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suth came into intimate relations with the exasperated by his obstinacy, caused him to comitats, and acquired skill in public affairs. be seized and condemned to three years' im
He was soon himself made a member, and prisonment in the citadel of Ofen. He was from the first was distinguished in the Diet liberated in 1837; and during the years that as a speaker. Here he felt, and soon pointed elapsed between that epoch and 1818 the out to his colleagues, how idle and powerless history of Hungary was that of Kossuth, were their debates unless these were known who, amidst the many men of noble birth, to the public in some more efficient manner wealth, high character, and singular talents, than by the private correspondence of the who surrounded him, still held his ground, deputies. Influenced by his representations, and shone pre-eminent. In 1847 he was the the chief members of the Diet resolved to acknowledged leader of the constitutional establish a journal for the publication of their party, and member for the Hungarian capita). discussions; and Kossuth was selected as one It is unnecessary to pursue this narrative. of those who were to preside over it; but the The events of 1848 and 1849 have passed too Archduke Palatine objected, of course, be- recently and vividly before us to need relacause the object was to curtail the reports tion. The part that Kossuth played in those and garble them. Kossuth, however, was years was but the logical consequence of his enabled by the more liberal of his colleagues previous life. The struggle was for the rights to publish the reports on his own account. of Hungary, in all circumstances and against He then extended the journal by the inser- all foes. For these he fought along with the tion of leading articles, and his counsels and Hungarian aristocracy, as long as they had criticisms on the instructions of the comitats the courage to resist Austria ; and when they to the deputies, so stirred the bile and coun-wavered, he went on without them, appealteracted the views of the Austrian authori-ing to the comitats and to the smaller landed ties, that they interfered and suspended his proprietors in the absence of the greater, newspaper by seizing his presses. But even and to the squires instead of the nobles. this did not stop his pen, nor those of his The result thus far we all know. The final many amanuenses; until, at last, Metternich, 1 result perhaps we in America are to decide.
THE ACROPOLIS. THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF GREECE. tively short a period the chief injuries have DVERY one can understand the regret with been inflicted on such buildings as the Par
1 which we behold the remains of ancient thenon, and the temple of Jupiter Olympus, grandeur, and the capitals of buried empires. and to remember low recent is the greater This feeling, so profound in Jerusalem and part of the rubbish by which these edifices Rome, is even more so in Athens,
have been choked up, mutilated, and conceal"the eye of Greece, mother of arts
ed. Probably until within a very few centuAnd eloquence, native to famous wits,
ries, time had been, simply and alone, the Or hospitable
“beautifier of the dead," "adorner of the a city never so large as New-York, but whose ruin," and, but for the vandalism of a few inhabitants produced within the short space barbarians, we might have gazed on the reof two centuries, reckoning from the battle of mains of former greatness without an emoMarathon, as Landor says, a larger number tion except of admiration for the genius by of exquisite models, in war, philosophy, patri- which they were created. The salient feaotism, oratory and poetry—in the semi-me- ture (probably the only one) in the present chanical arts which accompany or follow them, rulo at Athens is one which affords the highsculpture and painting-and in the first of est satisfaction to those interested in this subthe mechanical, architecture, than the re-ject. Slowly, indeed, and with an absence mainder of Europe in six thousand years of all energy, is going on the restoration of
The monuments of antiquity which still ex- some, the disinterment of others, and the conist in Athens have been described by Chan- servation of all the existing monuments; and dler, Clarke, Gell, Stuart, Dodwell, Leake, time will probably ere long give us back, so and other travellers, the most recent and far as is possible, all that the vandalism or competent of whom perhaps is Mr. Henry recklessness of modern ages has obscured or Cook, of London, anthor of Illustrations of a destroyed. On the Acropolis the results of Tour in the Ionian Islands, Greece, and Con- these efforts at restoration are chiefly visible; stantinople, who has just made, or rather is day by day the debris of ruined fortifications, now making for the Art-Journal a series of of Turkish batteries, mosques, and magazines, drawings of those which are most important, are disappearing; every thing which is not representing them in their present condition. Pentelic marblo finds its way over the steep These drawings by Mr. Cook, so far as they sides of the fortress, and in due time nothing have appeared, we reproduce in the Interna- will be left but the scattered fragments which tional, making liberal use at the same time really belonged to the ancient temples. “The of his descriptions.
