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antiquated views of a by-gone generation. happily with their children.” “What the German And we trust it will not be deemed inap- / wants is room--a new broad field for his abilities propriate that we here speak a word of the -and this America extends to him in unbounded want of opportunities of acquiring very gen-space. No one at the present day hopes to obtain eral information under which the ordinary hills of gold without labor, but every one knows readers of continental Europe suffer. With
Wit is that the far more estimable treasure of perfect inall their libraries, all their immense arrays of
dependence, or to speak nore correctly, of perfect
self-dependence, with the prospect of a future free magazines and journals, we find among them
em from care, may in America be obtained at the cost an apathy in regard to the world without (to.
It (t.,of a few years of earnest, honest industry. And the 'an-Qui), which appears incredible until what to the man
Je until what, to the man oppressed in his fatherland by we reflect on the deadening influences of the all the cares incident upon the obtaining a bare censorship, which views with distrust all in- subsistence, is two or three or even four years of formation in regard to the Land of Liberty. hard work, when compared to a whole life of po We are not aware, throughout the whole of verty and misery?" continental Europe, of a single publication so After accurately sketching the extreme thoroughly cosmopolite in its character, so misery and poverty oppressing the inbabitants general in the scope of its information, or of many districts of Germany, of late years which is so universally disseminated among sadly increased by the falling off in manufacall classes of readers, as The International ; tures since the political disturbances, our auand we trust we do not go too far when we thor proceeds to set forth the advantages of assert, that it is to an extended sale of peri- tered by America : odical publications somewhat approaching it “That most emigrants should rather look to in the concentration and dissemination of America, than Poland, Russia, Servia, or Siebennews from the world at large, that our coun- burgen, is natural enough, since all of these countrymen owe that superior intelligence and tries together cannot offer so many attractions as citizen-of-the-world character which distin
| America. Where on earth is there such a vast guish them from the insular Briton, self-im
array of unoccupied lands, offered at such a mo portant Frenchman, or abstracted German.
derate price-land so cheap that in many districts The work from which we propose to make
twenty or thirty and even more acres, covered some extracts, is TrauGOTT BROMME's Hand
with wood, are given at a price for which a single
acre of similar land is sold in Germany ?" und Reisebuch für Auswanderer nach den
| The richness of the soil, the excellence of Vereinigten Staaten (or Traugott Bromme's
the climate, and the demand for labor, are Journey and Handbook for Emigrants to the
then described; to which, as the greatest inUnited States). As we have already stated,
| ducement, he adds the fact that in America no work on America is at the present day the fullest " liberty of labor and mechanical more familiarly known to that ckiss of read- calling or trade." is allowed. Also, that the ers to whoin it is addressed. Certain remarks
taxes are so light that ar industrious man is on the present condition of German emigra
able not only to live, but even to lay up sometion with which it is prefaced, inay not be thing for his
thing for his old age, or his children, or to devoid of interest to our readers, though not
employ in the extension of his business. constituting a part of such observations as we
"For as there exists in America no standing have more particularly referred to:
army, its inhabitants may retain their children, as “ There is, it appears, implanted in every man the best possible assistants in labor, and train, an impulse to advance and better his condition- govern, and discipline them as can only properly an impulse caused by poverty, dependent circum- be done under the eye of a parent. Furthermore, stances, or pressure from every side, vexing at in that country every one is permitted to enjoy times even the highest in rank. and which is the the fullest civil and religious liberty. These are cause why thousands leave their fatherland, to the advantages to be expected from an emigration seek afar a new home, and hundreds of thousands to America, and he who anticipates more will find cast around them disturbed and anxious glances, himself bitterly deceived. But a man who can be restrained only by hard poverty, which imprisons content with this, and can live actively, moderthem at home. Such is very generally the case ately, and frugally, will here, better than in any at present in our own country, where--despite the other land in the world, ultimately attain to happolitical concessions of March in the year 1848. of piness and fortune. In times like ours, when the published original privileges of the German every branch of industry is crowded, when tender people, and of the promising prospect of a free parents think with grief and