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was slain the same day may help us to some light in this matter. Aaron was to offer his Bullock for a Sin Offering for himself, and make Atonement for himself and for his house, Levit. xvi. 6. His confeflion on this occasion was in the same words as when he confeffed the Sins of the Nation, putting only *, “ I and my
Family", instead of, “ thy people the “ House of Israel." And when He confessed the Sins of the Sons of Aaron, the fame form was used, only putting in the words, “ I and my Family and the Sons « of Aaron thy holy people.”
Here then a Bullock was flain, and God was prayed to cover, or remove away the displeasure which might justly have arisen from their Sins : But not a word to desire of God to accept this Bullock as their Substitute, or in lieu of them. Could the High Priest have failed to use some word that would have implied this Substitution ? Would he not have used
* Tribus vicibus in die Expiationis confeffionem edidit [Pontifex Maximus] Pima pro fe: Secunda pro fratribus Sacerdotibus ; et ultima hac vice, pro universo cetu. Sberingham in. loc. vid. Misana, ibid.
But .יהי דמו תחת דמי הנפש תחת נפשי
some term or other which after
found out? Would he not have said as the later Rabbins have said, " Let his Blood be for my blood, bis Soul or Life in lieu of mine.”
, this was a Notion of later times, when the Original Ideas of Sacrifices had been changed, and men's Imaginations or Inventions had supplied the place of Facts.
6. It may perhaps be thought, that tho the High Priest did not use such a Form as implied a Substitution of the Victim in the place or stead of the Offerer, yet the Form of Confession made by a private person when he offered his Sacrifice, may be full to the purpose. And so indeed it may seem. His Form was- *“ I be« seech thee O Lord, I have sinned, I “ have done Iniquity, I have transgressed, “ have done so and fo” [here a particular mention of his Sins was made] “ and I “ have returned by Repentance, and This
* Obfecro Domine, peccavi, deliqui, rebellavi, hoc et illud feci; nunc autem pænitentiam ago, Sitque Hoftia hxc Expiatio mea. Dr. Outram. cites this form from Maimonides in Maase Corban. 6.-3. Outram, p. 170.
« Victim is, or, Let This Victim be my
Expiation." The Remark which the Learned Dr. Outram makes on this is * « These last words signify, as the Jews “ tell us, Let this Victim be substituted in
my place, that the Evil which I have
deserved may fall upon the head of this « Sacrifice.” The Jews may tell us this, but the words—Let this Vistim be my Expiation—mean no more than This Let this Vietim remove all displeasure of God from me ; Let this be my cleansing. Repentance would always cover Sins, and make them not be remembred or imputed to the Sinner : and a Sacrifice attended with Repentance would always produce the same effect; and without Repentance ten thousand Sacrifices would never cause that Sin should not be remembred. When therefore a Sacrifice was offered as it ought to be, with a right mind, and with a hearty desire to return into favour wich
* Quæ vero verba formulam claudunt, Sitque hæc Expiatio mea, hostiam ipsam defignabant offerentis manibus jam subjectam ; ac quidem, ut Judæi docent, hujusmodi significationem habent, Sit Hoftia hæc meum in locum Lubftituta, ut quod ipfe malum merui, id in hostiæ meæ caput reçidat. Outram. ibid.
God, the Offerer might well say, as he did in the Form just mentioned-Let this Victim be the means of my pardon, and make mine Iniquities be remembred no more -without any Notion of the Victim's being a Substitute, and without any Prayer to God that the Evils which the Sinner deferved might fall on the Head of an innocent, harmless, Creature.
The Nature and Intent of Sacrifices being thus considered, it will be not improper to make some further Observations upon
this Practice. Burnt Offerings were certainly the most antient of all that are mentioned since the Flood. Noah took of every clean Beast, and of every clean Fowl, and offered Burnt Offerings on the Altar which he had built, Gen. viii, 20. This was done very foon after he went out of the Ark : For as soon as he had made his Sacrifice, God declar'd that he would not again curse the Ground any more for man's fake. Now it is certain that Noah was not the Inventer of Sacrifices; and by his offering Burnt Offerings of Beasts and Birds, He seems to have observed what was practised before the Flood, when
every man was his own Priest, and offered Sacrifices for Himself. Every man, or at least every Father of every Family, seems to have brought his own Sacrifice to such place as he thought proper ; possibly (as it was in much later times) to his own Heartb; And he brought of the fruits of the Earth, or his Cattle, or what he was Master of, and with them He made his Prayer, or he returned his Thanks, and thus endeavoured to be, or continue, in a State of Friendship with God. It is probable, I should think, that he built an Altar wherever he thought fit, as the Patriarchs in after times did ; And if we may judge of others by the Sacrifices of Cain and Abel, it is very likely, as Lucian has observed *, that the Farmer offered " an Ox, the Shepherd a Lamb, and si fome a Cake only."
It is certain that Abel was a Keeper of Sheep, but Cain was a Tiller of the ground: And suitably to their respective Occupasions, Cain brought of the Fruit of the Ground an Offering unto the Lord; and
Bν μεν άροϊόρου ο γεωργός, άρνα δο ποίμων –ό δε τις Némarr. Lucian. de Sacrificiis.