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CARTRIDGES AND MACHINERY OF JENNINGS'S RIFLES. In our opinion, these ends are all most discharge release the pressure and repeat the simply and beautifully attained by the inven- | process. tion of Mr. Jennings. But of this our readers. In conclusion, the reader is invited to look will be able to judge for themselves, by the at the engraving we have given of the first above engravings and the directions for its use. gun, and to compare it with the offspring of

Fill the magazine, on the top of the breech, American ingenuity we have just described. with percussion pills or primings, and the Fire-arms are the great pioneers which tube, under the barrel, with the hollow car- have opened a way for the progress of civiliztridges containing gunpowder. Of these car-led man, and given him victory over the savtridges the tube will hold twenty-four. Place age beasts and still more savage men who have the forefinger in the ring which forms the opposed his course. Civilization has in its turn end of the lever, e, and the thumb on the reacted upon fire-arms, and brought them to hammer, elevating the muzzle sufficiently to their present state of wonderful efficiency. let the cartridge nearest the breech slip, by its The heavy match-lock of three centuries gravity, into the carrier d; swing the lever ago was almost as dangerous to him wbo forward, and raise the hammer which moves used it as to the enemy against whom it was the breech-pin back, and the carrier up, plac- directed. It would be almost impossible for ing the cartridge level with the barrel; pull a person to injure himself by the repeating the lever back, and thus force the breech-pin rifle except by deliberate intention. Skilful forward, and shove the cartridge into the military men advised the abandonment of the barrel, by which motion a percussion pri- match-lock for the bow. A good marksman ming is taken from the magazine by means with the repeating rifle would kill a score of of the priming-rack c, revolving the pinion bowmen, before they could approach near which forms the bottom of the magazine, and enough to reach him with their arro'xs. it also throws up the toggle a, behind the The practised musketeer, in the reign of breech-pin, thus placing the piece in the con- Elizabeth, could hardly fire his piece once in dition to be discharged by a simply upward twenty minutes; the merest novice can fire pressure of the finger in the ring. After the I the repeating rifle twenty times in one minute.

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St. John's CHURCH. CLOVER'S COLONIAL CHURCHIES IN VIRGINIA. , almost illegible tombs, -all that are left of a

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, HAMPTON. busy population long departed;—the germ, WRITTEX FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE. | however, of a great nation, wliose name is BY REV. JOHN C. M'CABE,

even now “a watch word to the earth."

The rank grass waves above those mould"Regunted as a building what is there to engage our attention! Iering stones—the green corn of summer rusWhat is it which in this building inspires the veneration and affection it O rands! We have mnsed upon it when ita gray walls dully reflected tles in the breeze, which seems, in its "holthe glory of the noontide sun. We have looked upon it from a neighbering bill bep bathed in the pure light of a summer's moon, its lowly

summer's moon, its lowly low, solemn memnonian, but saintly swell," walls and tiny towers seemed to stand only as the shell of a larger and widerronment, amidst the memorials of the dead. Look upon it when

ant when to have "swept the field of mortality for a a whore we will, we find our affections yearn towards it; and we contennplate the little parish church with a delight and reverenee, that palaces cann-t eommand. Whence then arises this ! It arises not from vine-crested tower, stands, the only memothe beanties and ornaments of the building, but from the thoughta and recollections associated with it."- MOLESWORTH.

rial of the house, and the Temple of God. THE region of country in lower Virginia, Gone are the altars where knelt the advenI bordering, or near the James River, froin turer and the exile-high-born chivalry and the head of tide water to the sea-board, is manly beauty-gentle blood and noble pedirich in the possession of memorials of gone-gree,—and where rose “humble voices," and by days, now turned up from the bosom of beat "pure hearts," approaching the throne the earth, in the shape of arrow-heads, and of the heavenly grace! Jamestown is a city broken war-hatchets-monuments, fragment- l of the dead, and precious is the dust of its ary monuments, of a race of forest-born mon-pathless cemetery! archs: now appealing to the antiquary in When we turn “from the wreck of the past the mouldering records of the County Court that has perished," and stand beside those offices, and now, silently but eloquently, look- monuments which have withstood the “coring out imploringly in the ruins of churches roding tooth of time," and still stand investand tombs, which meet the eye of the travel- ed with the sacred and solemn beauty of anler, as he muses upon the faith and fortunes tiquity, we approach in the venerating spirit of generations long departed.

