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quake were experienced, and alternately various slight ones. On the 21st the day dawned serenely, and dissipated, in some measure, the existing apprehension. At eight o'clock in the morning, however, alarm was again excited, as the great quantity of volcanic matter with which the atmosphere was charged prevented the passage of the rays of the sun. On this day the dust fell in less quantity and much finer, and the shocks continued alternately strong and slight. During the night the noises and reports continued. At the dawn of the 22d the dust fell abundantly, and the noises and shocks continued. The squares and streets of the city were covered to the depth of five inches with fine dust, which, at the least breath of air, rose and filled the organs of respiration ; the trees in the fields and the roofs of the houses were alike covered, and the rivers were infected with a baleful stench. In this situation the municipality called a meeting of the inhabitants, but the only measures that could be resolved on were to endeavour to wet the dust, which was considered injurious to health, and to supply the people with provisions. On this day the horizon was observed to become clear and the atmosphere freer. From time to time slight shocks and rumblings were experienced. The evening twilight was clear, the stars were soon discovered, and at twelve o'clock at night praises and thanks to the Supreme Being were heard for the manifest change. At that very hour, however, a rumbling noise was heard, which continued increasing, without interruption, until a violent report took place as of the discharge of masses of heavy cannon. It continued until a quarter past twelve; when a violent shock took place, which was the presage of a new eruption, and the rumblings continued, with some intervals of frightful silence. A dark column was seen to ascend anew from Cosigama, covering the city, concealing the stars, and filling the hearts of the people with terror by the dreadful reports and shocks.
Prayers and supplications were offered up in every quarter ; but about half-past eight the darkness had much increased. The whole population, believing their last hour was come, assembled in groups with loud lamentations. At nine o'clock a scene more terrible than any preceding began. The dreadful rumblings were repeated, the sky displayed through the darkness reddened glares, and at halfpast ten thunder was heard in various directions, with sharp lightnings. The darkness continued throughout the day; the dust and sand fell abundantly, and the day closed, leaving the inhabitants, in the deepest consternation, to await the day-break, to disperse that darkness which had continued, except for a very short space of time, for thirty-six hours. On the 24th, 25th, and 26th, (the latter is the day on which the report is dated,) all remained in the same state. The ground-buildings were then covered to the depth of eight inches, in which were found birds of all kinds suffocated. Even many of the quadrupeds from the forest sought shelter in the town; and the river, polluted with sand, cast upon their shores innumerable fish, in a torpid state, and some dead.
Great consternation appears to have prevailed when the advices left.
Dr. Meyen, the Prussian circumnavi. gator, states that the trade in insects is carried to a great and profitable extent at Rio. A slave, who has acquired a certain degree of skill, may catch from 200 to 600 beetles in one day, close to the town, which fetch at the rate of about 138. the hundred. The ladies in Europe are beginning to ornament their dresses with them, to a degree that threatens the extinction of the whole race. The celebrated diamond-beetle was so much in request, for breast-pins, as to fetch as much as six piastres (about 308.) each.
Notices of Books.
Since we last noticed the Rev. T. S. Grimshawe's edition of “ The Life and Works of Cowper," two new volumes have appeared; from which fact our readers will properly infer, that the work
is progressing according to its original prospectus. We are delighted with the engravings; they are exquisite specimens of art; we admire the talent and piety of the Editor, which are increasingly
developed as he proceeds in his under taking; and we feel our interest deepen in the work as we proceed. Talk of novels indeed! why the whole mass of them never yielded so much pleasure as do these volumes. As one proof of this, we assure our readers, that we read every line of them as soon as they are published.
" Ninian Robinson, the Greenwich Pensioner, who died at the age of ninetytwo years,” by the Rev. T. TImpson, is a truly valuable little memoir of a very worthy old man, who showed that he possessed piety, and gave evidence of * bringing forth fruit in old age.”