trouble on the future and united Germany, with a concluding general prospects of their children, there are for the emiempire-emigration appears to be by no means on grant no other resources save those held out by the decrease." “ These emigrants of the present a full and bountiful nature, and no means of liveday consist not as formerly of poor people of the lihood which may be so certainly depended upon lower orders, who turn their backs on the German as those afforded by agriculture. Here it is that fatherland, or liberal declaimers, dreaming of an industry throws open the widest field, and affords ideal of freedom which could scarcely be realized the fullest opportunity of doing good." io Utopia, but of sober excellent families of the In the following extract, our author promiddle class, who, free from all delusive fancies, ceeds to set forth the national character of do not expect to find in the western world wealth the American: and honorable offices, but desire only to inha-l “ The national character of the American has bit a land, wherein they may dwell quietly and been greatly misunderstood ; few travellers seen,
in fact, to have understood it, since they mention republican has necessarily as many severe and it as something as new and unfounded as the arduous duties to fulfil as the inhabitants of any country itself, and yet it is so well confirmed-90 monarchy—but their fulfilment is gratifying and well established in every elevated and noble cha- consoling—for it is allied to the consciousness of racteristic of the human race, that it may conti- power. The American has no desire for the quiet dently be placed in comparison with that of the temper of the European, and least of all for the most celebrated nations of antiquity. Springing silent happiness of the German, which last, alis! originally from England, they have the pride and appears since the dissipation of the intoxication manly confidence of the Briton, for throngh their of the Revolution of March, 1848, to consist, ag ancestry they claim an equal share of all which far as the great mass of the population is concerngives dignity to those inheriting glory and a great ed, merely in the egotistic repose of self-sufficienname. Their forefathers were those brave reli-cy, weakness, and ignorance. The American findo gious pilgrims who were transferred by British repose only in his house, in his family circle, and laws (or rather by old German) and British genius among his children; all without the walls of that to the shores of the new world—to there give to home is an incessant working and striving, in polithose laws and genius an immortality. Building tics as in trade-by the streets and cavals, as in etill further on this new land, they opened the the woods of the West. Different as the elements temple of the Lord to all his followers, and re- are from which the inhabitants of the United ceived with open arms all the unfortunate or op- States are formed, and different as the circumpressed exiles of Europe. For the first time in stances may be under which they live, there still reality in tbis world they flung wide the flag of prevails among them a certain unity of character, truth and freedom-fought under its folds an un- an equanimity of feeling, which it would be diffi. equal fight against the mightiest power in the cult to parallel, resulting perhaps from the very world-and overcame it. And when a second heterogeneousness and mixture of elements itself, time they armed themselves to combat with Eng. since no one element allows to another pre-emi. land, they again came forth unconquered from the nence. They have all something in common in contest. Reasou enough this for the national pride their appearance, which gives them the air almost of the American, for nothing could more naturally of relations—something in their gait and manners cause a certain degree of self-content than to be which declares them to be other than English, long to a nation whose brilliant deeds in war as Germans, or French. Through the cntire land, in politics, in commerce as in manufactures, have through every class, there is disseminated a cerastonished the world. A second and not less cha- tain refinement of manner, an appreciation of racteristic trait of the American is seen in a cer- decency and nobility of character, which springs tain earnestness, which appears to strangers to in- from a consciousness of their own rights and redicate a want of sociable feeling—and yet perhaps spect for mankind. Even emigrants, in America, in no country is true noble sociability as developed soon learn to cast aside their rough prejudices as in domestic life, so much at home, as in America. regards caste, for the proud affability of the arie
