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TEMPLE OF JUPITER OLYMPUS. and its chief ornaments, than would in all plexity of parts, adds, perhaps, something of probability have been accomplished, had not a quality in which the subject is rather wantinquiry and investigation been spurred on by ing. “I am not sure,” says Mr. Cook, “that the difficulty of comprehending their exact the remains of the temple of Jupiter Olymmeaning.
pus are not the most impressive which Athens Of two views of the temple of Jupiter offers to the eye and heart of the traveller, Olympus, Mr. Cook chose that in which the partly from their abstract grandeur-a granAcropolis is seen in the distance. The three deur derived from every element which could lofty Corinthian columns in the other engrav. contribute to such an end-and partly from a ing are diminished to the scale of the arch, position than which it would be impossible while the Acropolis, from its greater com to conceive any thing more magnificent. The
gigantic columns struck me with a sense of awe and bewilderment, almost oppressive; they consist, as may be seen by the engraving, of sixteen, the sole representatives of the one hundred and twenty which once formed this mightiest of Athenian temples. The least thoughtful person could scarcely avoid the question of where and how the remaining one hundred and four of these enormous masses can have vanished; and assisted | by the fullest information which is to be acquired on the subject, it remains a matter of wonder to all. That time itself has had but little to answer for, the almost perfect preservation of portions is sufficient to prove; in some cases the futings are as sharp and clean as when the hand of the sculptor left them, while, more generally, they bear disgraceful evidence of ill-usage of every kind, from that of the cannon ball to the petty mischief of wanton idleness. The proportion of these columns is quite perfect, and the mind is lost in charmed wonder, as wandering from part to part of the vast platform, it is presented at every step with combinations perpetually changing, yet always beautiful. So difficult do I find it to determine from what point of view these ruins are seen to the greatest advantage. that I have appended two engrav
ings, from which the reader may select that ANOTAER VIEW OF THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER OLYMPUS. which best conveys to him the magnificence of the structure which has been thus slightly or executed, this must have been a labor described.” The temple of Jupiter Olympus of love, and the result is such as might be anwas one of the first conceived, and the last ticipated from the consequent development executed of the sacred monuments of Athens. I of the highest powers of one to whom a peoIt was begun by Pisistratus, but not finished ple like the Athenians would entrust the task till the time of the Roman emperor Adrian, of doing honor to those who had paid to their seven hundred years afterwards.
native land a similar tribute. It is small, and formed of a few immense masses : the roof is one entire block; the temple or monument itself is circular, and is formed of six slabs of pure white marble, the joints of which are concealed by an equal number of beautiful Corinthian columns, partly imbedded into, and partly projecting from them. These have been fitted with such exactness, that before the "fretting hand of time and change" had done its work, the whole must have appeared as if cut from one solid mass. We have this single example of a class of buildings once so numerous that they formed an entire street; but however grateful one may feel to the hospice, which, being built over, protected it from the ruin of its companions, we can scarcely regret its disappearance, through which alone this exquisite result of intellect and refined taste may be seen as represented in the engraving.
The Temple or Tower of the Winds, has
been very justly termed “the most curious MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES.
existing monument of the practical gnomonA proof of the varied character of the ics of antiquity.” In architecture no very Athenian architectural genius may be found "elevated rank can be assigned to this edifice, in the exquisite model, the lantern of De- nor is there, even in its ornamental portions, mosthenes, or, as it is more properly called, any very remarkable evidence of the higher the Choragic monument of Lysicrates. It order of Grecian art; the execution, indeed, is, in common with the greater number of can in nowise be considered equal to the conthe remains of which we speak, of Pentelic ception, which, if somewhat fancifully elabomarble. By whomever conceived, designed, rated, is at least highly to be esteemed, as
TEMPLE OF THESEUS. uniting in a more than ordinary degree the this portion of the town must have been practically useful with the poetical ideal. raised, by ruins and atmospheric deposits, at Near the new Agora, and consequently in the least eight or nine feet above its original heart of the more densely populated division level. of the city, this indicator of the wind and The temple of Thesens, apart from the prehour must have been a valuable contribution sent town, and in a comparatively elevated to the Athenians, and must have given to its and isolated position, built by Cimon, shortfounder, Andronicus Cyrrestes, a proud po- ly after the battle of Salarnis, is one of the sition among the bene merenti of the mo- most noble remains of the ancient magnifiment. Its form is octagonal, the roof being cence of Athens, and the most perfect, if not of marble, so cut as to represent tiles; up the most beautiful, existing specimen of Greon the upper portion of each face is sculptur-cian architecture. It is built of Pentelic mared the figure of one of the eight Winds; ble; the roof, friezes, and cornices still rethese floating in an almost horizontal position main; and so gently has the hand of time convey, either by their dress, the emblems pressed upon this venerable edifice, that the which