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Nicholas GRAN DE Dieu SOULT, Marshal Gene- to the dignity of Peer of France and Major General of France, Duke of Dalmatia, &c., died on the ral of the Army. After Waterloo, where he 26th of December, at his chateau of Soult Berg, fought most energetically, the Marshal took refuge near the place where he was born. We have at Malzieu (Lozere) with General Brun de Villegiven in another part of this magazine an estimate ret, his former aid-de-camp. Being set down on of his character. "The Paris Pays furnishes us a the list of the proscribed, he withdrew to Dusselbrief abstract of his history. He was born at St. dorf on the banks of the Rhine, until 1819, when Amand (Tarn), March 29, 1769. His father, who a Royal ordinance allowed him to return to was a notary, seeing that he had no taste for his France. He then went to live with his family at own profession, allowed him to enter the army. St. Amand, his native place, and on his reiterated The future Marshal of France entered the Royal representations his marshal's baton, which had Regiment of Infantry in 1785, where he was soon been withdrawn from him, was restored. Charles remarked by his aptitude for the functions of in- X. treated Marshal Soult with favor, creating him structor. He was made non-commissioned officer knight of his orders, and afterward making him in 1790, and then passed rapidly through the in- Peer of France. After the revolution of July, termediate grades, until he reached that of Adju- 1830, the declaration of the Chamber of Deputies tant-General of the Staff, when General Lefebvre of August 9th excluded him from that rank, but attached him to his own service with the grade of he was restored to it four days later by a special Chief of Brigade. In that quality he went through nomination of Louis Philippe, who soon after apthe campaigns of 1794 and 1795 with the army pointed him Minister of War. We shall not follow of the Moselle, and owed to his talents, as well as Marshal Soult through the acts of his administrato his republican principles, a rapid promotion. tive career. He always showed himself devoted Successively raised to the rank of General of to the constitutive principles of the Government Brigade, and then to that of General of Division, of July. He was twice named President of the he took part in all the campaigns of Germany Council of King Louis Philippe, who elevated him until 1799, wben he followed Massena into Swit- to the dignity of Marshal General, of which Turenne zerland, and thence to Genoa, where he was had been the last possessor. Since the revolution wounded and taken prisoner. Set at liberty after of February, Marshal Soult bas lived on his estate, the battle of Marengo, and raised to the command in the midst of his family, and almost forgotten in of Piedmont, he returned to France at the peace our present political agitations. of Amiens, and was named one of the four ColoDels of the Guard of the Consuls. When the KARL FRIEDERICH RUNGENHAGEN, late Royal Di. Empire was proclaimed, in 1804, he was nominat- rector of Music at Berlin, was born in that city on ed Marshal of France, and during the campaign September 27, 1778. His father was a merchant. which terminated in Austerlitz, held the command In 1801 he became member of the Singing Acadof the fourth corps of the grand army. After the emy, and studied under Zetter. In 1814 he wrote conquest of Prussia and the battle of Eylau, Mar- the songs for a melo-drama, which was not sucshal Soult solicited and obtained the command of cessful. In 1815 he became director of the Singthe second corps of the army of Spain, with ing Academy, with Zetter; most of his religious which he overran Galicia and the Austrians, and music was composed after this time. In 1825 he passed into Portugal, where he fought the memo- was appointed to the post of Royal Music Direcrable battle of Oporto. Forced to abandon that stor, and in 1833, after Zetter's death, he became city, when delivered up by treason to the English, sole conductor of the Singing Academy. His inhe effected into Galicia a bold and perilous re- fluence has been considerable upon the culture of treat, which did the greatest honor to his energy music in Germany. Carl Maria Von Weber was and presence of mind. Being named Commander- his friend, and Lortzing was one of his pupils. in-Chief of the army of Spain, he marched to the He died at Berlin on the 22d of last December. Buccor of Madrid, menaced by the Anglo-Spanish army, and his movement was crowned with full The journals of Moscow announce the death of success. He continued in this command until the Armenian Archbishop, MICHAEL SALLANTJAN, March, 1813, when he was appointed in Saxony the most distinguished writer of Armenia at the to the command-in-chief of the Imperial Guard present day. He was born at Constantinople in The disasters of Vittoria decided Napoleon to 1782, and educated at the Armenian monastery