" Accustomed from his cradle to reflect on him- tocratic, the vanity of the small citizen, the want self and his circumstances, the American from the of confidence and ease in the mechanic, the slavish first instant of his entry into active life is ever on servitude and snappish insolence of liveried serthe watch to improve their condition. Is he rich, and vants, find in America no place. Man is there Consequently more directly interested in the com- esteemed only as man-only ability gains honor mon wealth, then every new law, every change in -- and where that is, and there alone, can true the personal direction of the government, awakes in nobility be found. No one there inquires who a him a new care for the future, while on the other man is, or who were his parents, but . What can hand, if poor, then every change in the state may he do, what are his capabilities, and what can he perhaps afford him a new opportunity of bettering produce?' Rank and caste are in America unhis condition. Therefore he is ever wide awake- known. Every man feels his freedom and inde ever looking out for the future, not as a mere pendence, and expresses himself accordingly. spectator, but as one playing a part and occupied Even the servant is a free man, who has, it is true, in maintaining the present state of affairs, or in hired his service, but not his entire existence improving them. The entire mass of the popula- The American is polite, but over refined, unmeantion is continually in a state of political agitation, ing compliments form no part of his manners, nor and, urged by hope of their aid or fear of their does he expect them from others. No man vexes power, we see every one continually seeking for or troubles himself for another, in consequence of expressions of public opinion. No man is so rich which we find in American Society very little or powerful that he need not fear them-none so stiffness and reserve, yet we find in every respect wretched and poor but that he may venture to that the very highest regard is there paid to pro entertain the hope of being through them aided priety and decency-particularly as regards the and relieved. Public opinion is in America the female sex, since in do country, not even in Engmightiest organ of justice--shielding no one, from land, do ladies enjoy such respect and regard as the president to the simplest citizen, and proceeds, in the United States. Ever depending upon, and mowing, casting down, or grinding to powder all confiding in himself, the American is in his manthings which oppose it and deserve its condemna- ners free, open, and unreserved. The mass of the
people is possessed of intelligence and spirit, “ This condition of perpetual agitation gives though not so scientifically educated as in Europe, the American an appearance of ceaseless restless, and a higher degree of intelligence penetrates Dess, but it is in reality the true ground of peace even the lower class, who consequently forın a and content, The American has no time to be marked and singular contrast with those of discontented, and this is the most praiseworthy like rank in Europe. It is not from being versed point of their constitution and popular life. The in the higher branches of abstract learning and science, but from the great amount of that direct, that in no country in Europe are we so imparpractical knowledge which exerts the greatest in- tially and favorably judged. There is one Huence in making life happy, that the Americans particular, however, in which we find this are distinguished from other nations, and for the book worthy of especial praise. The author acquisition of which they have made better pro highly commends the flourishing state of revision and preparation than any other people. ligion in the United States, declaring that we As yet too deeply occupied with the Needful and
are in this respect superior to the Germans, Important, they are compelled to leave the deve
and that on the Sabbath the churches are lopment of the higher branches to the care and Quble generosity of individuals. But a glance at
filled to a degree unknown in Europe. It is the sums which are annually devoted to the estab
froin our deep-rooted attachment to domestic lishinent and maintenance of schools and univer
f schools and univer. life, and our observance of religion, that he gities, will suffice to evidence the liberality with correctly deduces our true bappiness, as sepwhich the proper education of the people is cared arated from the natural advantages of the for in the United States. Knowledge is indeed country. It is greatly to be desired that the esteemed, but only according to its use and appli- inajority of his countrymen resident in Americability to the wants of life; so that a practical ica, would allow themselves to be impressed tanner is there worth more than a learned pedant. in a similar manner as to the advantages of Wealth, or rather wealth allied to ability and uni- piety and Sabbath-keeping. There is in the uersality of talent, is there more highly esteemed | United States a vast number of German newsthan learning, while hospitality, patriotism, and papers—conducted we should imagine for the toleration, allowing every one to think and feel as
greater part by unprincipled and worthless he likes, are universal characteristics. So that in
adventurers of the red-republican, socialist the United States nothing is wanting to the at
stamp, who, despite the protection which they tainment of a true civil and social freedom, even
here enjoy, incessantly and spitefully abnse though the means thereto are not invariably correctly understood or admitted (as is indeed the
every institution to which they are really incase by us), and though-since men are every
debted for their asylum among us, and most where subject to the same weaknesses--they of all our Observation of the me
