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the warning, went back with them to endorf, his yet more renowned rival, the retired little house in a garden who had examined and judged two where he was then passing his quiet hundred Greek manuscripts dating days, and throwing himself down on a from before the ninth century,-an sofa let the magician work his mighty achievement without parallel,—was "a spell upon him. Schopenhauer was a small, rather bent figure, with fresh revelation, intimate, astonishing, per- rosy cheeks and curly black hair,” a sonal, if he had written for study in character, much more comNietzsche alone. An energetic, plex than Dindorf, “cunning and dipgloomy genius,” assuredly; and lomatic, fanatical, frivolous, ever may well believe that “every line sharpsighted in his own department, which cried aloud of renunciation and painfully exact in publication, vain beself-denial” spoke to the tormented yond all bounds, greedy of gain, despirit; that “here, as in a looking- fensor fidei, a courtier, and a specuglass,” or a prose-version of “Faust,” lator in the book-market.” Verily, as he saw "the world, life, and his own Nietzsche observes, "a versatile soul." mind in terrible majesty,”—“the sun- He inspired students with his like glance of art; sickness and heal- passion for palæography, though puring; banishment and refuge; Heaven suing no system; and his lectures, and Hell." He began to despise, to again remarks the satirist, might have chasten himself; his diary abounded in been dubbed "Tischendorf's Life and sharp satire on his own weakness; he Experience.” Nietzsche, however, fol. was nervous and ill, yet deprived him- lowed them with steady enthusiasm. self of sleep, sitting up until two in His Theognis had won the applause the morning to rise again at six. How of Ritschl and Dindorf; he wrote on would all this have ended? It is his the "sources of Suidas" and the “cataown question, and he answers, “Who logues of Aristotle," and was led by a can tell to what height of folly I happy chance to the question of the should have ventured, had not vanity materials employed by Diogenes Laerand the pressure of regular studies tius in his “Lives of the Philosophers.” wrought in a contrary direction?" All this sound and careful work may

He was not greatly in love with “reg- be taken as evidence that Nietzsche ular studies.” The famous professors, was no more threatened with insanity he judged, were by no means extraor- than another Leipzig student. His dinary men, but rather “Helots” of larger views, derived from Schopenlearning, Gibeonites who made a deal hauer and now moulding themselves too much clamor about the wood in the aphoristic forms of Emerson, they were condemned to hew and the whom he thought a master of prose, water they were drawing for a tem- though they troubled his imagination, ple which, to their dim vision, was out did not throw him off his balance. So of sight. He describes Wilhelm Din- much is clear from letters and docudorf as a "powerful-looking man, with ments of this time. A change, indeed, features like parchment, old-fashioned, was approaching; the first signal of and formal in his manners;" with which sent him, in 1867, to Naumburg keen, cautious eyes; a pessimist in in the uniform of a military conscript. principle, yet full of the “mercantile Nietzsche was a tall fellow, well set egoism” which led him to sell his crit- up, of the same height as Goethe, with ical conjectures in the dearest market, dark, earnest eyes, which German and drive bard bargains (be this a erudition had dimmed before their venial offence!) with English and Ger- time. As learned men will do, he wore man publishers. Nietzsche distrusted spectacles of a less powerful kind than him, and would enter into no dealings befitted him; yet he had been with the man whose services to others empted from service until the reguhe thought were little better than lation was altered; and with glasses huntings on his own account. Tisch- No. 8, the student of Suidas discovered