above sketch,” says Mr. Cook, “represents Until the sacrilegions hand of the late Lord faithfully the present condition of this most Elgin despoiled Athens of “what Goth, and sublime creation. The details of the partial Turk, and Time had spared," the world could destruction of this old fortress—founded 1550 still see enough to render possible a just im- years before the advent of the Saviour-onpression of her old and chaste magnificence. der the fire of the Venetians, commanded by It is painful to reflect within how compara- Morosini, are so well known, that I have thought it unnecessary to repeat them; but been accomplished; all the now detached it is impossible to recall them without a shud- columns were built up with solid brickwork, der, as the reflection is forced on one, of batteries were erected on the spot occupied what must have been their fate whose wick-by the Temple of Victory without wings,' edness caused an explosion which could scat- and on the square which answered to it on ter, as a horse's hoof may the sands of the the opposite side of the flight of marble steps; sea-shore, the giant masses which for ever the whole of which were deeply buried (not bear witness to the power of that mighty until they had severely suffered), beneath the agent we have evoked from the earth for our ruins of the fortification which crumbled away mutual destruction." At the west end of the under the Venetian guns. These walls have Acropolis, by which alone it was accessible, been removed, the batteries destroyed, and stood the Propylea, its gate as well as its de- the inaterial of which they were composed fence. Through this gate the periodical pro- taken away; the steps exbumed, and the five cessions of the Panathenaic jubilee were wont grand entrances, by which the fortress was to move, and the marks of chariot wheels are originally entered, opened, although not yet still visible on the stone floor of its entrance. rendered passable. It would be, I imagine, It was of the Doric order, and its right wing impossible to conceive an approach more magwas supported by six fluted columns, each nificent than this inust have been. The whole five feet in diameter, twenty-nine in height, is on such a superb scale, the design, in its and seven in their intercolumniation. Of the union of simplicity and grandeur is so perfect, Propylæa itself Mr. Cook gives no individual the material so exquisite, and the view which drawing, the only sketch he had opportunity one has from it of the Parthenon and the of making, being in its relation to the Acrop- Erechtlieum so beautiful, that no interest less olis generally; "it will, however,” he says, intense than that which belongs to these tem“serve in some degree to show what has ples would be sufficient to entice the stranger been done. Here perhaps the chief work has from its contemplation."
THE PARTHENON. On the right wing of the Propylæa stood | Its height, from the base of the pediments, me temple of Victory, and on the left was was sixty-five feet, and the dimensions of the a bi
building decorated with paintings by the area two hundred and thirty-three feet, by pencil of Polygnutus, of which Pausanias has one hundred and two. The eastern pedi
us an account. In a part of the wall still ment was adorned with two groups of stauning there are fragments of excellent tues, one of which represented the birth of ens in basso-relievo, representing the com- Minerva, the other the contest of Minerva
of the Athenians with the Amazons; be- with Neptune for the government of Athens. les sis columns, white as snow, and of the On the metopes was sculptured the battle of tarchitecture. Near the Propylaea stood the Centaurs with the Lapithæ; and the frieze
elebrated colossal statue of Minerva, es contained a representation of the Panatheed by Phidias after the battle of Mara- naic festivals. Ictinus, Callicrates, and Car
4, the height of which, including the ped-pion, were the architects of this temple; Phiestal, was sixty feet.
dias was the artist; and its entire cost has been e chief glory of the Acropolis was the estimated at seven million and a half of dollenon, or teniple of Minerva. It was a llars. Of this building, eight columns of the teral octostyle, of the Doric order, with eastern front and several of the lateral colonOteen columns on the sides, each six feet nades are still standing. Of the frontispiece, inches in diameter at the base, and thir- / which represented the contest of Neptune our feet in height, elevated on three steps. and Minerva, nothing remains but the head
The chief Parthenon, on
two inches in diam
THE ERECITHEUM. of a sea-horse and the figures of two women of the roof of this graceful portico fell during without heads. The combat of the Centaurs the siege of Athens, in 1827. Lately, much and Lapith:u is in better preservation; but of has been done in the way of excavation; the the nunerous statues with wbich this tem- buried base of this tripartite temple has been ple was enriched, that of Adrian alone re- cleared; the walls, which had been built to mains. The Parthenon, however, dilapidated make it habitable, have been removed; the As it is, still retains an air of inexpressible abducted Caryatid replaced by a modern copy, grandeur and sublimity; and it forms at once the gift of Lord Guildford, and the whole the highest point in Athens, and the centre prepared for a projected restoration. of the Acropolis.