osses the l of all our observation of the Sabbath, in a measure happiness rather by the standard of their style which entitles them to something soown intelligence and virtues, than by fortune and verer than inere contempt. But Herr Bromme nature, which latter, impartially considered, is the is right. Respect for morality and religion, basis of the physical happiness of the American a due regard for the Sabbath, and a depend. That, however, which constitutes his moral happi-ence on the home-circle for pleasure and reness is this ; that in his country, domestic life en- creation, are the surest safeguard of peace, joys the true supremacy, and to this, public life happiness, and prosperity. and the state are subordinate. It is true that the American stateemen have fallen into the same A VISIT TO THE FIRE WORSHIPPERS' error as the European id est, to believe that
TEMPLE AT BAKU. without them the people could never prosper, and still live in the belief that home-happiness hangs
IIN a recent number of the Russian Archires on them, their theories and arts of governing;
11 for Scientific Information, is an account but the most superficial glance teaches ühat if wise of a visit made by a Russian Jady of distinclaws are able to effect more for the happiness of tion, in company with her husband and sons. man than they can bring about, still no one should to a temple of the Indian sect of Gebers, or there attempt to draw happiness from such a Fire Worshippers, near Baku, a city of GeorHource when popular and private life have gia, lying on the Caspian Sea. Wo translate combined to bestow it. But should the happiness this interesting narrative for the Internaof the Americans ever be derived from this side, it tional, as follows: will be more sensible to assume that the founda- In order the better to enjoy the spectacle tion thereof will be the release from that which of the fire, we chose the evening for our exin the recent culture has passed for the deepest cursion thither ; but a thick fog eame on, political wisdom. The true secret of all the good which made the road difficult and dangerous. fortune of America lies in the favorable condition
When we finally reached the place it was of external things. It is not with them as in
pitch dark; the flames were rising in beautiEurope, where the poor can only better their con- | dition or become rich by making the rich poor,
ful purity to the peaceful sky of night, and for therein lies the source of an infinite strife
the entire castle, within which was the temwhich hath been combated for centuries, with the pres
ple, seemed to be surrounded by a circle of axioms of religion and morals. But in America, I watch
watch-fires. These were lighted by Persians men when striving to better their condition, instead from the neighborhood, who were busy of becoming enemies and turning their arms burning lime and baking bread, dark forms Against each other, strive with Nature, and wring like those which worked on the tower of from her boundless stores that wealth which she Babel, and burnt lime for it. They were now 80 bountifully affords !'”
brought here by the ease and cheapness of We have made these quotations less op ac- carrying on their occupations. All that is count of any merit which they possese, than necessary is to make a hole in the ground, to give our readers an idea of the general touch a burning coal to it, and an inexhanstiopinion prevailing in Germany in regard to ble flanne rises forth like a spring. Belrind our country; and to confirm an assertion this range of little flames and fires, rose, in made in a recent number of the International, the pale light, the dirty white walls of the castle, in the centre of which there flashed from der flame that lighted the room very clearly. tlie summit of two lofty pillars great masses of There were other little openings on the sides the purest, clearest, and keenest flame, which of the altar. The Hindoo took a wisp of were now bent down horizontally and wreath- straw, lighted it, and touched these openings, ed like serpents by the force of the wind, and from which the most beautiful flames at once now rose perpendicularly to the sky, whose , issued. The children, who had never seen dome they lighted up like two vast altar tapers. gas lights, or at least did not remember them, We drove around the edifice, and stopped on regarded all this as the most perfect witchery. one side where there were no flames rising On a second altar, which, like the first, was from the earth. A fine rain was falling, but we about the height of a common table, lay or remained without while our guide went in to stood the idols and treasures of our priest. announce us. He came back immediately Small steps led up to it, which were used with a swarthy Hindoo. The sight of this to hold muscles, stones, shells, and other man impressed me strangely, and I forgot instruments employed in the sacred rites. that he belonged to a remote colony of a few The idols were of metal, and ugly and monindividuals, and asked myself if we had been strous, like Chinese images. Beside these suddenly transported to India, or if India had figures, we were astonished to see crosses of been brought up to the Caspian.