Again confer on Marshal Soult the command of the at Venice. He died at the age of sixty-nine at French troops in Spain. The point then was to Moscow, where he had been professor of theology defend the menaced frontier of France. Forced and literature for sixteen years before his elevato fall back on Toulouse, he there terminated by tion to the Archbishopric. a brilliant engagement, due to most able strategic arrangemente, the fatal campaign of 1814. On Dr. GRAEFE, one of the most eminent veterans the announcement of the event at Paris he signed of European philology, died suddenly at St. Pea suspension of arms, and adhered to the reëstab tersburg on November 30th. He was born at lishment of Louis XVIII., who presented him Chemnitz, in Saxony, in July, 1780, but went to with the Cross of St. Louis, and called him to the Russia in 1810, to assume the professorship of command of the 13th military division, and then Greek at the Academy of St. Petersburg. to the Ministry of War (Dec. 3, 1814). On March 8th, learning the landing from Elba, he published The Russian General, Kiel, has died in Paris. the order of the day which is so well known, and He was employed by the Emperor Nicholas in diin which Napoleon is treated more than severely. recting works of art in the Russian empire. On March 1ith he resigned his portfolio as Minister of War, and declared for the Emperor, who, 1 HERR MEINHOLD, author of the Amber Witch, passing over the famous proclamation, raised him | died in Germany in December.
J. W. M. TURNER, the greatest of English ar- singular and even nervous attention to the most tists, and the hero of Mr. Ruskin's brilliant book trifling details. But this volume was only the entitled The Modern Painters, died in London on precursor of an immense series of drawings and the 20th of December, at the age of 27. He had sketches, embracing the topography of this counalways a reluctance to have his portrait taken, try in the “River Scenery” and the Southern but the engraving accompanying this article Coast”—the scenery of the Alps, of Italy, and - from a sketch made without his knowledge—is great part of Europe—and the ideal creations of said, by the Illustrated London News to be re- our greatest poets, from Milton to Scott and Romarkably like him. It is understood that by his gers, all imbued with the brilliancy of a genius will he has left a million dollars (£200,000) for the which seemed to address itself more peculiarly to purpose of founding an institution for the relief of the world at large when it adopted the popular of decayed artists, and has given it also the chief form of engraving. These drawings are now part of his pictures, to adorn the building which is widely diffused in England, and form the basis of to be occupied by it. The Times says, " although several important collections, such as those of Petit would be out of place to revive the discussions worth, of Mr. Windus, Mr. Fawkes, and Mr. occasioned by the peculiarities of Mr. Turner's Munro. So great is the value of them that 120 stvle in bis later years, he bas left behind him suf- guineas have not unfrequently been paid for a ficient proofs of the variety and fertility of his small sketch in water-colors; and a sketch-book, genius to establish an undoubted claim to a pro- containing chalk-drawings of one of Turner's river minent rank among the painters of England. His tours on the continent, has lately fetched the enor. life had been extended to the verge of huinan ex-mous sum of 600 guineas. The prices of his istence; for althongh he was fond of throwing a more finished oil paintings have ranged in the last mystery over his precise age, we believe that he few years from 700 to 1,200 or 1,400 guineas was born in Maiden-lane, Covent-garden, in the All his works may now be said to have acquired year 1775, and was, consequently, in his 76th or triple or quadruple the value originally paid for 77th year. Of hunble origin (he was the son of them. Mr. Turner undoubtedly realized a very a barber), he enjoyed the advantages of an accu- large fortune, and great curiosity will be felt to rate rather than a liberal education. His first stu- ascertain the posthumous use he has made of it. dies, some of which are still in existence, were in His personal habits were peculiar, and even penuarchitectural design; and few of those who have rious, but in all that related to his art he was genbeen astonished or enchanted by the profusion and erous to munificence; and we are not without caprice of form and color in his mature pictures, hope that his last intentions were for the benefit would have guessed the minute and scientific pre- of the nation, and the preservation of his own cision with which he had cultivated the arts of fame. He was never married, he was not known linear drawing and perspective. His early man to have any relatious, and his wants were limited hood was spent partly on the coast, where he im- to the strictest simplicity. The