moat, where the earth had before. somewhat overgrown it; and this egg was come 89. As touching assimilation, for this is a deto the hardness of a stone, and had the colours of gree of assimilation, even in inanimate bodies we the white and yolk perfect, and the shell shining see examples of it in some stones in clay-grounds, in small grains like sugar or alabaster.

lying near to the top of the earth, where pebble 86. Another experience there is of induration is; in which you may manifestly see divers pebby cold, which is already found; which is, that bles gathered together, and crust of cement or metals themselves are hardened by often heating stone between them, as hard as the pebbles themand quenching in cold water; for cold ever work- selves; and it were good to make a trial of pureth most potently upon heat precedent.

pose, by taking clay, and putting in it divers peb87. For induration by heat, it must be consi- ble stones, thick set, to see whether in continudered, that heat, by the exhaling of the moister ance of time, it will not be harder than other clay parts, doth either harden the body, as in bricks, of the same lump, in which no pebbles are set. tiles, &c., or if the heat be more fierce, inaketh the We see also in ruins of old walls, especially togrosser part itself run and melt; as in the making wards the bottom, the mortar will become as hard of ordinary glass; and in the vitrification of earth, as the brick; we see also, that the wood on the as we see in the inner parts of furnaces, and in sides of vessels of wine, gathereth a crust of tartar, the vitrification of brick, and of metals. And in harder than the wood itself; and scales likewise the former of these, which is the hardening by grow to the teeth, harder than the teeth themselves. baking without melting, the heat hath these de- 90. Most of all, induration by assimilation apgrees; first, it indurateth, and then maketh fra- peareth in the bodies of trees and living creagile; and lastly it doth incinerate and calcinate. tures: for no nourishment that the tree receiveth,

88. But if you desire to make an induration or that the living creature receiveth, is so hard with toughness, and less fragility, a middle way as wood, bone, or horn, &c. but is indurated after would be taken, which is that which Aristotle by assimilation, hath well noted; but would be thoroughly verified. It is to decoct bodies in water for two or Experiment solitary touching the version of water three days; but they must be such bodies into

into air. which the water will not enter; as stone and metal; 91. The eye of the understanding is like the for if they be bodies into which the water will eye of the sense: for as you may see great objects through sınall crannies, or levels; so you | penurious colour, and where moisture is scant. may see great axioms of nature through small and So blue violets, and other flowers, if they be contemptible instances. The speedy depredation starved, turn pale and white : birds and horses, of air upon watery moisture, and version of the by age or scars turn white : and the hoar hairs same into air, appeareth in nothing more visible, of men come by the same reason. And therefore, than in the sudden discharge or vanishing of a in birds, it is very likely, that the feathers that little cloud of breath or vapour from glass, or the come first, will be many times of divers colours, blade of a sword, or any such polished body, such according to the nature of the bird, for that the as doth not at all detain or imbibe the moisture; skin is more porous; but when the skin is more for the mistiness scattereth and breaketh up sud- shut and close, the feathers will come white. denly. But the like cloud, if it were oily or fatty, This is a good experiment, not only for the prowill not discharge; not because it sticketh faster; ducing of birds and beasts of strange colours; but but because air preyeth upon water; and flame also for the disclosure of the nature of colours and fire upon oil; and therefore to take out a spot themselves: which of them require a finer poroof grease they use a coal upon brown paper; be-sity, and which a grosser. cause fire worketh upon grease or oil, as air doth upon water. And we see paper oiled, or wood Experiment solitary touching the nourishment of oiled, or the like, last long moist; but wet with living creatures before they be brought forth. water, dry, or putrify sooner. The cause is, for 94. It is a work of providence, that hath been that air meddleth little with the moisture of oil. truly observed by some, that the yolk of the egg

conduceth little to the generation of the bird, but Experiment solitary touching the force of union. only to the nourishment of the same; for if a

92. There is an admirable demonstration in the chicken be opened, when it is new hatched, you same trifling instance of the little cloud upon glass, shall find much of the yolk remaining. And it is or gems, or blades of swords, of the force of union, needful, that birds that are shaped without the even in the least quantities, and weakest bodies, female's womb have in the egg, as well matter of how much it conduceth to preservation of the pre- nourishment, as matter of generation for the body. sent form and the resisting of a new. For mark For after the egg is laid, and severed from the well the discharge of that cloud; and you shall body of the hen, it hath no more nourishment see it ever break up, first in the skirts, and last in from the hen, but only a quickening heat when the midst. We see likewise, that much water she sitteth. But beasts and men need not the draweth forth the juice of the body infused; but matter of nourishment within themselves, because little water is imbibed by the body: and this is a they are shaped within the womb of the female, principal cause, why in operation upon bodies for and are nourished continually from her body. their version or alteration, the trial in great quantities doth not answer the trial in small; and so Experiments in consort touching sympathy and andeceiveth many; for that, I say, the greater body

tipathy for medicinal use. resisteth more any alteration of form, and requireth 95. It is an inveterate and received opinion, that far greater strength in the active body that should cantharides applied to any part of the body, touch subdue it.

the bladder and exulcerate it, if they stay on long.