various forms and sizes. We asked the Geber We went into the court-yard, in which about them, and he answered with oriental stands the temple, with its two fire-pillars. emphasis : "There is one God, and no one About half way up hang a couple of large has seen him; therefore every one adores bells, which the Hindoo sounded by way of him after his own way, and represents him preparing us for what we were to see. There after his own way." The reply was diplo: was something fearful in the loud clangor, matic enough, and we could not ascertain and my boys crowded close beside me. Ex-liow the crosses had come there. cept our party, no one was to be seen except. On the altar and its steps lay a great numthe swart Geber, in his white turban and ber of singularly beautiful Indian stones, long brown robe, with jnst enough of a pair which the boys wanted very much, but of light blue trowsers visible to bring into dis- which, in spite of our large offers, we could tinctness his naked black feet. His features not obtain. They were mementoes from the were noble, and his beard long and black. distant fatherland, and possibly they served He looked like a conjurer, like the lord of an as sacred ornaments for the little cell. There enchanted castle, summoning his spirits. The were also several censers, laips, and little hissing fire, as if obeying him, flashed up silver plates and salvers. The air was stifling more brightly at the crash of the bells; now from the fumes of gas, and the heat was like it was clear as day around us, and now it was that of a vapor bath. The priest took from twilight as the wind lowered the flame. My the altar some pieces of red and white candied busband and sons and the guide who had sugar, held them, praying, before his idols, brought us to the place, were all dressed in sprinkled thein with holy water, and handed oriental costume, and I alone seemed to them to us on a silver plate. belong to Europe. A shudder of home-sick- A second Hindoo now came in, a tall old ness came over me, and at every moment man, whose name, as he told us, was AminI expected to see something monstrous, to taas. He invited us into his cell, which was behold all the cruelties of a heathenish and larger and differently arranged. In the cenbarbarous worship.
tre was a large kettle, set in mason-work, The interpreter now summoned us to with water in it, and a gas flame burning follow the Geber. We were told that the under it; the altar was in another apartment castle was built by a rich Indian nabob, who beyond, and separated from the first by a was a fire worshipper, and who, with his low wall or fence, with a passage through. followers, long inhabited it. Now, only three Another apartment, similarly divided off, Hindoos remain from that period of splendor. was spread with carpets for sleeping. AfBut nature remains eternally the same, and ter we had seen the stones, shells, and whether worshipped or not, the flames still idols, which were richer and more nushine and awe the superstitious, and so great merous than in the former cell, the Hindoos is the fame of the place that many pilgrims asked us if they should pray for us. We come yearly from distant India to pray, and agreed, and the ceremony began. A large to have prayers said for them, here in the muscle shell was washed in the kettle, the visible presence of the primeval light. plates were set in order at the foot of the
At last we came to the cell of the priest, altar, a censer began to smoke, the silver and on his invitation entered it. We passed plate with candied sugar was set over a lamp throngh a low door, and down a few steps, between two bells, whose handles were the and found ourselves in a small, semicircular, most monstrous figures of idols. These bells low, but very white room, with a floor of Amintaas took and began to ring vehemently. mason-work, and a small altar in the centre. The other Hindoos stood behind him and Around the wall were seats, also of mason-i beat two big cymbals, accompanying this work. In the altar there was an opening as noise with the most inhuman and frightful large as a gun-barrel, from which rose a slen- howling that a man's lungs ever produced.
