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THE TEMPLE CASCADE. acter of the scenery has been borne in mind, and dens of Chatsworth first; they are little more than its beauty never outraged by extravagance. All balf a mile to the north of the park; and there Sir is in harmony with the character which nature in Joseph Paxton is building his new dwelling, or her most generous mood gave to the hills and val- rather adding considerably to the beauty and conleys; God has been gracious to the land, and man venience of the old. In the Kitchen-Gardens, conhas followed in the pathway He has made. taining twelves acres, there are houses for every
"A month at Chatsworth would hardly suffice to species of plant, but the grand attraction is the count its beauties; but much may be done in a house which contains the Royal Lily (Victoria Reday, when eyes and ears are open, and the heart gia), and other lilies and water-plants from varibeats in sympathy with the beauties of Nature ous countries. It will be readily believed that the and of Art. It is, perhaps, best to visit the gar- 1 flower-gardens are among the most exquisitely
beautiful in Europe; they have been arranged by | mosses, so luxuriantly covered with heather, 80 one of the master minds of the age, and bear evi- judiciously based with ferns and water-plants, that dence of matured knowledge, skill, and taste; the you move among or beside them in rare delight nicest judgment seems to have been exercised at the sudden change which transports you from over even the smallest matter of detail, while the trim parterres to the utmost wildness of natural whole is as perfect a combination as can be con- beauty. From these again you pass into a garden, ceived of grandeur and loveliness. The walks, in the centre of which is the conservatory, always lawns, and parterres are lavishly, but unobtrusively, renowned, but now more than ever, as the proto decorated with vases and statues; terraces occur type of the famous Palace of Glass, which, in this here and there, from which are to be obtained the Annus Mirabilis, received under its roof six milbest views of the adjacent country ; Patrician | lions of the people of all nations, tongues, and trees' at intervals form umbrageous alleys; water creeds. In extent, the conservatory at Chatsworth is made contributory from a hundred mountain is but a pigmy compared with that which glorifies streams and rivulets, to form jets, cascades, and Hyde Park: but it is filled with the rarest Exotics fountains, which, infinitely varied in their play,' from all parts of the globe-fromfarthest Ind, ramble among lilies, or—it is scarcely an exagge- from China, from the Himalayas, from Mexico; ration to say-fling their spray into the clouds, here you see the rich banana, Eschol's grape hangand descend to refresh the topmost leaves of trees ing in ripe profusion beneath the shadow of imthat were in their prime three centuries ago. The mense paper-like leaves; the feathery cocoa-palm, most striking and original of the walks is that with its head peering almost to the lofty arched which leads through nimic Alpine scenery to the roof; the far-famed silk cotton-tree, supplying a great conservatory; here Art has been most tri- sheet of cream-colored blossoms, at a season when umphant; the rocks, which, have been all brought all outward vegetable gayety is on the wape: the hither, are so skilfully combined, so richly clad in singular milk-tree of the Caraccas the fragrant
THE ROCK-WORK. cinnamon and cassia—with thousands of other rare bonor of the visit of the Emperor of Russia to and little-known species of both flowers and fruits. Chatsworth in 1844. Such is the velocity with The Italian Garden opposite the library windows, which the water is ejected, that it is shown to with its richly colored parterres, and its clustered escape at the rate of one hundred miles per mifoliage wreathed around the pillars which support nute; for the purpose of supplying it, a reservoir, the statues and busts scattered among them, and or immense artificial lake, has been constructed hanging from one to the other with a luxurious on the hills, above Chatsworth, which is fed by verdure which seems to belong to the south—is a the streams around and the springs on the moors relief to the eye sated with the splendors of the drains being cut for this purpose, commencing at palatial edifice.
Humberly Brook, on the Chesterfield Road, two “The water-works, which were constructed un- miles and a half from the reservoir, which covers der the direction of M. Grillet, a French artist, eight acres ; a pipe winds down the hill side, were begun in 1690, when a pipe for what was through which the water passes, and such is its then called the great fountain' was laid down; waste, that a diminution of a foot may be perceir. the height of twenty feet to which it threw water ed when the water-works have been played for being, at that time, considered sufficiently wonder- three hours. Nothing can exceed the stupendous ful to justify the hyperbolical language of Cotton: effect of this column, which may be seen for many !_should it break or fall. I donbt we should miles around, shooting upwards to the sky in va.
miles around, shooting Begin to reckon froin the second flood.'