It is likewise received, that a kind of stone, which Experiment solitary touching the producing of they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar feathers and hairs of divers colours.

force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone; in93. We have spoken before in the fifth instance, somuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forcibly of the cause of orient colours in birds; which is by sent down gravel, as men have been glad to remove the fineness of the strainer : we will now endea- it, it was so violent. vour to reduce the same axiom to a work. For 96. It is received, and confirmed by daily expethis writing of our “Sylva Sylvarum” is, to rience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity speak properly, not natural history, but a high kind with the head and mouth of the stomach ; as we of natural magic. For it is not a description only see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, afof nature, but a breaking of nature into great and fecteth both : applications of hot powders to the strange works. Try therefore the anointing over feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and of pigeons, or some other birds, when they are therefore a physician that would be mystical, prebut in their down; or of whelps, cutting their scribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man hair as short as may be; or of some other beast: should walk continually upon a camomile alley; with some ointment that is not hurtful to the flesh, meaning, that he should put camomile within his and that will harden and stick very close; and socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the see whether it will not alter the colours of the fea- soles of the feet ease the head : and soporiferous thers or hair. It is received, that the pulling off medicines applied unto them, provoke sleep. the first feathers of birds clean, will make the new 97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a symcome forth white: and it is certain that white is a pathy with the head, so the wrists and hands have a sympathy with the heart; we see the effects and like. And the physicians are content to acknowpassions of the heart and spirits are notably dis- ledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; as closed by the pulse : and it is often tried, that that opium hath a stupefactive part, and a heating juices of stockgilly flowers, rose-campian, gar- part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat lick, and other things, applied to the wrists, and following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, renewed, have cured long agues. And I conceive, and astringent parts, &e. But this whole inquithat washing with certain liquors the palms of sition is weakly and negligently handled. And the hands doth much good : and they do well in for the more subtile differences of the minute parts, heats of agues, to hold in the hands eggs of alabas- and the posture of them in the body, which also ter and balls of crystal.

hath great effects, they are not at all touched : as Of these things we shall speak more, when we for the motions of the minute parts of bodies, which handle the title of sympathy and antipathy, in the do so great effects, they have not been observed proper place.

at all; because they are invisible, and incur not

to the eye; but yet they are to be deprehended Experiment solilary touching the secret processes of by experience: as Democritus said well, when nature.

they charged him to hold, that the world was 98. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been made of such little motes, as were seen in the determined by the view or sight; so that whatso- sun: “Atomus,” saith he, “necessitate rationis ever is invisible, either in respect of the fineness et experientia esse convincitur; atomum enim neof the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, mo unquam vidit.” And therefore the tumult in or of the subtility of the motion, is little inquired. the parts of solid bodies, when they are compressAnd yet these be the things that govern nature ed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies principally; and without which you cannot make through the air, and of other mechanical motions, any true analysis and indication of the proceedings as hath been partly touched before, and shall be of nature. The spirits or pneumaticals, that are throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. in all tangible bodies, are scarce known. Some- But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it times they take them for “ vacuum ;" whereas not attentively and diligently, you shall never be they are the most active of bodies. Sometimes able to discern, and much less to produce, a num. they take them for air; from which they differ ex- ber of mechanical motions. Again, as to the moceedingly, as much as wine from water; and as tions corporal, within the inclosures of bodies, wood from earth. Sometimes they will have them whereby the effects, which were mentioned before, to be natural heat, or a portion of the element pass between the spirits and the tangible parts, of fire; whereas some of them are crude and cold. which are arefaction, colliquation, concoction, And sometimes they will have them to be the maturation, &c. they are not at all handled. But virtues and qualities of the tangible parts which they are put off by the names of virtues, and they see; whereas they are things by themselves. natures, and actions, and passions, and such other And then, when they come to plants and living logical words. creatures, they call them souls.