only ornaments of bibed his inexhaustible attachment for marine his house in Queen Anne-street were the pictures scenery and his acquaintance with the wild and by his own band, which he bad constantly refused varied aspect of the ocean. Somewhat later be to part with at any price, among which the “ Rise repaired to Oxford, where he contributed for se- and Fall of Carthage" and the “Crossing the veral years the drawing to the University Al- Brook," rank among the choicest specimens of his manac. But his genius was rapidly breaking finest manner. through all obstacles, and even the repugnance of “Mr. Turner seldom took much part in society, public opinion; for before he had completed his and only displayed in the closest intiniacy the 30th year he was on the high road to fame. As shrewdness of his observation and the playfulness early as 1790 be exhibited his first work, a water- of his wit. Every where he kept back much of colored drawing of the entrance to Lambeth, at what was in him, and while the keenest intellithe exhibition of the Academy; and in 1793 his gence, mingled with a strong tinge of satire, anifirst oil painting. In November, 1799, he was mated his brisk countenance, it seemed to amuse elected an associate, and in February, 1802, he at him to be but half understood. His nearest social tained the rank of a Royal Academician. We ties were those formed in the Royal Academy, of shall not here attempt to trace the vast series of which he was by far the oldest member, and to his paintings from his earlier productions, such as / whose interests he was most warmly attached. the “Wreck," in Lord Yarborough's collection, the He filled at one time the chair of Professor of “ Italian Landscape," in the same gallery, the Perspective, but without conspicuous success, and pendant to Lord Ellesmere's Vanderwelde,” or that science has since been taught in the Academy Mr. Munro's " Venus and Adonis," in the Titian- by means better suited to promote it than a course esque manner, to the more obscure, original, and, of lectures. In the composition and execution of as some think, unapproachable productions of his his works, Mr. Turner was jealously sensitive of later years, such as the “ Rome,” the “ Venice,” | all interference or supervision. He loved to deal the “Golden Bough,” the “Téméraire," and the in the secrets and mysteries of his art, and many "Tusculum." But while these great works pro- of his peculiar effects are produced by means ceeded rapidly from his palette, his powers which it would not be easy to discover or to imiof design were no less actively engaged in the tate. exquisite water-colored drawings that have “We hope that the Society of Arts or the Britformed the basis of the modern school of 'illus- ish Gallery will take an early opportunity of comtration.” The “Liber studiorum" had been com- memorating the genius of this great artist, and of menced in 1807, in imitation of Claude's “Liber reminding the public of the prodigious range of veritatis," and was etched, if we are not mistaken, bis pencil, by forming a general exhibition of his by Turner's own hand. The title-page was en principal works, if, indeed, they are not permagraved and altered half-a-dozen times, from his nently gathered in a pobler repository. Such an
THE LATE J. W. M. TURNER. exbibition will serve far better than any observa- | in the dazzling splendor of the imagery with which tions of ours to demonstrate that it is not by those they are surrounded, mastering every mode of exdeviations from established rules which arrest the pression, combining scientific labor with an air of most superficial criticism that Mr. Turner's fame negligent profusion, and producing in the end or merit are to be estimated. For nearly sixty works in which color and language are but the years Mr. Turner contributed largely to the arts vestments of poetry. Of such minds it may be of this country. He lived long enough to see his said in the words of Alastor : greatest productions rise to uncontested suprema
“Nature's most secret steps cy, however imperfectly they were understood
He, like her shadow, has pursued, where'er
The red volcano overcanopies when they first appeared in the earlier years of
Its fields of snow and pinnacles of ice this century; and, though in his later works and With burning smoke; or where the starry domes in advanced age, force and precision of execution
of diamond and of gold expand above
Numberless and immeasurable halls, have not accompanied his vivacity of conception,
Frequent with crystal column and clear shrines public opinion has gradually and steadily advanc Of pearl, and thrones radiant with chrysolite. ed to a more just appreciation of his power. He Nor had that scene of ampler majesty
Than gems or gold--the varying roof of heaven is the Shelley of English painting—the poet and
And the green earth-lost in his heart its claims the painter both alike veiling their own creations To love and wonder.....