of worshippers, and render our thank-offerRupid as is the progress of steam upon those

ings at their base. Such is likely to be the waters, which, in giving up their Indian pa

feeling with the pilgrim antiquary, as he tronymics, gave up the bold hunter and his stands for the first time beneath the shadows lithe canoe to the progress of " manifest des- of that venerable cruciform pile, St. John's tiny.” few are those who pass the venerable Church, Hampton, which has braved "the site of the first colony in Virginia, James- battle and the breeze" of nearly two centutown, without paying a tribute of a sigh, and ries; and then, when he crosses its worn perchance a tear, to that solitary tower which threshold, and treads its echoing aisles, the is still standing a mute watcher amid the few! * De Quincey.

wish must arise, involuntarily, to know some- to furnish home and altar for the pilgrim of thing of the history of a spot " so sad, so fair." | civil and religious freedom.

With the exception of Jamestown, there is When we look around now and behold our no portion of Virginia possessing as much country, “the observed of all observers," exhistoric interest as Hampton, and its vicinity. / alting her “towering head," and "lifting her Hampton is the county seat of Elizabeth City eyes," the mind instinctively turns to the coCounty, which is one of the eight original lony of Jamestown; and we cannot but exshires in which Virginia was divided. The claim, in the words of the Psalmist, “ Thon town is doubtless the oldest Indian settlement hast brought a vine out of Egypt; Thou hast in Virginia, and it is a inatter of historical cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou verity that it was the first place visited by preparedst room before it, and didst cause it Captain John Sinith after he had cast anchor to take deep root; and it filled the land. The in these waters. We learn from Burke, the hills were covered with the shadow of it, and historian, that while Smith and his company the boughs thereof were like the goodly cewere “engaged in seeking a fit place for the dars. She sent out her boughs unto the sea, first settlement, they met five of the natives, and her branches unto the river." But a sad who invited them to their town, Kecough- memory for the days of toil, and struggle, and tan, or K'ichotan, where Hampton now stands. blood in that little colony, will remind us that Here they were feasted with cakes made of this tree was not "transplanted from ParaIndian corn, and regaled with tobacco and a dise with all its branches in full fruitage." dance. In return, they presented the natives Neither was it “sowed in sunshine," nor was beads and other trinkets.”