And such superficial speculations they have; like prospectives, Experiment solitary touching the power of heat. that show things inward, when they are but paint- 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature ings. Neither is this a question of words, but heat is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and infinitely material in nature. For spirits are in the works of art. Certain it is, likewise, that nothing else but a natural body rarified to a pro- the effects of heat are most advanced, when it portion, and included in the tangible parts of bo-worketh upon a body without loss or dissipation dies, as in an integument. And they be no less of the matter; for that ever betrayeth the account. differing one from the other than the dense or And therefore it is true, that the power of heat is tangible parts; and they are in all tangible bodies best perceived in distillations which are performed whatsoever, more or less; and they are never al- in close vessels and receptacles. But yet there most at rest; and from them, and their motions, is a higher degree; for howsoever distillations do principally proceed arefaction, colliquation, con- keep the body in cells and cloisters, without going coction, maturation, putrefaction, vivification, and abroad, yet they give space unto bodies to turn most of the effects of nature: for, as we have into vapour; to return into liquor, and to separate figured them in our “Sapientia Veterum,” in the one part from another. So as nature doth expatifable of Proserpina, you shall in the infernal regi- ate, although it hath not full liberty : whereby the ment hear little doings of Pluto, but most of true and ultime operations of heat are not attained. Proserpina: for tangible parts in bodies are stupid But if bodies may be altered by heat, and yet no things; and the spirits do in effect all. As for such reciprocation of rarefaction, and of condensathe differences of tangible parts in bodies, the in- tion, and of separation, admitted, then it is like dustry of the chymist hath given some light, in that this Proteus of matter, being held by the discerning by their separations the oily, crude, sleeves, will turn and change into many metamorpare, impure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and the phoses. Take therefore a square vessel of iror..

in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and we aim at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies, strong sides. Put into it a cube of wood, that or any such prodigious follies; but that we know may fill it as close as may be, and let it have a | the effects of heat will be such, as will scarce fall cover of iron, as strong at least as the sides, and under the conceit of man, if the force of it be allet it be well luted, after the manner of the chy- together kept in. mists. Then place the vessel within burning coals, kept quick kindled for some few hours' space. Experiment solitary touching the impossibility of Then take the vessel from the fire, and take off

annihilation, the cover, and see what is become of the wood. I 100. There is nothing more certain in nature conceive, that since all inflammation and evapora- than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly tion are utterly prohibited, and the body still annihilated; but that as it was the work of the turned upon itself, that one of these two effects omnipotency of God to make somewhat of nowill follow: either that the body of the wood will thing, so it requireth the like omnipotency to turn be turned into a kind of “amalgama," as the somewhat into nothing. And therefore it is well chymists call it, or that the finer part will be said by an obscure writer of the sect of the chyturned into air, and the grosser stick as it were mists, that there is no such way to effect the strange baked, and incrustate upon the sides of the vessel, transmutations of bodies, as to endeavour and urge being become of a denser matter than the wood by all means the reducing of them to nothing. itself crude. And for another trial, take also And herein is contained also a great secret of prewater, and put it in the like vessel, stopped as servation of bodies from change; for if you can before, but use a gentler heat, and remove the prohibit, that they neither turn into air, because vessel sometimes from the fire; and again, after no air cometh to them, nor go into the bodies adsome small time, when it is cold, renew the heat-jacent, because they are uiterly heterogeneal; ing of it; and repeat this alteration some few nor make a round and circulation within themtimes: and if you can once bring to pass, that the selves; they will never change though they be in water, which is one of the simplest of bodies, be their nature never so perishable or mutable. We changed in colour, odour, or taste, after the man- see how flies, and spiders, and the like, get a sener of compound bodies, you may be sure that pulchre in amber, more durable than the monuthere is a great work wrought in nature, and a ment and embalming of the body of any king. notable entrance made into strange changes of And I conceive the like will be of bodies put into bodies and productions; and also a way made to quicksilver. But then they must be but thin, as do that by fire, in small time, which the sun and a leaf, or a piece of paper or parchment; for if age do in long time. But of the admirable effects they have a greater crassitude, they will alter in of this distillation in close, (for so we call it,) their own body, though they spend not. But of which is like the wombs and matrices of living this we shall speak more when we handle the creatures, where nothing expireth nor separateth, title of conservation of bodies. we will speak fully, in the due place; not that

CENTURY II.

Experiments in consort touching music. 102. The sounds that produce tones are ever Music, in the practice hath been well pursued, from such bodies as are in their parts and pores and in good variety; but in the theory, and espe- equal; as well as the sounds themselves are cially in the yielding of the causes of the practice, equal; and such are the percussions of metal, as very weakly; being reduced into certain mystical in bells; of glass, as in the filliping of a drinking subtilties of no use and not much truth. We glass; of air, as in men's voices whilst they sing, shall, therefore, after our manner, join the contem- in pipes, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, plative and active part together.