ried and graceful evolutions. From this upper It was afterward elevated to fifty feet, and then lake the waterfalls are also supplied, which are to ninety-four feet; but it is now celebrated as the constructed with so natural an effect on the hill most remarkable fountain in the world; it rises to side, behind the water temple, which reminds the the height of two hımdred and sixty-seven feet, spectator of the glories of St. Cloud. From the and has been named the Emperor Fountain, in dome of this temple bursts forth a gush of water
THE GREAT CONSERVATORY. that covers its surface, pours through the urns at combined Nature and Art in this delicious region, its sides, and springs up in fountains underneath, as to supply all the enjoyment that may be dethence descending in a long series of step-like falls, sired or is attainable, from trees, shrubs, and flowuntil it sinks beneath the rocks at the base, and ers seen under the happiest arrangement of counafter rising again to play as 'the dancing fountain' tries, classes, and colors. is conveyed by drains under the garden and park, “The erection of the present house is narrated -being emptied into the Derwent.* But we by Lysons, who says, the south front was begun may not forget that our space is limited: to de- to be rebuilt on the 12th of April, 1687, and the scribe the gardens and conservatories of Chats- great hall and staircase covered in about the midworth would occupy more pages than we candle of April, 1690 ; the east front was begun in give to the whole theme; suffice it that the taste | 1693, and finished in 1700; the south gallery was and liberality of the Duke of Devonshire, and the pulled down and rebuilt in 1703; in 1704, the skill and judgment of Sir Joseph Paxton, have so I north front was pulled down; the west front was
THE ITALIAN GARDEN. finished in 1706; and the whole of the building ty years from the time of its commencement.. not long afterwards completed, being about twen. The architect was Mr. William Talman, but in
* A quaint whim of the olden time is constructed near which has all the appearance of a living one, situated on a one of the walks; it is the model of a willow-tree in copper, raised mound of earth. From each branch, however, wa.
May, 1692, the works were surveyed by Sir dor leads thence to the Great Hall, which is deChristopher Wren.
corated with paintings by the hand of a famous “On entering the Lower Hall or Western artist in his day-Verrio-celebrated by Pope for Lodge contains some very fine antique statuary, his proficiency in ceiling-painting. The effect of and fragments which deserve the especial atten- the hall is singularly good, with its grand stair tion of the connoisseur. Among them are several and triple arches opening to the principal rooms. which were the treasured relics of Capova and Sir The sub-ball, behind, is embellished by a graceful Henry Englefield, and others found in Hercula- fountain, with the story of Diana and Actæon, and weum, and presented by the King of Naples to the abundance of water at Chatsworth is sufficient the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire. A corri- for it to be constantly playing, producing an effect
THE ENTRANCE HALL. seldom attempted within doors. A long gallery | Thomas Young, who was engaged as the principal leads to the various rooms inbabited by the Duke, carver in wood in 1689, and by a pupil of his. Sathe walls being decorated with a large number of muel Watson, a native of Heanor, in Derbyshire, fine pictures by the older masters of the Flemish whose claim to the principal ornamental woodind Italian schools. In the billiard-room are carving at Chatsworth is set forth in verses on bis Landseer's famed picture of Bolton Abbey in the tomb in Heanor Church. Olden Time, with charming specimens of Collins, “Over the Colonnade on the north side of the and other British painters.
quadrangle, is a gallery nearly one hundred feet “The chapel is richly decorated with foliage in long in which have been hung a numerous and carved woodwork, which has been erroneously at- valuable collection of drawings by the old mastributed to Grinling Gibbons. It was executed by ters, arranged according to the schools of art of
which they are examples. There is no school unter suddenly bursts, and also small jets from the grassy represented, and as the eve wanders over the borders around. It was considered a good jest some years ago to delude novices to examine this tree, and wet them thickly-covered wall, it is arrested by sketches thoroughly by suddenly turning on the water above and from the hands of Raffaelle, Da Vinci, Claude, around them. This tree was originally made by a London Poussin, Paul Veronese, Salvator Rosa, and the plumber in 1693 ; but it has been recently repaired by a plumber in the neighborhood of Chesterñeld, under the other great men who have made Art immortal. direction of Sir Joseph Paxton.
To describe these works would occupy a volume:
THE SCULPTURE GALLERY. to study them a life; it is a glorious collection fitly old hall. The library of Henry Cavendish, and displayed.
the extensive and valuable collection at Devon• The old state-rooms, which form the upper shire House have aided to swell its stores. Thin floors of the south front, occupy the same position quartos of the rarest order, unique volumes of old as those which were appropriated to the upfor- poetry, scarce and curious pamphlets by the early tupate Mary Queen of Scots during her long resi- printers, first editions of Shakspeare, early padence here. There is, however, but little to see geants, and the rarest dramatic and other popular of her period; if we except some needlework at literature of the Elizabethan era, may be found in the back of a canopy representing hunting scenes, this well-ordered room-not to speak of its great worked by the hand of the famous Countess of treasure, the Liber Veritatus of Claude. Shrewsbury, popularly known as · Bess of Hard “The statue gallery, a noble room erected by wick.
the present Duke, contains a judiciously-selected "The gallery, pinety feet by twenty-two, origi- series of sculptures. The gem of the collection is pally constructed for dancing, has been fitted up the famous seated statue of Madame Bonaparte, by the present Duke as a library. Among the mother of Napoleon, by Canova. The same style books which formed the original library at Chats- characterizes that of Pauline Borghese, by Campworth, are several which belonged to the celebrat-bell. Other works of Canova are here-his statue ed Hobbes, who was many years a resident at the of Hebe, and Endymion sleeping; a bust of Pe.