it “ in vernal breezes and gentle rains that it We have no occasion to go specially into fixed its roots, and grew and strengthened." the history of this expedition, as it is well Oh, no! oh, no! In the mournfully beautiknown to the student, that it was the result ful words of Coleridge, “ With blood was it of a successful application on the part of a planted; it was rocked in tempests; the company, succeeding that of the ill-fated Sir goat, the ass, and the stag gnawed it, the wild Walter Raleigh, and for which a charter was boar whetted its tusk upon its bark; the deep obtained from James the First, in the year scars are still extant on its trunk, and the 1606, for the settling of Virginia. “The de- path of the lightning may be traced among sign," says Stith, the historian of Virginia, its higher branches !" The first communion “included the establishment of a northern of the body and blood of our Lord was adand southern colony, and among the articles, ministered by the pious Hunt, May 4, 1607, instructions, and orders," of the charter, pro- the day after the debarkation of the colonists: vision was made for the due carrying out of and, “here,” says the Bishop of Oxford, "on that which is the highest end of every Chris- a peninsula, upon the northern shore of James tian colony, for it is expressly ordered, that River, was sown the first seed of Englishmen, “the said president, council, and ministers, who, in after years, were to grow and to should provide that the true word and ser- multiply into the great and numerous Amevice of God be preached, planted, and used, rican people.” It was an offering, this first according to the rites and doctrines of the sacrament, of the “ appointed sacrifice of Church of England; not only in the said co-prayer and thanksgiving ;" and we have an lonies, but also as much as might be amongst evidence of the pervading spirit of Hunt in the savages bordering upon them, and that that little band, when we remember that all persons should kindly treat the savages, among their very first acts after rearing and heathen people, in those parts, and use their straw-thatched houses for protection all proper means to draw them to the true from the weather, was to erect the church of service and knowledge of God."* This ex- the colony. Hunt was succeeded, after his pedition left the shores of England, December death, in 1610, by Master Bucke (the chap19, 1606, and, after a protracted voyage, oc-lain of Lord de la Ware), whose services were casioned by unpropitious winds, which kept called forth the very day of his arrival at them in sight of home for more than “six Jamestown. According to Purchas, “He weeks," reached the capes of Virginia. The (that is Lord Delaware) cast anchor before southern cape was christened “Henry," and Jamestown, where we landed, and our much the northern, “ Charles," after the King's grieved Governor, first visiting the church, sons. This was on the 26th day of April, caused the bell to be rung; at which all such 1607. Accompanying this expedition was as were able to coine forth of their house, Rev. Robert Hunt, of the English Church, as repayered to church, which was dently the first chaplain of that colony, which, trimmed with the wild flowers of the counthough few as the grains of mustard seedi try, where our minister, Master Bucke, made scattered by the morning wind, was the first a zealous and sorrowful prayer, finding all planting of that tree which was destined, in things so contrary to our expectations, and coming time, to strike its roots deep down full of misery and misgovernment." This into the centre of empire, and to shelter be- state of things had been brought about by the neath its strong branches, and wide-spread treacherous conduct of their neighbors, thie shadows, the exile and the oppressed, and savages, domestic feuds, fluctuations in the

See Wilberforce's History of the American Church. I quantity and quality of their food, bad water, and severe climatic diseases. While " Master the Court, requesting that Thomas Eaton be Bucke" was toiling with the little band at compelled to collect the parish lery, and make Jamestown, Whitaker (son of Master Whita- his returns. This fixes the fact, then, that ker of St. John's College, Cambridge) was in this was a parish, and that there was a church Henrico, whose deeds of love and patience in somewhere in this region in 1644, for, from his noble work we would gladly record, but the English laws respecting the clergy, the for the desire of approaching, as speedily as object of the creation of churchwardens is “to possible, the beginning and planting of the protect the edifice of the Church, to superinchurch in Elizabeth City County. The first tend the ceremonies of public worship, to legislature of Virginia was convened under promote the observance of religious duties, the administration of Governor Sir George &c., &c.* I find, in 1644, the following on Yeardley, in the year 1626; but before this record_"To paid Mr. Mallory for preaching we find, during the first administration of 2 funeral sermons, 800 pounds of tobacco." Governor Wyatt, nay, before that, during The next year I find the Rev. Mr. Justinian that of Sir Thomas Yeardley, in 1619, a start- Aylmere, who continued to officiate until the ing point for our inquiries and investigations early part of 1667. We now find, in those in regard to the Hampton Church. By refer- same records, the first mention of the church ence to the histories of the period, we find immediately under consideration, and it is as that the pay of their clergy was fixed at £200 follows, being an extract from a will, and worth of corn and tobacco. One hundred bearing date December 21, 1667: acres were marked off for glebes in every “I, Nicholas Baker, being very sicke in body, borough, for each of which the company at but of perfect memory, doe make, constitute, and home provided six tenants at the public cost. ordaine this my last will and testament, revoking They applied to the Bishop of London to find and disclayming all other wills by me made. them a body of a pious, learned, and painful / Imprimis, I give my soule unto God my redeemministers," "a charitable work," says Wilder,

Wilder, and my body to bee decently buried in ye neue berforce, in which he readily engaged."