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that he must join the field artillery. may be called the German fanaticism He could ride; it does not appear of philology, as a similar period at whether he could shoot. And Naum- Bonn had seen him break his moorings burg was his home. But admirably as and leave the orthodox creed behind he went about his fresh duties, there him. Now, too, he made Wagner's acwas, he could not help saying, some- quaintance. And at Christmas, 1868, thing absurd in the sight of a cannon- to the joy and wonder of his homeeer perched on a joint-stool in a bar- circle, Fritz, who was only just turned rack-room, plunged in thoughts of twenty-four, learned that, thanks to Democritus—that "great heathen” was Ritschl, he had been appointed pronow the subject of his classic read- fessor of classical philology at Basle. ing—and intent on "overcoming nega- The distinction flattered him, though tion by negation,” the modern prob- the accompanying stipend was Sparlem which, as a figure of black care, tan, not exceeding 1201. a year—an insits behind every horseman nowadays. come which his aunt Rosalie's legacy He had promised his dying aunt enabled him to round off somewhat Rosalie not to unsettle his sister's re- more to his liking. ligious convictions by talking about Here the story in detail of Nietzsche's Schopenhauer. And the other artil- life may be suspended, until its second lerymen did not affect Democritus or volume sees the light. Henceforward, Attic inscriptions. An immense enter- our judgment of the man need not de prise began to solicit him, the history pend on brief and fragmentary recof "studies in literature,” treated with ords; from the year 1869 his composiphilosophic largeness, or “the relation tions were almost unbroken, though which learning bears to genius,”—to il- the first, wbich is a key to all that follustrate by a concrete example (per- lowed, did not appear until 1872. It haps the most striking one could sug- was called "The Birth of Tragedy gest) what is the kinship, or the con- from the Spirit of Music.” In a preftrast, between men like Tischendorf ace, subsequently published, the and the writers of that New Testa- author, whose style had in the mean ment with the Sinaitic recension of time undergone a complete transwhich Tischendorf's name will be-for- formation, bids us observe that "behind ever associated? Nietzsche held that this questionable book lay a problem it was the relation known to mathema- of the first rank and enticement, but ticians as "inverse proportion." The likewise a deep personal interest." scholar, the critic, the pedant,-types While, he continues, the thunder of which he knew so well,-how dissect the battle of Wörth went echoing over and explain them on the sombre Europe, there sat in an Alpine nook, world system of Schopenhauer? The sorely perplexed and puzzled, an enigsubject had its fascinations. But his matical person who was anxious to artillery-horse was neighing for him; write down his thoughts concerning and in suddenly leaping on that fiery the old Greeks. Not many weeks beast, the philosopher met with an ac- later, he found himself under the walls cident that nearly cost him his life. of Metz, still plagued with the note He had injured two muscles of the of interrogation which he had set chest; fever ensued, operation against Hellenic "blitheness" (Heiterseemed necessary; and though the keit) and its true relation to their art. wound healed, after five months of At length, in that month so full of sussuffering, without aid from the knife, pense when peace was being debated, military service was, for the present, he too found a sort of peace; and durat an end. Nietzsche enjoyed half a ing his long convalescence from an illyear's respite from duty; he ness contracted in the French cam“alone with himself.” In this inter- paigns, he saw ancient Tragedy rising val, he was busy with the considera- out of the genius of Music. Had then tions which divorced him from what the Greeks need of tragedy? he asked,

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-they, the sprightliest race under Wagner, and his prophet Schopenheaven, need of anguish and the bur hauer. He revelled in imagery, and den of sorrow beneath which

spoke as to the initiated, furnishing a sinks down into the deeps and is seen curious contrast to that light and no more? Surely, here opens before rapid movement which was. afterus, he said, the problem which Schopen wards to give his thoughts wings and hauer has revealed to our modern con- to lift them into cloudless ether. His sciousness,—the value of existence and grasp of the whole Greek literature is the meaning of Pessimism. So it ap- masterly. But even more remarkable peared to Nietzsche then; but sixteen is the insight which leads him to deal years afterwards, in this very preface, with it as a symbol and expression of he could say that it was the primary that complex world which we know question of science itself upon which as the life of the Greeks.

He sees he had lighted.

them in the presence of primeval naFor an English reader, probably the ture, struggling with the huge and terspeediest way into this fine suggestive rible powers they were bound to tame essay,

would be through Walter if they would not perish. Profoundly Pater's meditations on “Dionysus, the observant of the recurring cycles in spiritual form of fire and dew," on the their civilization, he goes beyond Pater Bacchanals" of Euripides, the myth and the folk-lore which is content to of Demeter and Persephone, and the deduce the Eleusinian mysteries from romantic elements—so he terms them corn and wine. He sees in them a -in Hellenic religion. But Nietzsche philosophy encompassing all the takes a grander sweep. Whether his mythologies—Titans and Olympians; conclusions will bear the weight which Dionysus the ecstatic deity, and the he has laid upon them, is a question Dorian Apollo, lord of measure; he opfor critics,-yet, assuredly, not for poses to them Socrates the cool reacritics of the low and grovelling kind soner, the man of theory, with his which crawls with the serpent on its crowd of disciples fed upon abstracbelly and bites the dust of learning. tions, but fatal to the unconscious It is highly significant that his great Hellenic spirit, which had dreamt its monumental work, "Thus Spake noblest dreams, ay, and realized them Zarathustra," was in Nietzsche's plans in bronze and marble, in music and but a prelude to one still greater, the speech, in polity and action, before title of which should be “Dionysus, a the age of Plato, destined as this too Phílosophy of Eternal Recurrence.” surely was, to run down in decadence And while many have suspected that and bring forth Callimachus and the in his frequent prologues,-all so lively Alexandrians. It is a fruitful, farand graceful,-no less than during the reaching theme. We may boldly proprocess of manipulation by which he nounce that it filled the mind and fired re-wrought his volumes, this author the imagination of this deep thinker, was fond of antedating views and put until its vastness proved too much for ting forward a consistency never at- him. Neither, as we are compelled tained by him, certain it is that in to maintain, did he resolve his prob“The Birth of Tragedy" we may dis- lem aright; the fault, however, lay in

“that unbodied figure of the those who taught him,-in Kant, in thought, which gave it surmised Schopenhauer, in the German philososhape,” Nay, quite unbodied; phy which has set out from a suicidal there is much expressive delineation, unreason rather than from fact and if also the confusing influence of Aristotle. Let honor the man “prematurę, too green and sallow whose eyes are open to so large a growths of life,” which hindered the pect, though he cannot draw the map language of its clearness.

of its pathways correctly, or guide us Nietzsche had, in this first attempt, in our travelling over it.