Our publishers have just issued a most admirable 12mo. volume, entitled, “ The Great Teacher: Characteristics of our Lord's Ministry." By the Rev. John HARRIS, of Epsom. Very rarely, indeed, do we examine a book containing so much powerful and correct thinking and ardent piety as will be found in this volume. We earnestly recommend it to our reverend brethren, and to all who love sound doctrine and valuable instruction. We shall be greatly surprised if it is not highly valued for many years to come.
Among the recent publications of the Religious Tract Society, there are two which appear to us well adapted for the use and the profit of the family circle :The one is the Rev. John CAMPBELL'S “ Journey to Lattakoo, in South Africa;" which will be highly prized by the young, and the other, “AnecdotesSocial Life," which seems adapted to please, and to be useful to all.
" Rylandiana : Reminiscences relating to the Rev. John Ryland, M.A., of Northampton," by W. NEWMAN, D.D., just published by Wightman, is a somewhat late but valuable memoir of an extraordinary man, by one who resided for some years under his roof. We cordially thank Dr. Newman for this portraiture of a man for whose name we have, from the days of our youth, felt a very high veneration.
“ Inclination and Duty at Variance," by the author of “ The Military Blacksmith," is one of the interesting tales now so often used to illustrate great principles. It is very pleasingly written, and will be a favourite with the young persons who may accept of our recommendations, and purchase it. It is published by Burns, of Portman-square.
“ The Life of Miss A. J. Linnard," published in the series of Christian Biography, by the Religious Tract So. ciety, delineates the holy career of a " woman professing godliness," and presents an example which may be introduced into every family with great advantage.
“ Missionary Stories-Indiato illustrate the Customs and Superstitions of the Heathen," is a neat little volume, adapted in size for the pocket. It tells several affecting stories in a pleasing style, which will tend to impress the hearts of their readers with an increasing concern in Christian missions.
" The Table of the Lord,” by the Rev. JAMES MILLAR, is a sensible and pious treatise on a deeply interesting topic, adapted to the Church of Scotland, of which the author is a Minister. In contains much sound instruction, delivered in a perspicuous style. It is sold by Burns, Portman-square.
Have our readers ever seen “ Carne's Lives of Eminent Missionaries," published by Messrs. Fisher and Jackson ? Very few authors can write more beautifully than Mr. Carne, and it would be somewhat difficult to name a similar work half so interesting as this production of his pen. We have now before us the third volume, which is devoted to “ Eminent Roman Catholic Mission aries ;” and, differing from them as we do in theology, we cannot but admire the determined zeal and perseverance which distinguished their labours, and hope that our friends will profit by their biography.
“ Two Sermons, on the Nature of the Godhead ; The Sinner his own Destroyer," by a Clergyman of the Church of England, sold by the publisher of the preceding work, discovers much scriptural knowledge and correct feeling on the part of the preacher. We earnestly pray that this well-directed effort for the welfare of his charge may be attended with success.
EPHRAIM HOLDING; OR, THE FAMILY VISITOR.
EPHRAIM HOLDING TO sons. How often has Ephraim Holding caught the sunny glance of a parent's eye, as it lighted affectionately and exultingly on a beloved child! How often has he witnessed an expression of joy that almost amounted to pride, in the approving smile of a parent whose heart yearned towards his son! Pity it is that such glances and such smiles are not worn by parents every day in the year, and every hour in the day. And why should they not be ? why should there be such a thing as a disobedient son or an unhappy parent in the world ?
If children knew better than they do, how much joy and sorrow their good and bad conduct puts into a father's and a mother's bosom, surely they would do many things which they now leave undone, and leave undone much that they now do.
Bad as the world is, one would think that there was affection enough in the breast of a son to make his parents happy; and so there is in ten thousand instances ; let us do all we can to increase it.
I love to see more than common affection between parents and children. Whether their state be high or low, is of little importance, but it is of great importance whether or not they delight to render each other happy. The love of a parent for a child is strong as death. What will not a father do, what will not a mother suffer, to add to the happiness of a beloved child!
Some time ago I was present in a large town, when the scholars of a score Sunday-schools met together to walk in procession to a place of worship. A short woman was bustling about, at one time peeping between the people, at another standing on tip-toe, and trying to look over their heads. When she came to the place where I was standing, she could keep silence no longer, but cried out, “That's my son, Sir, in the blue jacket.” Poor woman ! her heart was full of her son, and she expected all the world would be as much interested in him as she was.
