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the banks of Ngotwani, with the Bushman, I would be easily killed. I rode up to the spot to seek for any game I might find. After just as a Shonaa had planted the first spear in riding about a mile along the river's bank, I him, which passed through the neck a little came suddenly upon an old male leopard ly-above the shoulder, and came down between ing under the shade of a thorn grove, and the animal's legs; be rolled over, broke the panting from the great heat. Although I was spear, and bounded off with the lower half within sixty yards of him, he had not heard in his body. Another Shonaa galloped up the horse's tread. I thought he was a lioness, within two arms' length and thrust a second and dismounting, took a rest in my saddle on through his loins; and the savage animal, the old gray, and sent a bullet into him. He with a woeful howl, was in the act of springsprang to his feet, and ran half way down ing on his pursuer, when an Arab shot him the river's bank, and stood to look about him, through the head with a ball which killed him when I sent a second bullet into his person, on the spot. It was a male panther of a very and he disappeared over the bank. The large size, and measured, from the point of ground being very dangerous, I did not dis- the tail to the nose, eight feet two inches." turb him by following then, but I at once These animals are found in great abunsent Ruyter back to camp for the dogs. Pres-dance in the woods bordering on Mandara; ently he returned with Wolf and Boxer, very there are also leopards, the skins of which much done up with the sun. I rode forward, were seen, but not in great numbers. The and on looking over the bank, the leopard panthers are as insidious as they are cruel; started up and sneaked off alongside of the they will not attack any thing that is likely to tall reeds, and was instantly out of sight. I make resistance, but have been known to fired a random shot from the saddle, to en- watch a child for hours while near the procourage the dogs, and shouted to them; they, tection of huts or people. It will often spring however, stood looking stupidly round, and on a grown person, male or female, while would not take up his scent at all. I led carrying a burthen, but always from behind. them over his spoor again and again, but to The flesh of a child or young kid it will some no purpose; the dogs seemed quite stupid, times devour, but when any full grown aniand yet they were Wolf and Boxer, my two mal falls a prey to its ferocity, it sucks the best. At length I gave it up as a lost affair, blood alone." and was riding down the river's bank, when In India and Ceylon leopards and panthers I heard Wolf give tongue behind me, and gal- | are called Tree Tigers, and the following narloping back I found him at bay, with the rative of an exciting encounter with one is leopard immediately beneath where I had given in “ The Menageries:-"I was at Jafffirst fired at him; he was very severely na," says the writer, “at the northern exwounded, and had slipped down into the tremity of the island of Ceylon in the beginriver's bed, and doubled back, whereby he ning of the year 1819, when one morning my had thrown out both the dogs and myself. servant called me an hour or two before the As I approached, he flew out upon Wolf and usual time with, Master! master! people knocked him over, and then running up the sent for master's dogs; tiger in the town!' bed of the river he took shelter in a thick Now my dogs chanced to be very degenerate bush. Wolf, however, followed him, and at specimens of a fine species called the Poligar this moment my other dogs came up, having dogs. I kept them to hunt jackals, but tigers heard the shot, and bayed him fiercely. He are very different things. This turned out to sprang out upon them, and then crossed the be a panther; my gun chanced not to be put river's bed, taking shelter beneath some large together, and while my servant was doing it tangled roots on the opposite bank. As he the collector and two medical men, who had crossed the river, I put a third bullet into recently arrived, came to my door, the former him, firing from the saddle, and as soon as he armed with a fowling-piece, and the two latcame to bay I gave him a fourth, which fin- ter with remarkably blunt hogspears. They ished him. This leopard was a very fine old insisted on setting off without waiting for my male. In the conflict, the unfortunate Alert gun, a proceeding not much to my taste. The was wounded as usual, getting his face torn tiger (I must continue to call him so) had open. He was still going on three legs, with taken refuge in a hut, the roof of which, as all his breast laid bare by the first water- those of Ceylon huts in general, spread to the buck."