Still, there was method and a regular cadence blows, in the romantic fire-castle. This disin it. Finally, they made a panse, bowed gusted me, and yet it is not the fault of these before the images, murmuring softly, after poor fellows. They must necessarily become which they arranged the plates anew, and covetous, since they profane their most sacred sprinkled the sugar with holy water. My ceremonies as a means of living. They have husband whispered in my car a line from neither fields nor gardens, and the only thing the conjuration in “Faust," and the whole of like vegetation that I saw was some lone that scene rushed vividly into my memory. I boxes in the court yard, filled with shrubs
Meanwhile the lungs of the old Amintaas and plants, remains, no doubt, from the time had recovered their power, for he now seized of the Indian nabob, wlio sought in vain to A conch shell, beld' it in both hands, and establish cultivation in a soil impregnated with incredible strength blew long wild notes, with inflammable gas. However, I learned with scarce any thing like a tune. I grew to my sorrow that grass at least grows there, dizzy in listening to this clamor, and at once for, in going through it to the spring, my feet understood what is meant by the heathen became perfectly wet. making a “ vain noise." This cannibalistic The air of the locality does not seem to be music was kept up for a long time, and unwholesome for man. At least, the Geber seemed to form the climax of the sacred rites. priests, who liad lived there for years, were The finale was a combination of wild shouting, perfect lions for health and vigor. banging of the cymbals, ringing and murmuring. At last the concert was over, and we ! A NEW PORTRAIT OF CICERO. breathed freely. Amintaas handed us the IN the third volume of his History of the candied sugar, and my husband laid dowu | Romans under the Empire, just published two ducats in its place. They were received in London, Mr. MERIVALE gives some elaborwith warm expressions of gratitude, and laid ate pieces of character writing, one of which upon the altar. We went out into the open has for its subject CICERO. It is not good for air, but the scene had changed. The lonely a man to think harshly of Cicero, and howcastle was crowded with Persians who had ever easy it may seem to be to condemn macome from their lime-burning to see the Eu- nifest faults in his character, it is by no means ropeans. Persian women were sitting around easy to be fair in the estimate we make. Mr. by sundry little ovens of masonry, where, by Merivale sums up a character which has too the help of gas flames, they baked their often been roughly put down as that of a T:heuks, thin cakes of unleavened bread. great writer and a little man, as follows: Followed by the crowd, we were led a couple “Many writers, it has been remarked, have re of hundred steps from the castle to a spring lated the death of Cicero, but Plutarch alone has that was covered over; the cover was taken painted it. In the narrative here laid before him off, and a bundle of burning straw thrown in, | the reader has the substance of this picturesque when, crackling and hissing, sprung up a splen- account, together with some touches introduced did pillar of fire, vanishing in sparks like stars.
from collateral sources. In this, as in many other This beautiful spectacle lasted but for a mo- passages of his Lives, the Greek biographer has ment, and a quarter of an hour was necessary
evidently aimed at creating an effect, and though to collect gas enough to repeat the experiment.
he seems to have been mainly guided by the geWe returned to Baku in the rain, more
nuine narrative of Tiro, Cicero's beloved freeddead than alive. It was the eve of Easter.
man, we may suspect him of having embellished
· Lit to furnish a striking termination to one of his faThe next morning, as I was sitting on the
vorite sketches. Nevertheless the narrative is 8ofa with the children, there came in a tall,
mainly confirmed by a fragment of Livy's bistory, meagre Hindoo, with gray hair ; he was which has fortunately been preserved. The R dressed in a white robe, and brought me man author vies with the Greek in throwing digwhite and red sugar on a silver plate. He nity and interest over the great statesman's end. was the chief priest from the temple of the But in reviewing the uneven tenor of his career, Gebers, and had come to Baku to see the Livy concludes with the stern comment, “ He bore Easter festivities. We took a few grains of vone of his calamities as a man should, except his his sugar, and I laid a silver rouble on the death." These are grave words. In the mouth plate. While he was making his bows for of one who had cast his scrutinizing glance over this, my husband came in and told him. the characters and exploits of all the heroes of the partly in Tartar, partly in Russian, and partly great republi
great republic, and had learnt by the training of in pantomime, that we had been to his temple
his life-long studies to discriminate moral qualities the night before, and had prayers said there.
and estimate desert, they constitute the most imHe asked at once, with eagerness, how much
portant judgment on the conduct of Cicero that we had given, and when he learned the sum,
antiquity has bequeathed to us. Few indeed asked for a certificate to that effect, as, with
among the Romans ever betrayed a want of reso
lution in the face of impending death. But it was ont it, the others would give him no part of
in the endurance of calamity rather than the dethe money. We sent him away without fiance of danger that the courage of Cicero was granting his request, for the two screamers deficient. The orator, whose genius lay in the of the night previous had earned all we gavearts of peace and persuasion, exhibited on more them. We learned afterwards that the gifts than one occasion a martial spirit worthy of other of visitors occasioned quarrels, and often / habits and a ruder training. In the contest with