I remember once sitting beside an old gentleman when a gold medal was to be given away, as a prize for good conduct and attainments in learning. The medal was presented to a boy of about sixteen years of age, who, it was said, well merited the reward. “ Can you tell me who that clever young man is ?” said I; “Sir," replied the old gentleman, sitting up at least an inch higher on his seat, “ he is my son.”
There was all the father at work in his bosom, and no doubt he was much more delighted than if he himself had received the golden medal.
Ephraim Holding notices these things as he moves about in the world, and takes the opportunity of making them known to others.
But shall I tell you, yes, I will tell you, another instance of parental feeling towards a son. It may make your heart ache, but for all that it may do you good.
In spending a day in a country town, I was led by curiosity to hear the trials of the prisoners in the County Hall. There were three men placed at the bar who had been found guilty, and the judge was putting on his black cap to pronounce the sentence of the law. One of the three, a young man of decent appearance, who had buried his face in his hands, after sobbing convulsively, lowered his head to the bar and gave a groan. His forehead and hair were wet with perspiration. His body trembled, and it was plain he was enduring the agonies of fear, remorse, and shame.
“What crime has the unhappy man committed ?” said I in a whisper to one who was leaning against me. No answer was returned ; but, as I tried to lift up my hat to prevent it from being crushed, a big tear fell on the back of my hand. I looked up and saw the horror-struck face of a white-headed old man. The truth flashed upon me at once, which was afterwards confirmed—that white-headed old man was the culprit's father!
Sons, of whatever age you may be, add to your own happiness by adding to the happiness of those who gave you birth. The words of holy writ, that you learned in your early childhood, should influence you as much as if an angel cried aloud with every rising sun, “ Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.'
It was but yesterday that I was sitting with my Bible before me, when turning over the leaves, my eye rested on the book of Proverbs. No wonder that Solomon was called a wise man, when he could write such a work ; but his hand was under a holy influence, and in every verse it may be said, “ A greater than Solomon is here."
The counsel given to all in this glorious book is excellent; but the
advice offered to sons is strikingly beautiful. It should be not only in the hand of every son, but also in his head.
“My son ! hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother.” “My son! despise not the chastening of the Lord ; neither be weary of his correction.” “My son! if sinners entice thee, consent thou not.” Why these three verses are worth three thousand volumes of worldly wisdom; and those sons who put them in practice will reap a richer harvest than they would in gaining the riches of the East.
Sons are usually fond of doing what their fathers do; and fathers will do well to remember this, that a model may be placed before their children, worthy their imitation. When I see a son following his father, looking up to him, respecting his opinions, and honouring him, I have but little fear of his doing well. It is true there are bad fathers, who set any thing but a good example, but I trust that it is not the case with yours.
Among the Indians of America, lived one Taetoo, a brave man; he had a son that he loved, and his son loved and reverenced his father.
It happened that Taetoo was taken prisoner by a tribe at war with him. Taetoo had heavy chains fastened on his hands and his feet, and he was cast into prison with his son, who shared his captivity.
After a time, Taponee, being a fine youth, was taken before the chief, whose prisoner he was. The Chief Willahoo, having no child, wished to adopt him as his son. “Taponee,” said he, showing him rich ornaments for the wrists and the ancles, “ choose which you will, they are all at your disposal.” Taponee took them up, one by one, and then replaced them on the ground. “ As you give me my choice,” said the noble youth, “I had rather wear such as my father wears."
It was a noble answer, a high-souled reply, to a tempting seduction; the bonds of his father were more grateful than the gifts of a prince. Sons, refuse not the lesson given by an unlettered Indian.
To you who are young, I would speak earnestly! Let all that is good in your parents be seen in you. The rattle of the earth on the coffin-lid of a parent is a fearful thing; but the consciousness of having been an undutiful son is yet more fearful. Ephraim Holding has known the one, and humbly blesses God for having been kept in ignorance of the other.