they bear, or the expression of their first impression of the mind in beholding it, features, the character of the wind they are is doubt of its antiquity. It was raised thirty respectively intended to personify. Within a years before the Parthenon, unlike which it very recent period this building, which was appears to have been but sparingly supplied !nore than half buried, has been exhumed, with sculptural decoration ; but that which and many important facts have been discov- was so dedicated was of the highest merit, ered during the process of excavation. The and remaining in an almost perfect condition, interior has been cleared, and in the pave- is most deeply interesting to the artist and the ment may be seen the channels by which the historian: supplying to the one models of water was conveyed to the machinery by beauty, and to the other the most undeniable whose agency the hour was indicated, when data, upon which to establish the identity of the absence of the sun rendered the dials de- this with the temple raised by the Athenians scribed upon the marble faces of the tower to the Hero-God. . of no avail. These dials have been tested After having been successively denominaand pronounced perfectly correct, by a no ted the remains of the Palace of Pericles, of less celebrated authority than Delambre. The the temple of Jupiter Olympus (an unactwo arches on the left of the illustration are countable blunder), the Painted Portico, the the only remaining portions of the aque- Forum of the inner Ceremeicus, the magnifiduct by which the necessary supply was con- cent wreck of which the following engraving veyed, according to Stuart, from the spring may convey a general idea, has been finally in the grotto of Pan; it is a matter of gratu- decided to have formed a portion of the Pan. lation alike to the antiquarian and the lover theon of Hadrian. For some time after this of the picturesque, that these have been spar- opinion had been started by Mr. Wilkins, and ed. From the amount of excavation neces- sanctioned by Sir William Geil, great donbts, sary to arrive at its basement, it is clear that despite the remarkable verification afforded
PANTHEON OR HADRIAN. by the language of Pausanias, remained as to the mind of Stuart, by certain minuto yet its truth; but the Earl of Guildford has at well marked variations in the proportion of length placed the matter beyond question. the columns from those devoted to sacred Some extensive excavations made under his purposes, has been sustained by research, and personal direction resulted in the discovery of finally demonstrated to be correct by the the Phrygian stone so minutely described by discovery of an inscription which has put the the enthusiastic traveller.
question at rest for ever. In one of these the The portico forming the next illustration names of two prefects of the market are prewas a long time considered the only re- served; and another, still perfect, is an edict maining portion of a temple dedicated to the of Hadrian respecting the duties to be levied Emperor Augustus, but it is now clearly es-on certain articles of consumption, and regulattablished as having been one of the entrances ing the sale of oils, &c. Nothing can be more to & market-place. This idea, suggested to l picturesque than the present condition of this
MONUMENT OF PAILOPAPPUS. portico, the latest specimen of the pure Greek | whichever point of the compass he muy curn Art. Its coloring is rich and varied, while when standing at the foot of this remarkably its state of ruin is precisely that in which the picturesque monument. eye of the painter delights, sufficient to de- The ages which produced these inarvellous stroy all hardness or angularity, yet not so works in architecture had other and different great as to rob it of one eleinent of grandeur. glories. Painting and sculpture reached the
The building called the Monument of Phil. I highest perfection; and poetry exhibited all opappus, despite its somewhat fantastic elab. the grace and vigor of the Athenian inaginaoration of detail, is very remarkable and in- tion. And though time has effaced all traces teresting; it was created either during the of the pencil of Parrhasius, Zeuxis, and Apellifetime, or as a menorial immediately after | les, posterity has assigned them a place in the his death, to Caius Julius Antiochus Philo- temple of fame beside Phidias and Praxiteles, pappus, a descendant of the royalty of Syria, whose works are, even at the present day, and an adopted citizen of Athens. It consists unrivalled for classical purity of design and of a basement supporting a pilastrade of semi-perfection of execution. And after the city circular form, and presenting upon its concave I had passed her noon in art, and in political surface three niches, containing sitting statues, greatness, she became the mother of that phiand three recesses richly ornamented with the losophy at once subtile and sublime, which, representation in strong relief of a Roman tri- even at the present hour, exerts a powerful umph. Upon the basement also were various influence over the human mind. This era sculptures in honor of the Emperor Trajan. in her history has been alluded to by Milton: These, and, indeed, all the decorative sculp- i “See there the olive grove of Academe, ture, &c., profusely lavished upon this build
Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird
Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long; ing have suffered greatly. The two remain.
There flowery hill llymettus with the sound ing statnes are much dilapidated. From this Of bees' industrious murmur oft invites
To studious musing; there Ilyssus rolls point a magnificent view of the Acropolis is
His whispering stream: within the walls then view obtained, and few are the sights presented to The schools of ancient sages; his who bred the traveller, which surpass in historic interest
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyceum there and painted Stoa next:. or actual beanty that meeting his eye, to'
age philosophy next lend thine ear,