as church of Kighotan. Item, I give and bequeathe

: unto Mr. Jeremy Taylor, minister,t my cloath Two years subsequent to this occurred the

cloak, to bee delivered to him after my corpse carinaseacre at Jamestown, and two years after that, we find, amongst thirty-five provisions,

rying out of ye house." the following, for the promotion of religious

| From these extracts I learn these two facts, knowledge and worship: That there shall

that there was a new church, already built, be erected a house of worship, and there shall

shall and that Mr. Jeremy Taylor was the minisbe a burial ground on every plantation ; that

|ter, and the inference is a legitimate one, the colonists, under penalty, shall attend pub

in taking into consideration the instructions lic worship, and that there shall be uniformi

given to Governor Berkeley, and acted upon ty in faith and worship, with the English

olish by him, to which reference is made above,

Roy Church-prescribing also the observance of

of that the old church now standing in Hampton, the feasts of the Church, and a fast upon the

built in the form of a cross, and of brick, a anniversary of the Jainestown massacre; not

drawing of which accompanies this commuforgetting, by the way, to enjoin “respectful

nication, was erected at some period about treatment, and the payment of a settled sti

1660, or between that and 1667. That it was

| not built before 1660, we have strong reasons pend to the colonial clergy. In the instructions given to Sir Williain Berkeley, Gover

to presume; and that it was built between nor-General of Virginia, after the return of

that and 1667, we hope to show hereafter. the royal exile, Charles the Second, to the

In the time intervening between the murder throne of his murdered sire,-passing over,

of Charles the First and the restoration, there as we do, for the sake of brevity, much that

| would have been no churches built, we premight interest the reader during the closing :

sin sume, in the form of the cro89 — this the period of the reign of James, that of Charles

minions of Cromwell would not have allowthe First, and also that of the psalm-singing

ed; nor for the worship and ritual of the blood-hunter Cromwell, - we find the re

Church of England, for the same reasons; commendation of the duties of religion, the

and, moreover, the will above referred to, use of “the booke of Common Prayer, the

speaks of the church as being “ye nero church decent repairs of Churches, and a competent

of Kighotan." provision for conforming ministers.''* These

The tower was an after thought, as we find suggestions, we learn, were at once acted up

from the vestry-book, now in the possession on by the colonial legislature, and provision

of the writer. The following bears date 2d was made for the building and due furniture

day of March, 1761: of churches, &c., &c. This was in 1660.

L" Charles Cooper came into vestry, and agreed The oldest records in the County Court office

: to do the brick work of the steeple, with good and date as far back as 1637. In 1644, I find the

h well burnt bricks, and mortar of lime, at least fifchurchwardens presenting two females for

1 teen bushels of lime to every thousand bricks so

* Stanton's Church Dictionary. offences, to the Court; and in 1646, I find + This Jeremy Tavlor was very unlike his illustrious

namesake, the Bishop of Down and Conner, for I find by churchuardens, present one of their body to living we

the records, that he was any thing else but a man of "holy

living," whatever else he might have been when dying. Burke Hist. Va

J. C.

laid. The said Cooper to find all materials neces- , The last branch of this question, we prefer sary for building the said steeple, and all expenses answering first. By reference to the adminwhat kind soever at his own proper cost. The istration of Sir Thomas Yeardley (not Sir said Cooper to give bond for the perforinance, | George Yeardley), we find that, in 1621, agreeable to a resolve of the said vestry on the 6 among several other Colonial enactments, day of February last."

provision is made for the erection of a house And, on the 16th day of June, 1761, the of worship, and the separation of a burial record below is made in the vestry-book : ground on every plantation.” We presume.

“ Agreed that the steeple as before to be built, therefore, that it was about this time (1621-2) shall be joined to the west end of the church wall, that the first church of Kigquotan was erectand that an half brick be added to the thickness

ed, and we have not forgotten the churchof the foundation of the said steeple up to the wa

wardens of 1644. And now, in answer to ter table,”

the other question-where was this church And, on the 14th day of July, 1762, the

built ?—we have only to turn our footsteps to following record on the vestry-book will show

| the “ Pembroke Farm" (the property of John its completion :

Jones, Esq.), about one mile from the town “Agreed, that Mr. William Westwood, and Mr.