The Temple of Victory without wings, alTo stand at the eastern wall of the Acro- ready mentioned is, with the exception of the polis, and gaze on the Parthenon, robed in pavement, entirely a restoration ; for nearly the rich colors by which time has added an two centuries all trace of it was lost, all menalmost voluptuous beauty to its perfect pro- tion omitted. In removing one of the Turkportions—to behold between its columns the ish batteries, in order to clear the entrance to blue mountains of the Morea, and the bluer the Propylæa, some fragments were found seas of Egina and Salamis, with acanthus- which led to a more minute investigation ; covered or icy-wedded fragments of majestic and, after a short time, the foundation, the friezes, and mighty capitals at your feet the pavernent, and even the bases of some of the sky of Greece, flooded by the gorgeous hues columns were disinterred, making its reconof sunset, above your head-Mr. Cook de-struction not only very easy, but extremely scribes as one of the highest enjoyments the satisfactory. It is small, but of exquisite proworld can offer to a man of taste. He is op- portions, and now perfect, with the exception posed to the projects of its restoration, and of a portion of the frieze, which is in the says that, “to real lovers of the picturesque, British Museum. A peculiarity of this temthe Parthenon as it now stands—a ruin in ple is, that it stands at an angle slightly difovery sense of the term, its walls destroyed, fering from that of the Propylaa itself,-a its columns shivered, its friezes scattered, its tact for which, as it clearly formed one of the capitals half-buried by their own weight, chief ornaments to, and was certainly built but clear of all else—is, if not a grander, as-after, this noble portico, it is difficult to assuredly a more impressive object than when, sign any very good reason. in the palmiest days of Athenian glory, its. Such is an outline of the chief buildings marble, pure as the unfallen snow, first met of the Acropolis, which, in its best days, had the rays of the morning sun, and excited the four distinct characters; being at once the reverential admiration of the assembled mul- fortress, the sacred inclosure, the treasury, titudes."
and the museum of art, of the Athenian naOn the northeast side of the Parthenon tion. It was an entire offering to the deity, stood the Erechtheum, a temple dedicated to unrivalled in richness and splendor; it was the joint worship of Neptune and Minerva. the peerless gem of Greece, the glory and the There are considerable reinains of this build- pride of genius, the wonder and envy of the ing, particularly those beautiful female figures world. called Caryatides, which support, instead of Beneath the southern wall of the Acropocolumns, three of the porticoes; besides three lis, near its extremity, was situated the Atheof the columns in the north hexastyle with nian or Dionysiac theatre. Its seats, rising the roof over these last columns. The rest one above another, were cut of the sloping rock. Of these, only the two highest rows pagus, or hill of Mars, on the eastern extremiare now visible, the rest being concealed by ty of which was situated the celebrated court an accumulation of soil, the removal of which of the Areopagus. This point is reached by would probably bring to light the whole shell means of sixteen stone steps cut in the rock, of the theatre. Plato affirms it was capable of immediately above which is a bench of stone, containing thirty thousand persons. It con- forming three sides of a quadrangle, like a tained statues of all the great tragic and triclinium, generally supposed to have been comic poets, the most conspicuous of which the tribunal. The ruins of a small chapel were naturally those of Æschylus, Sophocles, consecrated to St. Dionysius the Areopagite, and Euripides, among the former, and those and commemorating his conversion by St. of Aristophanes and Menander among the Paul, are here visible. About a quarter of a mile latter. On the southwest side of the Acro- southwest from the centre of the Areopagus polis is the site of the Odeum, or musical stands Pnyx, the place provided for the pubtheatre of Herodes Atticus, named by him lic assemblies at Athens in its palmy days. the theatre of Regilla, in honor of his wife. The steps by which the speaker mounted the On the northeast side of the Acropolis stood rostrum, and a tier of three seats hewn in the the Prytaneum, where citizens who had ren- solid rock for the audience, are still visible. dered services to the state were maintained This is perhaps the most interesting spot in at the public expense. Extending southwards Athens to the lovers of Grecian genius, being from the site of the Prytaneum, ran the street associated with the renown of Demosthenes, to which Pausanias gave the name of Tri- and the other famed Athenian orators, pods, from its containing a number of small
"whose resistless eloquence temples or edifices crowned with tripods, to Wielded at will that fierce democratie, coinmemorate the triumphs gained by the Shook the arsenal, and fulmined over Greece, Choragi in the theatre of Bacchus. Opposite
To Macedon, and Artaxerxes' throne." to the west end of the Acropolis is the Areo- ! Descending the Acropolis, the eye is at
THE ARCH OF HADRIAN. once arrested by the magnificent remains of highly interesting monument, bearing unmisthe e temple of Jupiter Olympus, and by the takable marks of the decline of art; yet dish of Hadrian. Whether from its prox- tinguished for much of that quality of beauty y to the gorgeous monument first named, which gives so peculiar a character to the that it is intrinsically deficient in that spe- architecture of the Greeks. The inscriptions es of merit which appeals directly to the on the sides of the entablature have given Senses, the Arch of Hadrian attracts com- rise to much learned discussion, and have led paratively little notice. It is, however, a to a far more lucid arrangement of the city