VOL. V.-NO. 11-19
Basil Montagu, an eminent philosophical and the Statutes and of the Cases, which reached three legal writer, was the illegitimate son of the well-editions, and brought bim into immediate notice known statesman, John fourth Earl of Sandwich, and considerable practice; and, some time after. many years First Lord of the Admiralty, by the wards, he printed a pamphlet op Bankrupts' Cerunfortunate Miss Margaret Reay, who was assas tificates. His fame in this branch of forensic learnsinated, in 1779, by her affianced lover, the Rev. ing procured him the appointment of a ConMr. Hackman. The tragic affair, which excited missioner of Bankruptcy. Mr. Montagu wrote immense interest at the time, and which gave rise also on philosophical subjects. Among his producto various romantic stories, is to be found in most tions of this tendency were Thoughts of Divines series of judicial investigations, and especially in and Philosophers ; Selections from Taylor, Hooka collection of celebrated trials recently published. er, Bishop Hall, and Bacon. He edited an edi. It appears that Margaret Reay was the daughter tion of Lord Bacon's works, in seventeen volumes, of a stay-maker in Covent-garden, and served her Another bent which his mind took, placed him by apprenticeship to a mantuamaker. Having at the side of Romilly and Mackintosh in the cause tracted the attention of Lord Sandwich, he treated of Humanity. He had in his nature an abhorher from that period until her assassination, with rence of depriving any living thing of life, and the greatest tenderness and affection. He intro- with regard to his own diet he totally abstained duced to her a young ensign of the 68th Regi- from animal food. This led him to bestow his acment, then in command of a recruiting party at tive attention towards putting a stop to capital Huntingdon, in the neighborhood of the mansion punishment. In 1809 he publisbed Opinions of of the Montagues. Mr. Hackman from the first Different Authors on the Punishment of Death inoment was desperately in love with her, and his The work was so well received, that he added a passion increased with the daily opportunities af- a second and third volume to it. In 1811, when forded by invitations he received to Lord Sand- the important question occupied Parliament, he wich's table. With the object of continuing his edited The Debates on a Bill for Abolishing the attentions, and the hope of ultimately engaging Punishment of Death for Stealing in a Dwelling her affections, he quitted the army, and, taking or- House. In 1815 he reprinted a tract originally ders, obtained the living of Wiverton, in Norfolk. published in 1801, called Hanging not Punishment
That Miss Reay bad given him some encourage enough for Murderers. Mr. Basil Montagu, who ment, is proved by the tenor of their correspond had some years ago been made a Queen's counsel, ence; but prudential motives induced her after- died at Boulogne on the 27th of November, in the wards to refuse the offer of his hand, and to inti- eighty-second year of his age. inate a necessity for discontinuing his visits. Stung by this unexpected termination of his long-cherish- REAR-ADMIRAL HENRY Gage MORRIS, entered ed expectations, Hackman's mind became unset- | the navy at the early age of twelve, and served tled; on the 7th of April, 1779, he was occupied as midshipman throughout the French and Ameriall the morning in reading Blair's Sermons ; but in can wars. He was promoted to the rank of lieuthe evening, as he was walking towards the Ad tenant, April 2, 1793. He was engaged at the miralty, he saw Miss Reay pass in her coach, ac- capture of the French frigate Sybille, in 1783, and companied by Signora Galli. He followed, and at the attack on Martinique, in 1793. He was discovered that she alighted at Covent-garden promoted to post rank August 12, 1812, and was Theatre, where she went to witness Love in a Vil made rear-admiral in 1847. He died at Beverley, lage. He returned to his lodgings, armed himself | 24th ult., aged eighty-two, Admiral Morris was with a brace of pistols, went back to the theatre, younger brother of the late Captain Amherst Mor. and when the performance was over, as Miss Reay ris, being second son of Colonel Roger Morris, a was stepping into her coach, he took a pistol in member of the Governor's Council at New-York, cach hand, one