ground like an umbrella; the only aperture Major Denham in his interesting travels, was a small door about four feet high. The gives the following account of an adventure collector wanted to get the tiger out at once. with a huge panther, which occurred during I begged to wait for my gun, but, no! the the expedition to Mandara: “ We had started fowling-piece, loaded with ball of course, and several animals of the leopard species, who the two hogspears were quite enough; I got ran from us so swiftly, twisting their long a hedge stake and awaited my fate for very tails in the air, as to prevent our getting near shame. At this moment, to my great delight, them. We, however, now started one of a there arrived from the fort an English officer, larger kind, which Maramy assured me was two artillery-men, and a Malay captain, and so satiated with the blood of a negro, whose a pretty figure we should have cut without carcase we found lying in the wood, that he them, as the event will show. I was now
quite ready to attack, and my gun came a fired, but the animal did not move. This minute afterwards. The whole scene which astonished him, and on examination he found follows took place within an inclosure, about that the brute was already dead. One of his twenty feet square, formed on three sides by companions had bribed some Indians to place a strong fence of palmyra leaves, and on the a dead leopard there, and to say that there fourth by the hut. At the door of this, the was a tiger asleep. It may be imagined what two artillery-men planted themselves, and the a laugh there was! Malay captain got at the top to frighten the Nature, ever provident, has scattered with tiger out by worrying it—an easy operation, a bounteous hand her gifts in the country of as the huts there are covered with cocoa-nut the Orinoco, whcre the jaguar especially leaves. One of the artillery-men wanted to abounds. The savannahs, which are covered go in to the tiger, but we would not suffer it. with grasses and slender plants, present a At last the beast sprang; this man received surprising luxuriance and diversity of vegehim on his bayonet, which he thrust, appar- tation; piles of granite blocks rise here and ently, down his throat, firing his piece at the there, and, at the margins of the plains, ocsame moment. The bayonet broke off short, cur deep valleys and ravines, the humid soil leaving less than three inches on the musket, of which is covered with arums, heliconias, the rest remained in the animal, but was in- and llianas. The shelves of primitive rocks, visible to us: the shot probably went through scarcely elevated above the plain, are parhis cheek, for it certainly did not seriously tially coated with lichens and mosses, toinjure him, as he instantly rose upon his legs gether with succulent plants and tufts of with a loud roar, and placed his paws upon evergreen shrubs with shining leares. The the soldier's breast. At this moment the horizon is bounded with mountains overanimal appeared to me to be about to reach grown with forests of laurels, among which the centre of the man's face; but I had clusters of palms rise to the height of more scarcely time to observe this, when the tiger, than a hundred feet, their slender stems supstooping his head, seized the soldier's arın in porting tufts of feathery foliage. To the east his mouth, turned him half round, staggering, of Atores other mountains appear, the ridge threw him over on his back and fell upon of which is composed of pointed cliffs, rising him. Our dread now was, that if we fired | like huge pillars above the trees. When upon the tiger we might kill the man. For those columnar masses are situated near the a moment there was a pause, when his com- Orinoco, flamingoes, herons, and other wadrade attacked the beast exactly in the same ing birds perch on their suminits, and look manner the gallant fellow himself had done. like sentinels. In the vicinity of the cataracts, He struck his bayonet into his head; the the moisture which is diffused in the air prouger rose at him, he fired, and this time the duces a perpetual verdure, and wherever soil ball took effect, and in the head. The ani- has accumulated on the plains, it is adorned inal staggered backwards, and we all roured by the beautiful shrubs of the mountains. in our fire; he still kicked and writhed, when Such is one view of the picture, but it has the gentlemen with the hogspears advanced its dark side also; those flowing waters, which and fixed him, while some natives finished fertilize the soil, abound with crocodiles ; him by beating him on the head with hedge those charming shrubs and flourishing plants stakes. The brave artillery-man was after are the hiding-places of deadly serpents; all but slightly hurt; he claimed the skin, those laurel forests, the favorite lurking spots which was very cheerfully given to him ; of the fierce jaguar; whilst the atmosphere, there was, however, a cry among the natives, so clear and lovely, abounds with musquitoes that the head should be cut off'; it was, and and zancudoes to such a degree that, in the in doing so, the knife came directly across the missions of Orinoco, the first questions in the bayonet. The animal measured scarcely less morning when two people meet, are “How than tour feet from the root of the tail to the did you find the zancudoes during the night? mazzle."
