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(c) In order to protect the air, land, water, and natural and cultural values of the National Park System and the property of the United States therein, no solid waste disposal site (including any site for the disposal of domestic or industrial solid wastes) may be operated within the boundary of any unit of the National Park System, other than

(1) a site which was operating as of September 1, 1984, or (2) a site used only for disposal of wastes generated within that unit of the park system so long as such site will not degrade any of the natural or cultural resources of such park unit.

The Secretary of the Interior shall promulgate regulations to carry out the provisions of this subsection, including reasonable regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of solid waste disposal sites in operation as of September 1, 1984, upon property of the United States.

(d) The proceeds received from any conveyance under this section shall be credited to the land and water conservation fund in the Treasury of the United States.

(Public Law 91–357; 84 Stat. 472; 16 U.S.C. 18g through 18j)

AN ACT To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to establish a volunteers in the park program, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, [16 U.S.C. 18g] That the Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as the Secretary) is authorized to recruit, train, and accept without regard to the civil service classification laws, rules, or regulations the services of individuals without compensation as volunteers for or in aid of interpretive functions, or other visitor services or activities in and related to areas administered by the Secretary through the National Park Service. In accepting such services of individuals or volunteers, the Secretary shall not permit the use of volunteers in hazardous duty or law enforcement work or in policymaking processes, or to displace any employee: Provided, That the services of individuals whom the Secretary determined are skilled in performing hazardous activities may be accepted.

SEC. 2. [16 U.S.C. 18h] The Secretary is authorized to provide for incidental expenses, such as transportation, uniforms, lodging, and subsistence.

SEC. 3. [16 U.S.C. 18i] (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a volunteer shall not be deemed a Federal employee and shall not be subject to the provisions of law relating to Federal employment, including those relating to hours of work, rates of compensation, leave, unemployment compensation, and Federal employee benefits.

(b) For the purpose of the tort claim provisions of title 28 of the United States Code 2, a volunteer under this Act shall be considered a Federal employee.

(c) For the purposes of subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5 of the United States Code, relating to compensation to Federal employees for work injuries, volunteers under this Act shall be deemed civil employees of the United States within the meaning of the term "employee" as defined in section 8101 of title 5, United States Code, and the provisions of that subchapter shall apply.

(d) For the purpose of claims relating to damage to, or loss of, personal property of a volunteer incident to volunteer service, a vol

1 This is the short title for the Act. See section 5.

2 The tort claims provisions referred to in subsection (b) are codified at section 1346(b) of title 28, U.S.C., and as chapter 171 of such title.


unteer under this Act shall be considered a Federal employee, and the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3721 shall apply.

SEC. 4. [16 U.S.C. 18j] There are authorized to be appropriated such sums a may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, but not more than $3,500,000 shall be appropriated in

any one year.

SEC. 5. [16 U.S.C. 18g note] This Act may be cited as the "Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969."

J. PUBLIC LAW 91-383


(Act of August 18, 1970; 84 Stat. 825; 16 U.S.C. 1a-1 through la-7a)

AN ACT To improve the administration of the national park system by the Secretary of the Interior, and to clarify the authorities applicable to the system, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, [16 U.S.C. la-1] That Congress declares that the national park system, which began with establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872, has since grown to include superlative natural, historic, and recreation areas in every major region of the United States, its territories and island possessions; that these areas, though distinct in character, are united through their inter-related purposes and resources into one national park system as cumulative expressions of a single national heritage; that, individually and collectively, these areas derive increased national dignity and recognition of their superb environmental quality through their inclusion jointly with each other in one national park system preserved and managed for the benefit and inspiration of all the people of the United States; and that it is the purpose of this Act to include all such areas in the System and to clarify the authorities applicable to the system. Congress further reaffirms, declares, and directs that the promotion and regulation of the various areas of the National Park System, as defined in section 2 of this Act, shall be consistent with and founded in the purpose established by the first section of the Act of August 25, 1916, to the common benefit of all the people of the United States. The authorization of activities shall be construed and the protection, management, and administration of these areas shall be conducted in light of the high public value and integrity of the National Park System and shall not be exercised in derogation of the values and purposes for which these various areas have been established, except as may have been or shall be directly and specifically provided by Congress.

SEC. 2. [Omitted-Amendment]

SEC. 3. [16 U.S.C. 1a-2] In order to facilitate the administration of the national park system, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized, under such terms and conditions as he may deem advisable, to carry out the following activities:

(a) provide transportation of employees located at isolated areas of the national park system and to members of their families, where (1) such areas not adequately served by com

mercial transportation, and (2) such transportation is incidental to official transportation services;

(b) provide recreation facilities, equipment, and services for use by employees and their families located at isolated areas of the national park system;

(c) appoint and establish such advisory committees in regard to the functions of the National Park Service as he may deem advisable, members of which shall receive no compensation for their services as such but who shall be allowed necessary travel expenses as authorized by section 5 of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946 (5 U.S.Č. 5703);

(d) purchase field and special purpose equipment required by employees for the performance of assigned functions which shall be regarded and listed as park equipment;

(e) enter into contracts which provide for the sale or lease to persons, States, or their political subdivisions, of services, resources, or water available within an area of the national park system, as long as such activity does not jeopardize or unduly interfere with the primary natural or historic resource of the area involved, if such person, State, or its political subdivi


(1) provides public accommodations or services within the immediate vicinity of an area of the national park system to persons visiting the area; and

(2) has demonstrated to the Secretary that there are no reasonable alternatives by which to acquire or perform the necessary services, resources, or water;

(f) acquire, and have installed, air-conditioning units for any Government-owned passenger motor vehicles used by the National Park Service, where assigned duties necessitate long periods in automobiles or in regions of the United States where high temperatures and humidity are common and prolonged;

(g) sell at fair market value without regard to the requirements of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, products and services produced in the conduct of living exhibits and interpretive demonstrations in areas of the national park system, to enter into contracts including cooperative arrangements with respect to such living exhibits and interpretive demonstrations, and to credit the proceeds therefrom to the appropriation bearing the cost of such exhibits and demonstrations; 1 Sixty percent of the fees paid by permittees for the privilege of entering into Glacier Bay for the period beginning on the first full fiscal year following the date of enactment of this sentence shall be deposited into a special account and that such funds shall be available—

(1) to the extent determined necessary, to acquire and preposition necessary and adequate emergency response equipment to prevent harm or the threat of harm to aquatic park resources from permittees; and

In subsection (g), section 703 of the Omnibus Parks and Public Land Management Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-333; 110 Stat. 4185) added the language dealing with Glacier Bay at the end of the subsection. As a result of the amendment, the semicolon after the word "demonstrations" should have been changed to a period.

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