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for the Burnt Offering, the other for å Sin Offering: And the Priest Mall make an Atonement for her. Levit. xii, 6, 8.
All that I would infer from these in stances, (which are of every one of the Sorts of Sacrifices mentioned in the Mosaic Law,) is this, That in none of the cases mentioned can any one conclude, that the End of Animal Sacrifices was the giving Life for Life ; or that They implied any Forfeiture of Life; or that God was defired to accept the Life of the Animal instead of the Life of the Offerer. It is certain that Peace Offerings, Sin Offerings, Trespass Offerings and Burnt Offerings were made; and Atonement was likewife made for the Party offering ; and yet Life was not given for Life in any of the Instances before mentioned : No Forfeiture of life was acknowledged, No Sin confeffed in some of them; and confequently the Offerer could not intend to say-Hanc Animam pro meliore- or that he gave the Life of the Animal in lieu of his own, or instead of his own. The particular End of Each of these Sacrifices will be hereafter shewn distinctly : Here
I would only Thew what was not their Intent.
I am not insensible that many Instances have been produced as well from the Sacred Writers as from Others to shew that the Great Design of Animal Sacrifices, (at least of Piacular Sacrifices,) was a vicarious Substitution of an Animal for a Man, and the giving or offering the Life of the one for the Life of the other. It will be worth while particularly to examine two or three of the Passages produced from the Old Testament in proof of this Notion.
The First is, Deut. xxi. If a man be found pain in the land and it be not known who hath sain bim, the Elders of the City which is next unto the pain man shall take a Heifer which hath not been wrought- and shall wall their hands over the Heifer that is beheaded in the Valley ; And they shall answer and say, Our hands have not shed this blood, neither bave our Eyes seen it. Be merciful O Lord unto tby people whom thou hast redeemed, and lay not innocent blood to thy people of Israel's charge. And the blood shall be forgiven
them, them, Deut. xxi. 1-8. The Law of Moses would allow no Satisfaction for the life of a Murderer, but insisted that the Murderer should be put to death at all events, for blood defileth the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is goed therein but by the blood of him that goed it, Numb. xxxv. 30–33. In case then that a man was found dead, and it was not known who had flain him, there was to be a public declaration of Innocency made by those who were nearest, and therefore most likely to have been the persons guilty : And there was to be a Heifer, not sacrificed, not offered to God, but whose Head was to be struck off in the valley adjacent, with a public request to God not to lay innocent blood to the
people's charge. And upon this, the City which lay next to the slain man was acquitted of his blood.
Here the case is, a Heifer has its Head ftruck off instead of the Murderer who can't be found. But then, Here is no Piacular Sacrifice, indeed no Sacrifice of any sort at all, is mentioned: Here is no presenting or offering any part or the whole
Heifer to God; no consuming any of it
Altar. The ceremony was purely symbolical ; to declare by that act of cutting off the Heifer's Head, that so the Murderer ought, had he been known, to have been treated. Admitting therefore here a Vicarious Substitution, yet it has nothing to do with
Sort of Sacrifice; whereas in Truth it was not a vicarious Substitution, but a manner of clearing themselves from all suspicion of Guilt, with à Declaration how the Murderer ought to have been treated by the Law of the Land.
A second Instance is taken from Lev. x. 17. It is there said, that the Sin Offering is most boly, and God bath given it you to bear the Iniquity of the Congregation, to make Atonement for them before the Lord. The thing to be proved from this place is, that the Sin Offering was defigned as a Substitution in lieu of the Congregation. To bear the Iniquity of the Congregation, is certainly to remove it, to carry
away, to bear it off. The Sin Offering therefore that made the Atonement for the Congregation, took away their Iniquity, or all Punishment due unto them. Bat How was this done ? Not by offering Life for Life ; nor by any Transfer of Crime or Punishment upon the Aniinal that was offered : but by such a Repentance and Obedience as was required. The Original word which we translate to bear, nu?, is a word of perhaps the greatest Uncertainty of meaning in the whole Hebrew tongue: and in course it is hard to fix its sense in particular places. The Vulgate here render it, ut portetis, that
ye may carry : The LXX.iva apéante, that ye may
away ; understanding it of the Priests, not of the Sin Offering ; And so the Arabic, and the Samaritan. In other places this phrase, to bear Sin, fignifies the direct contrary to what it does here, viz. to bring upon themselves Sin. Thus Exod. xxviii. 43. Linnen Breeches fball be upon Aaron, and his Sons, when they come in unto the Tabernacle of the Congregation, that they bear not Iniquity, and
, gate very rightly render it, ne iniquitatis rei moriantur : and the LXX, voi oux, επάξονται προς εαυτούς αμαρτιών, They hall
.Here the Vul .ולא יִטְאוּ עָן וָמֵתוּ ,die