How are we to-day for the musquitoes?" The following practical joke is related in It is in the solitude of this wilderness that the late Rev. T. Acland's amusing volume on the jaguar, stretched out motionless and silent, India :-A party of officers went out from upon one of the lower branches of the ancient Cuttack to shoot; their men were beating trees, watches for its passing prey; a deer, the jungle, when suddenly all the wild cry urged by thirst, is making its way to the ceased, and a man came gliding to where all river, and approaches the tree where his the Sahibs were standing to tell them that enemy lies in wait. The jaguar's eyes dilate, there was a tiger lying asleep in his den close the ears are thrown down, and the wl:ole at hand. A consultation was instantly held; frame becomes flattened against the branch. most of the party were anxious to return to The deer, all unconscious of danger, draws Outtack, but Captain B- insisted on hav- near, every limb of the jaguar quivers with ing a shot at the animal; accordingly he ad-excitement; every fibre is stiffened for the vanced very quickly, until he came to the pring; then, with the force of a bow unbent, place, when he saw, not a tiger, but a large ,ne darts with a terrific yell upon his prey, leopard, lying quite still, with his head restir , seizes it by the back of the neck, a blow is on his fore-paws. He went up close and given with his powerful paw, and with broken spine the deer falls lifeless to the earth. The Humboldt supposes the noise thus made by blood is then sucked, and the prey dragged to the inhabitants of the forest during the night, some favorite haunt, where it is devoured at to be the effect of some contests that had leisure.
| arisen among them. Humboldt surprised a jaguar in his retreat. On the pampas of Paraquay, great havoc is It was near the Joval, below the mouth of the committed among the herds of horses by the Cano de la Tigrera, that in the midst of wild jaguars, whose strength is quite sufficient to and awful scenery, he saw an enormous jag- enable them to drag off one of these animals. uar stretched beneath the shade of a large Azara caused the body of a horse, which had mimosa. He had just killed a chiguire, an been recently killed by a jaguar, to be drawn animal about the size of a pig, which he held within musket-shot of a tree, in which he inwith one of his paws, while the vultures were tended to pass the night, anticipating that assembled in flocks around. It was curious the jaguar would return in the course of it, to observe the mixture of boldness and ti- to its victim; but while he was gone to premidity which these birds exhibited; for al- pare for his adventure, behold the animal though they advanced within two feet of the swam across a large and deep river, and havjaguar, they instantly shrank back at the least ing seized the horse with his teeth, dragged motion he made. In order to observe it full sixty paces to the river, swam across more nearly their proceedings, the travellers again with his prey, and then dragged the went into their litile boat, when the tyrant carcase into a neighboring wood; and all this of the forest withdrew behind the bushes, in sight of a person, whom Azara had placed leaving his victim, upon which the vultures to keep watch. But the jaguars have also an attempted to devour it, but were soon put to aldermanic gont for turtles, which they graflight by the jaguar rushing into the midst of tify in a very systematic manner, as related them. The following night, Humboldt and by Humboldt, who was shown large shells of his party were entertained by a jaguar hunter, turtles emptied by them. They follow the half-naked, and as brown as å Zambo, who turtles towards the beaches, where the layprided himself on being of the European race, ing of eggs is to take place, surprise