:of Hampton, and, as we there take our stand Charles Cooper, compute the number of bricks laid in the steeple wall, and if they two disagree,

among the few remaining tombs, shout “Eurethat they chuse a third person ; and that this ves

ka, Eureka!" Whether the old parish church try hath this day received the said work, so as not

Terork so as not of Kigquotan was of wood, or of brick, we to affect the counting or computing the number of cannot at this day determine. “Like the bricks laid in the said steeple."

baseless fabric of a vision” it has disappear. The occasion of building the tower is found ed; but we opine it was wooden, from the in the extract following, made from the same fact, that the first church (and probably the source, and bearing date February 6, 1761: second also) in Jamestown (both of which " Whereas the late Mr. Andrew Kennedy, did |

were destroyed by fire) was a wooden one; by his last will and testament, devise to the par. and the presumption is, the first brick church ish of Elizabeth City, forty pounds sterling, to pur-erected would be at the capital of the colony. chase a bell for the church of the said parish, pro- | However this may be, the burial ground at vided the vestry, and church wardens of the said Pembroke could not have been simply a piece parish, shall undertake to build a belfry for the of ground, "bought with the field of Ephron same in twelve months after the said Alexander the Hittite, for a possession of a burving Kennedy's death ; and this vestry, willing to em- place" for a family; but that it was a public brace the said gift, have accordingly resolved,” &c. cemetery, even that of the old parish church

Now arises a question of some interest. of Kigquotan, is evident from the character The will of Nicholas Baker, made December of the tombs which are still to be seen abore 21, 1667, makes mention of "ye new church the surface of the earth. That there are of Kighotan." Was there an old church of many covered over with the deposits of Kighotan? One older than this? We an- years, I have not the slightest doubt. Those swer, yes! And now for the writer's rea- tombs, we now see, give the best evidence, sons for arriving at this conclusion. From in their inscriptions, that those whose rethe old record of wills, deeds, &c., in the mains moulder beneath the moss-grown marCounty Court office, and to which I have had bles, were not private individuals--not memaccess freely, through the politeness and bers of the fainily owning the estate—but kindness of Samuel Howard, Esq., the gentle- men in public service, and who would not manly clerk of the court, I copy the following: have been laid in an obscure private burial

“In the name of God, Amen. I, Robert Brough, ground, when the church-yard of the new clerke of Kigquotan, in the county of Elizabeth church of Kigquotan was but a mile distant Citty, being sicke and weake in body, but in per- from the spot. Moreover, it will be perfect sense and memory, praised bee God for itt, ceived by the inscriptions which we shall this seven and twentyeth day of Aprill, in the presently give, that one of the sleepers at yeare of our Lord God 1667, for the quieting of Pembroke was “minister of this parish." my conscience, desire to settle that estate it has / Now ici

Now, is it probable, that the minister of the pleased God to lend mee, in manner and forme fol

parish would have been buried there, if it lowing :- And first of all, I commend my soul into the hands of ye Almighty God my Maker, and

had not been a church-yard, when there was my Saviour and Redeemer Christ Jesus, being

the new church of Kigquotan to receive his confident through his meritts and blood shedd for rem

blood should to remains, as it was fifty-two years before, to mee. to be an inheritor with Him. His saints and receive those of Mr. Nicholas Baker? I have

cells of everlasting life. And my body unto ve no doubt that veneration for the old cemeearthe from whence it came, there to receive detery, the site of the first church of the parcent burial in the old parish church of Kigquotan ish, caused many to bury their dead there, aforesaid,” &c.

long after the present church-yard was open“The old parish church of Kigquotan," ed. The oldest tomb we can find in the and “ye new church of Kighotan," cannot be church-yard at Hampton, and standing in tho one and the same. We are then led to in- | northeast angle of the Cross, is to the memoquire, where was the old parish church of ry of Captain Willis Wilson, who departed Rigquotan, and when was it probably built? this life the 19th day of November, 1701.

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