&c.; and of water, as in the nightingale pipes of 101. All sounds are either musical sounds, regals, or organs, and other hydraulics; which which we call tones; whereunto there may be the ancients had, and Nero did so much esteem, a harmony; which sounds are ever equal; as sing- but are now lost. And if any man think, that the ing, the sounds of stringed and wind instruments, string of the bow and the string of the viol are the ringing of bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, neither of them equal bodies, and yet produce which are ever unequal; such as are the voice in tones, he is in an error. For the sound is not speaking, all whisperings, all voices of beasts and created between the bow or "plectrum” and the birds, except they be singing-birds, all percus- string; but between the string and the air; no sions of stones, wood, parchment, skins, as in more than it is between the finger or quill, and drums, and infinite others.

the string in other instruments. So there are, in effect, but three percussions that create tones; | sound returneth after six or after twelve; so that percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the seventh or the thirteenth is not the matter, the like, percussions of air, and percussions of but the six or the twelfth; and the seventh and water.

the thirteenth are but the limits and boundaries 103. The diapason or eighth in music is the of the return. sweetest concord, insomuch as it is in effect a 107. The concords in music which are perfect unison; as we see in lutes that are strung in the or semiperfect, between the unison and the diapabase strings with two strings, one an eighth above son, are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the another; which make but as one sound. And third next: and the sixth, which is more harsh: every eighth note inascent, as from eight to fifteen, and, as the ancients esteemed, and so do myself from fifteen to twenty-two, and so in infinitum,” and some other yet, the fourth, which they call are but scales of diapason. The cause is dark, diatessaron. As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and hath not been rendered by any; and therefore and so in “infinitum,” they be but recurrences would be better contemplated. It seemeth that of the former, viz. of the third, the fifth, and tho air, which is the subject of sounds, in sounds that sixth; being an eighth respectively from them. are not tones, which are all unequal, as hath been 108. For discords, the second and the seventh said, admiiteth much variety; as we see in the are of all others the most odious in harmony, to voices of living creatures, and likewise in the the sense; whereof the one is next above the voices of several men, for we are capable to dis- unison, the other next under the diapason: which cern several men, by their voices, and in the may show that harmony requireth a competent conjugation of letters, whence articulate sounds distance of notes. proceed; which of all others are most various. 109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to But in the sounds which we call tones, that are the base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though ever equal, the air is not able to cast itself into there' be a discord to the higher parts : so the any such variety; but is forced to recor into one discord be not of the two that are odious; and and the same posture or figure, only differing in therefore the ordinary consent of four parts congreatness and smallness. So we see figures may sisteth of an eighth, a fifth, and a third to the be made of lines, crooked and straight, in infinite base; but that fifth is a fourth to the treble, and variety, where there is inequality; but circles, the third is a sixth. And the cause is, for that or squares, or triangles equilateral, which are all the base striking more air, doth overcome and figures of equal lines, can differ but in greater or drown the treble, unless the discord be very

odilesser.

ous; and so hideth a small imperfection. For 104. It is to be noted, the rather least any man we see, that in one of the lower strings of a lute, should think that there is any thing in this num- there soundeth not the sound of the treble, nor ber of eight, to create the diapason, that this any mixed sound, but only the sound of the base. computation of eight is a thing rather received, 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and than any true computation. For a true computa- it may be they are not capable of harmony; for tion onght ever to be by distribution into equal we see the half-notes themselves do but interpose portions. Now there be intervenient in the rise sometimes. Nevertheless we have some slides of eight, in tones, two beemolls, or half notes: or relishes of the voice or strings, as it were so as if you divide the tones equally, the eight is continued without notes, from one tone to another, but seven whole and equal notes; and if you sub- rising or falling, which are delightful. divide that into half notes, as it is in the stops of 111. The causes of that which is pleasing or a lute, it maketh the number of thirteen.

ingrate to the hearing, may receive light by that 105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the be two things pleasing to the sight, leaving tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is pictures and shapes aside, which are but secondthe equal measure, there fall out to be two bee-ary objects; and please or displease but in memomolls, as hath been said, between the unison and ry; these two are colours and orders.

The the diapason: and this varying is natural. For pleasing of colour symbolizeth with the pleasing if a man would endeavour to raise or fall his of any single tone to the ear; but the pleasing voice, still by half-notes, like the stops of a lute; of order doth symbolize with harmony. And or by whole notes alone without halves, as far as an therefore we see in garden-knots, and the frets eighth; he will not be able to frame his voice of houses, and all equal and well answering unto it. Which showeth, that after every three figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinders, &c. whole notes, nature requireth, for all harmonical how they please; whereas unequal figures are use, one half-note to be interposed.

but deformities. And both these pleasures, that 106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects virtue is in numbers, for conducing to consent of of equality, good proportion, or correspondence: notes, is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, so that, out of question, equality and correspond than to the entire number; as namely, that the ence are the causes of harmony. But to find the Vol. II.-4

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