them on and called his wife and daughter, who the sand, and in order to devour them at their were as slightly clothed as himself, Donna sease, adroitly turn them on their backs; and Isabella and Donna Manvela. As this as- as they turn many more than they can depiring personage bad neither house nor hut, vour in one night, the Indians often profit by he invited the strangers to swing their ham- their cunning. The jaguar pursues the turtle mocks near his own between two trees, but quite into the water, and when not very deep, as ill-luck would have it, a thunder-storm digs up the eggs; they, with the crocodile, came on, which wetted them to the skin ; the heron, and the gallinago vulture, are the but their troubles did not end here, for Donna inost formidable enemies the little turtles Isabella's cat had perched on one of the trees, have. Humboldt justly reinarks, “When we and frightened by the thunder-storm, jumped reflect on the difficulty that the naturalist down upon one of the travellers in his cot; | finds in getting out the body of the turtle, he naturally supposed that he was attacked without separating the upper and under shells, by a wild beast, and as smart a battle took we cannot enough admire the suppleness of place between the two, as that celebrated the jaguar's paw, which empties the double feline engagement of Don Quixote; the cat, armor of the arraus, as if the adhering parts who perhaps had most reason to consider of the muscles had been cut by means of a himself an ill-used personage, at length bolted, surgical instrument." but the fears of the gentleman had been ex-1 The rivers of South America swarm with cited to such a degree, that he could hardly crocodiles, and these wage perpetual war with be quieted. The following night was not the jaguars. It is said, that when the jaguar more propitious to slumber. The party find-surprises the alligator asleep on the hot sanding no tree convenient, had stuck their oars bank, he attacks him in a vulnerable para in the sand, and suspended their hammocks under the tail, and often kills him, but let the upon them. About eleven, there arose in the crocodile only get his antagonist into the immediately adjoining wood, so terrific a water, and the tables are turned, for the janoise, that it was impossible to sleep. The guar is held under water until he is drowned. Indians distinguished the cries of sapagous, The onset of the jaguar is always made from alouates, jaguars, cougars, peccaris, sloths, behind, partaking of the stealthy, treacherous curassows, paraquas, and other birds, so that character of his tribe; if a herd of animals, or there must have been as full a forest chorus a party of men be passing, it is the last that is as Mr. Hullah himself could desire.
always the object of his attack. When he When the jaguars approached the edge of has made choice of his victim, he springs upthe forest, which they frequently did, a dog on the neck, and placing one paw on the back belonging to the party began to how), and of the head, while he seizes the muzzle with seek refuge under their cots. Sometimes, the other, twists the head round with a sudden after a long silence, the cry of the jaguars jerk which dislocates the spine, and deprives came from the tops of the trees, when it was it instantaneously of life; sometimes, espefollowed by an outcry among the monkeys. cially when satiated with food, he is indolent and cowardly, skulking in the gloomiest , extending in an oblique line nearly a yard in depths of the forest, and scared by the most length. The scars were of different ages, and trifling causes, but when urged by the cravings the inhabitants could always tell when a jaof hunger, the largest quadrupeds, and man guar was in the neighborhood, by his recent himself, are attacked with fury and success. autograph on one of these trees.