of which he discharged at her, and by Mary, daughter of Frederick Phillipse, of this killed her on the spot, and the other at himself, city. This family of Morris is one of great antiquibut it did not take effect. He then beat his head ty, deriving its descent from Elystan Glodrydd, a with the butt of the pistol, to destroy himself, but famed chieftain of Wales in the eleventh century. was, after a struggle, secured and carried before Sir John Fielding, who committed him to Bride- / Mr. Sapio. the once celebrated tenor singer, was well, and he was shortly after tried at the Old born in London, in 1792. In his early life he was Bailey, before the celebrated Justice Blackstone, page to Queen Caroline, consort of George IV. He found guilty, and hanged at Tyburn on the 19th made his first appearance on the metropolitan of the month.
stage at Drury Lane, the 1st December, 1824, ag Basil Montagu was born in 1770, and received the Seraskier, in the “Siege of Belgrade," and be his education at the Charter House. He was call- soon attained and long preserved a high vocal ed to the English bar by the Society of Gray's reputation. He died in obscurity, in London, about Inn, the 19th of May, 1798, and soon obtained the end of November. considerable practice as a conveyancer. It was, however, by his legal authorship and reporting One of the most distinguished chiefs of the var that he became particularly distinguished in the of Greek independence, General JATRAKO, is just profession. His various works and reports on the dead at Athens. He was one of the primates of subject, principally of the Law of Bankruptcy, Marna ; his family, as his name indicates, bave for were of high estimation and lasting utility. In many generations back been famous for their heredi1801, he produced his Summary of the Law of Set tary medical talents, and the tradition exists among Off, with an Appendix of Cases, argued and de-them that a branch of their family formerly passed termined in the Courts of Law and Equity, in one from Sparta to Italy, translated their name into volume, octavo; in 1804-5, in four volumes, A Di- Medici, and gave rise to the celebrated family of gest of the Bankrupt Laws, with a Collection of that name.
PRIESS NITZ, the celebrated founder of hyr ropa- / Mr. Henry LUTTRELL, one of the ornaments of a thy, died at Graefenberg on the 26th of Nov mber, society of what may be termed conversational at the age of fifty-two. In the morning f that wits, died on the 19th of December, at the advancday Priessnitz was up and stirring at an early ed age of eighty-six. He was the friend and comhour, but complained of the cold, and had wood panion, hand impari passu, of Jeckyll, Mackintosh, brought in to make a large fire. His friends had Jeffrey, Alvanley, Sydney Smith, and others of for some time believed him to be suffering from that brilliant school, and of which the Misses Ber: dropsy of the chest, and at their earnest entreaty ry, Rogers, Moore, and but a few others, are still he consented to take a little medicine, exclaiming left. A correspondent of the Times gays : " He all the while, “It's of no use !" He would see no charmed especially by the playfulness and ele. physician, but remained to the last true to his pro- gance of his wit, the appropriateness and felicity fessiva. About four v'clock in the afternoon of of illustration, the shrewdness of his remarks, and the 26th he asked to be carried to bed, and upon the epigrammatic point of his conversation. Livebeing laid down he expired! In early life he re- liness of fancy was tempered in him with good ceived serious injury in the chest from an accident, breeding and great kindness of disposition; and and he used to say himself that his constitution one of the wittiest men of his day, he could amuse was bad; that nothing but his own mode of life and delight by the keenness of playful yet punand his own “cure” would have sustained him. gent sallies, without wounding the feelings of any It is not known what attempts will be made to one by the indulgence of bitterness and ill-nature." carry on the establishment at Graefenberg, which was in full activity at the moment of his death. English journals notice with expressions of reThe most probable conjecture is, that his eldest gret the death in Philadelphia of R. C. TAYLOR, daughter and her husband (a Hungarian of