That is commonly used about Sacrifices, and nothing is more frequent than the Application of this term to them. But This, no more than the former, will convey to us the Idea of the Animal's blood being shed in lieu of our blood, or that its Life was given as aút pov, a Redemption, of ours. For supposing this to have been the case, the Oblation (By which I mean the taking away the life and the pouring out the blood at or upon the Altar) would have made the Expiation. But the Jews themselves will not say this. Maimonides justly observes *

" that Sinners and Trespassers « at the time when they bring their Obla“ tions for Errors, or for Sins with an

high hand, are not expiated by their Sacrifices, until they have actually re

pented, and bave confessed in form, as it is said, Levit. v. 5. He shall confess " in that he hath finned.The word mana, expiated, bere used by Maimonides,

pro peccatis vel

* Hinc fit quod peccatores et rei, cum Oblationes fuas · per Errorem, vel


C ntumaciam commifsis, adducunt, per Sacrificia non expiantur, nifi prius pænitentiam agant, et Confeffionis formulam repetant, sicut dictum est, Confitebuntur id in qun peccavit. Maimon. de Pænitentia, cap. i. $ 3.


L 4

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,כפרת the Ark

is called

signifies the causing God's displeafure to be removed. The word originally fignifies to cover, or cover over, in general; and thence it is particularly applied for covering, or causing to cover, i. e. to remove or take away Anger or Offence, by fo covering it that it may not appear : And hence when it is applied to God, it fignifies his covering Sin, which is the fame as not imputing it, or pardoning it; i. e. his being propitious, or not angry. And hence the Mercy Seat, which was the Cover of

). When therefore a Sacrifice was offered to God as was commanded, with the constant attendants on it, Repentance and Confeffion, it did remove the Anger or Displeasure of God conceived against the Sinner, and caused him to cover it. But then it is not faid, nor implied in this word, that Life was given for Life, or Blood for Blood : 'Nor indeed How God was made propitious, but only a fact is asserted that this effect was produced in God.

3. The word 77723 is commonly used where there can be no such thing possible as a Supposition of Life for Life. It is a


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Rule laid down by the Rabbi's, * « that w where any one is to be punished with « Death, or whipping, by the Authority “ of the Sanbedrim, his Death or whip

ping will not expiate his Crime, unless " he Repents and confesses." So too to « if any one hurts his Neighbour in his « Person or Property, even tho' he makes « him amends in whatever it is for which " he is refponfible to him, he is not to

be abfolved unless he repents and confesses, and ceases to do so any more.” Again, It is a Maxim, « tance is an Expiation for all 'Tranfgref« fions." It covers, or causes all Sins to be covered : Not sure, by any Suppofition of giving Life for Life, but by making peace with God, and by Application to him as Merciful, Good, and Kind; by

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“ that Repen

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* Quicunque autoritate Synedrii morti addicitur, aut Flagellatione est puniendus, non expiahitur, 70no, aut morte aut flagellatione, nisi prius poenitentiam egerit, et peccata confessus fuerit. Maimon. ibid.

# Item qui proximum suum lædit, aut facultatibus ejus damnum infert, etiamfi damnum plene rependat, non tamen Absolvitur priusquam confessus fuerit, et talia perpetrare omnino ceffaverit. Maimon. ibid.

# Penitentia expiat (7222) omnes Transgressiones. Maimon. ibid. 6.


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endeavouring to restore or to recover that Friendship that had been lost or leffened ; and by that means making that past Sins should not be remembred or imputed.

4. I have observed already that the Scape Goat was not a Sacrifice : and yet Maimonides observes that That did expiate, or cause the Sins of all Israel to be covered. His words are *. “ 'It expiates for “ all Israel : and he: observes, that of « because it made that the Sins of Israel

were removed or covered from the Sight “ of God, therefore the High Priest con« fessed over it. Sins in the name of all

Israel." When the High Priest made or used the Form of Confeffion on this occasion, he laid his Hands upon the Scape Goat, and said, .|| “ I beseech thee, o

) . + Ea de causa super eum Pontifex peccata in nomine totius Ifraelis confeffus fuerit. Naimon. ibid. 9 4.

| Obsecro, Domine, deliquerunt, rebelles fuerunt, et peccaverunt coram te Populus tuus, Domus Ifrael. Obsecro Domine, remitte nunc delicta et rebelliones et peccata quæ deliquerunt et in quibus rebelles fuerunt, et quæ peccaverunt coram te populus tuus Domus Ifrael, ficut

Scriptum eft in lege Mofis fervi tui dicendo, Quia in die • hoc expiabit Super vos ad mundandum vos ab omnibus

peccatis vestris coram Domino, et mundi eritis. Mihna. Vol, II. p. 239.

.הוא כברה על כל ישראל

“ Lord,

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" Lord, Thy people the House of Israel “ hath Sinned, hath done Iniquity, hath

transgressed before thee. I beseech thee, " O Lord, 700, cover now the Sins and “ the Iniquities and the Transgressions “ which thy People the House of Israel “ hath finned, done Iniquity, and trans

greffed before thee. As it is written “ in the Law of Moses thy Servant, say

ing-On that day 723), mall an Atonement be made for you to cleanse you “ from all your Sins.” Lev. xvi. 30.

Here then the word, 703, was used twice, tho' no Life was offered for Life : and therefore if the same word be used in cases where a Viêtim was sain, no one can infer from thence that the Life of the Animal was given for the Life of him that offered it. Expiation was indeed made by Sacrifice; but since it was made in cases where no life was offered, as well as where Life was offered, what was owing to the Sacrifice, should not be imputed to one particular circumstance of the Sacrifice, but to the whole.

5. But perhaps the Other Form or Forms of Confefsion over the Bullock that

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