Mr. Darwin has given an interesting ac- We have seen tigers stretching their enorcount of the habits of the jaguar: the wood-mous limbs in this manner, and were recented banks of the great South American rivers ly interested in watching the proceedings of appear to be their favorite haunt, but south two beautiful young jaguars now in the 200of the Plata they frequent the reeds border-logical Gardens, Regent's Park; they are ing lakes; wherever they are they seem to scarcely half-grown and as playful as kittens. require water. They are particularly abun- After chasing and tumbling each other over dant on the isles of the Parana, their com- several times, they went as by mutual conmon prey being the carpincho, so that it is sent to the post of their cage, and there caregenerally said, where carpinchos are plenti- fully and with intensely placid countenances ful, there is little fear of the jaguar; possibly, scraped away with their claws as they would however, a jaguar which has tasted human have done against the trees had they been in flesh, may afterwards become dainty, and, their native woods. This proceeding satislike the lions of South Africa, and the tigers factorily concluded, they swarmed op and of India, acquire the dreadful character of down the post, appearing to vie with each man-eaters, from preferring that food to all other as to which should be first. The six others. It is not many years ago since a very young leopards are equally graceful and aclarge jaguar found his way into a church in tive with the above, and the elegance and Santa Fé; soon afterwards & very corpulent quickness of their movements cannot fail to padre entering, was at once killed by him : command admiration. They seem to be parhis equally stout coadjutor, wondering what ticularly fond of bounding up and down the had detained the padre, went to look after trees, and sometimes rest in the strangest athim, and also fell a victim to the jaguar; atitudes, stuck in the fork of a bough, or sitthird priest, marvelling greatly at the upac- ting, as it were, astride of one, with their countable absence of the others, sought them, hind legs hanging down. M. Sonnini bears and the jaguar having by this time acquired testimony to the extraordinary climbing powa strong clerical taste, made at him also, but ers of the jaguar; “For," says he, “I have he, being fortunately of the slender order, seen, in the forests of Guiana, the prints lett dodged the animal from pillar to post, and by the claws of the jaguar on the smooth happily made his escape; the beast was de- bark of a tree from forty to fifty feet in height, stroyed by being shot from a corner of the measuring about a foot and a halt in circumbuilding, which was unroofed, and thus paid ference, and clothed with branches near its the penalty of his sacrilegious propensities. summit alone. It was easy to follow with
On the Parana they have killed many the eye the efforts which the animal had woodcutters, and have even entered vessels made to reach the branches; although his by night. One dark evening the mate of a talons had been thrust deeply into the body vessel, hearing a heavy but peculiar footstep of the tree, he had met with several slips, but on deck, went up to see what it was, and was had always recovered his ground; and atimmediately met by a jaguar, who had come tracted, no doubt, by some favorite prey, had on board, seeking what he could devour: a at length succeeded in gaining the very top!” severe struggle ensued, assistance arrived, and The following is the common mode of killthe brute was killed, but the man lost the use ing the jaguar in Tucuman: The Guacho, of the arm which had been ground between armed with a long strong spear, traces him his teeth.
to his den, and having found it, he places The Guachos say that the jaguar, when himself in a convenient position to receive wandering about at night, is much tormented the aniinal on the point of the spear at the by the foxes yelping as they follow him; this first spring; dogs are then sent in, and drivmay perhaps serre to alarm his prey, but ing him out he springs with fury upon the must be as teasing to him as the attentions of Guacho, who, fixing his eyes on those of the swallows are to an owl who happens to be jaguar, receives his onset kneeling, and with taking a daylight promenade ; and if owls such consummate coolness that he hardly ever swear, it is under those circunstances. ever fails. At the moment that the spear is Mr. Darwin, when bunting on the banks of plunged into the animal's body the Guacho the Uruguay, was shown three well-known nimbly springs on one side, and the jaguar, trees to which the jaguars constantly resort, already impaled on the spear, is speedily disfor the purpose, it is said, of sharpening their patched. claws. Every one inust be familiar with the In one instance the animal lay stretched on manner in which cats, with outstretched legs the ground, like a gorged cat, and was in and extended claws, will card the legs of such high good humor after his satisfactory chairs and of men; so with the jaguar; and meal, that on the dogs attacking him he was of these trees, the bark was worn quite smooth disposed to play with them; a bullet was in front; on each side there were deep grooves, therefore lodged in his shoulder, on which
VOL. V.-N0. 1.-5
rough salute he sprang out so quickly on his , ed, and was presented to the Marchioness of watching assailant, that he not only received Londonderry by Lord Exmouth on his return the spear in his body, but tumbled the man to England after that engagement: it was over, and they rolled on the ground together. placed by her Ladyship in the Tower, where “I thought," said the brave fellow, “that Iit died. was no longer a capitaz, as I held up my arm In a state of nature these animals have been to protect my throat, which the jaguar seem- known to show not only forbearance, but even ed in the act of seizing; but at the very mo-l playfulness, of which Humboldt relates the ment that I expected to feel his fangs in my following instance which occurred at the misflesh, the green fire which had blazed upon sion of Atures, on the banks of the Orinoco: me from his eyes flashed out-he fell upon “Two Indian children, a boy and girl, eight me, and with a quiver died.”