prop- on the 26th of October, aged sixty-two. Mr. erty) will carry it on, with the aid of some phy- Taylor emigrated in the year 1830, being previoussician who has studied Priessnitz's method. This ly well known as a Fellow both of the Antiquamay succeed to a certain extent, for the place and rian and of the Geological Societies. He had pubneighborhood are admirably adapted for taking the lished a work of great care and research while water-cure, aod the prestige of Priessnitz's name, resident in his native county, Norfolk, Index Moas well as the tradition of his practice, will long nasticus for East Anglia ; and had made some survive him; but the attraction which brought pa- useful explorations into the fossil remains on the tients, not only froni the neighboring cities, but coast of Norfolk. In America he wrote for various from the remotest parts of the world, is gone. It philosophical societies, and published, in 1848, his is not exactly known what amount of property work on the Statistics of Coal, by which alune he Priessnitz left. but it is supposed to be nearly was much known to the public of this country. £100,000. When it is considered how small, compared to that given to other physicians, was the The Royal University of Berlin has lost by remuneration he received from his patients, and death since Christmas, MM. Lachmann, Stubr, Jathat thirty years ago, Priessnitz was a poor peas-cobi, Erman, and Dr. Charles THEODORE Franz, ant. this fortune gives some measure of his im- who died at Breslaw early in January, at the unInense success.
timely age of forty-five. For eleven years Dr.
Franc occupied the chair of Classical Philology in GEORGE DUNBAR, the distinguished Professor of the University of Berlin. He is the author of a Greek Literature in the University of Edinburgh, variety of works : in the first rank of which stand died on the 6th of December, at his residence in bis Criticisms on the Greek Tragic Poets, and his that city. The natural decay attending even an several collections of Greek and Latin inscriptions otherwise green old age has been for some years before unpublished. The London Morning Cbronaggravated by a virulent internal malady, which icle remarks that the continent never before lost at the commencement of the present season com- so many great scholars in one year as in 1851. pelled him to relinquish his academic duties. He was born at the village of Caldingham, in Ber: William JACOB, F. R. S., a profound writer on wickshire, in 1774. In early life he labored as a science and agriculture, was born in 1762. His gardener, but an accidental lameness, which lasted work, An Inquiry into the Precious Metals, has throughout bis subsequent life, incapacitated him been held in high estimation. His other principal from active bodily employment. His attention productions were Considerations on the Price of was then devoted to literature. He soon became Corn; Tracts on Corn-Laws ; and a View of Aga scholar, and in truth a ripe and good one. Go-riculture in Germany. Mr. Jacob, who was foring to Edinburgh, he readily obtained, on proof of merly Comptroller of Corn Returns in the Board his acqnirements, a tutorship in the family of Lord of Trade, died on the 17th of December, at his Provost Fettes. Having been shortly after se- residence in London, aged eighty-eight. lected as assistant to Professor Dalziel, he was appointed, on that professor's death, to the Greek Mr. Paul Barras, died in Paris from wounds chair in the Edinburgh University, in 1805. The received in the contests between the people anel duties of this responsible position he discharged the military, on the second day of the usurpation inost zealously and ably. The published works of Louis Napoleon. M. Barras resided in Newof Professor Dunbar are well known. The Col-York about twenty years, and was engaged here lectanea Minora, the Collectanea Majora, and the as a teacher of his native language, and as a corGreek Grammar, have all had great reputation. respondent of one of the Parisian journals. He His chief production-massive in every sense- was an amiable man, of considerable talents, and --the main object of his life of learned toil, was enthusiastic in his attachment to Republicanism, his Greek Lexicon, which was given to the world He wrote several articles on American subjects in with his name in 1840.
the Revue de Paris.