or nine years of age, were sitting among the Colonel Hamilton relates that when tra- grass near the village of Atures, in the midst velling on the banks of the Magdalena, he of a savannah. It was two in the afternoon remarked a young man with his arm in a when a jaguar issued from the forest and apsling, and on inquiring the cause, was told proached the children, gambolling around that about a month before, when walking in thein, sometimes concealing itself among the a forest, a dog he bad with him began to long grass and again springing forward with bark at something in a dark cavern overbung his back curved and his head lowered, as is with bushes; and on his approaching the en- usual with our cats. The little boy was untrance, a jaguar rushed on him with great aware of the danger in which he was placed, force, seizing his right arm, and in the strug- and became sensible of it only when the jagle they both fell over a small precipice. He guar struck him on the side of the head with then lost his senses, and on recovering found one of his paws. The blows thus inflicted the jaguar had left him, but his arm was were at first slight, but gradually became rudbleeding and shockingly lacerated. On sur-er; the claws of the jaguar wounded the child, prise being expressed that the animal had not and blood flowed with violence; the little girl killed him, he shrugged up his shoulders, and then took up the branch of a tree, and struck remarked, “La bienaventurada virgen Maria the aniinal, which fled before her. The Indians, le habia salvo.” The blessed Virgin had saved hearing the cries of the children, ran up, and him.
saw the jaguar, which bounded off without In the province of Buenaventura it is said showing any disposition to detend itself.” In that the Indians kill the jaguar by means of all probability, this fit of good humor was to poisoned arrows, about eight inches in length, be traced to the animal having been plentiwhich are thrown from a blow-pipe: the ar- fully fed; for most assuredly the children rows are poisoned with a moisture which ex- wonld have stood but little chance, bad their udes from the back of a small green frog, found visitor been subjected to a meagre diet for some in the provinces of Buenaventura and Choco. days previously. When the Indians want to get this poison from Mr. Edwards, in his voyage up the Amathe frog, they put him near a small fire, and zon, tells of an exchange of courtesies bethe moisture soon appears on his back; in this tween a traveller and a jaguar. The jaguar the points of the small arrows are dipped, and was standing in the road as the Indian came 80 subtle is the poison that a jaguar struck out of the bushes, not ten paces distant, and by one of these little insignificant weapons, was looking, doubtless, somewhat fiercely as soon becomes convulsed and dies.
he waited the unknown comer. The Indian The jaguar has the general character of was puzzled for an instant, but summoning being untameable, and of maintaining his sav- his presence of mind, he took off his broad age ferocity when in captivity, showing no brimmed hat, and made a low bow, with symptoms of attachment to those who have “Muito bene dias, men Senhor," or "Å very the care of him. This, like many other points good morning, Sir.” Such profound respect in natural history, is a popular error; there was not wanting on the jaguar, who turned is at the present time a magnificent jaguar in slowly and marched down the road with prothe Zoological Gardens, who is as tame and per dignity. gentle as a domestic cat. We have seen this it is difficult to say how many leopards and fine creature walking up and down the front jaguar skins are annually imported, as the of his den as his keeper walked, rubbing him- majority are brought by private hands. We self against the bars, purring with manifest have been told by an eminent furrier that pleasure as his back or head was stroked, and about five hundred are sold each year to the caressing the man's hand with his huge vel- London trade. They are chiefly used as vet paws. There is in the collection another shabraques, or coverings to officers' saddles jaguar, just as savage as this one is tame. in certain hussar regiments, but skins used There was also a jaguar formerly in the for this purpose must be marked in a particTower, which was obtained by Lord Ex- ular manner, and the ground must be of a mouth while on the South American Station, dark rich color. Such skins are worth about and was afterwards present at the memora- three pounds; ordinary leopard and jaguar ble bombardment of Algiers. This animal skins are valued at about two pounds, and was equally gentle with that we have describ-) are chiefly used for rugs or mats. "The jaguar