The scope copied the Romantic school,-Heine, and meaning of Greek tragedy, which

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involves Greek religion, and puts the to learn; sorrow passes into Nirvana, most searching questions to philoso- the denial of life familiar to ascetics phies old and new, can never be truly Eastern and Western; "the wheel of perceived except we take into account Ixion stands still," and evil is overthe point of sight whereat Nietzsche come. Such was the doctrine borhas placed us.

rowed from mystics by the recluse of This “mystic mạnad soul," whose ut- Frankfort to heal the despair which terances challenged an attention they Kant's “Critique" had brought forth, did not for some years win, was origi- by a more profound and yet poetical nal rather in temperament than in resignation! It is the merit of theory, and most of all in manner. Nietzsche to have turned these sombre Transplanted from the still Lutheran lights on the men of Hellas, over air and climate, to which Pietism gave whose bright heaven the shadows a warm touch, behold it shivering in might seem to pass like translucent the Nova Zembla where life

clouds. Music meant much to turned to ice under Kant's dreary dis- them; and all the soothing, elevating enchantments. Reason, made sud- arts sprang out of it. To modern denly aware of its own impotence,- loungers at the play and the opera, so Nietzsche felt, would drive thought- what is tragedy save a sensation, or ful men towards the wilderness in a stimulant which they take for its which, for example, Heinrich von bitterness, and which, intellectually, Kleist had done himself to death. is no more than a pastime? The How could they learn resignation? Greek tragedy was infinitely more,Where find hope? Did any power did we term it even, in Goethe's wellexist more primitive than Reason, worn phrase, the “Religion of Sordeeper down in the world's founda- row," its Prometheus and Ajax, its tions, and, so to speak, aboriginal, be- Antigone and Cassandra, its Epidus yond the predicates which, according upon whom all the griefs of the world to the shadowy teaching of Königs- had come, might bear us out. Was berg, man had laid upon the unknown it not, however, from first to last, the and thereby taken the mirage for an service of Dionysus, beginning with authentic vision? Yes, beyond Reason those ecstatic dithyrambs in which there was Life,—the Will, as Schopen- the music overpowered the human syl. hauer affirmed,

,-an ever-recurring in- lables, and ending-for that was, truly, stinct or effort towards existence, the end of it all-with Euripides, the which, like some ocean pouring out too domestic, argumentative, sention all sides countless torrents and cat- ment-mongering poet, and his unavailaracts, rushed into the millions upon ing recantation in the “Bacchanals"? millions of individuals, and swept for- What, then, was Dionysus? А ward with them into the future. Not, power excelling the vine-spirit and far indeed, as Shelley sings, "One spirit's more ancient,-he was the “Will to plastic stress” compels these succes- live,” that outrush of energy which, in sions to take forms so lovely or so ter- creatures so impressionable the rible; "spirit,” like "reason," which Greeks, was at once motion and emoimplies design, or at least system, is tion,-frenzied music, surrender to imman's device, and the primal instinct pulse, ecstasy, as we have named it. remains forever blind,-instinct sig. The original tragedy is the chorus. nifies blindness. Yet we seem to ob- When the god appears, drama begins; serve art in the world, tragic and, as the interchange of choral worenough, since it must go down to ship develops into narrative, Apollo, Hades with ourselves whom it has with his measured iambics and art of enthralled and comforted. When we

reason, charms the wild rage until it know this secret,—the burden of all is purified and brought under law. music, painting, speech, and song When reason degenerates into reason. which bring us rest-we have no more ing, and the myth and the chorus be

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come a stage decoration for sophists as Lichtenberg would say, shall anto argue and wrangle in front of it, nounce a new religion and talk big Dionysus vanishes away; it is an age

concerning “our faith.” Still less can of decline, and life sinks down to lit- he feel delighted with the German inerature, make-believe, commonplace. sensibility to all fair forms of speech Instead of heroic resignation, enter and behavior. They have grown blind. upon the stage commercial optimism, in the presence of those Greeks and bourgeois virtue, the greatest happi

Romans whom they amend remorseness of the greatest number, Epicurus lessly,-he has an eye upon Dindorf,or Bentham, and science as saving while from the French they borrow truth,the Truth," in spite of all the just enough to make themselves Humes, Kants, and Berkeleys that laughing-stock in their ill-fitting attire. ever proved its hollowness.

Must he not praise Schopenbauer all Such was the counterblast to mod the more that such a one could lead ern civilization wherewith Nietzsche his independent life, and restore the began his career. With no uncertain genuine idea of philosophy (it is not sound he pleaded for life against ab- book-learning but practice founded on stractions; for the philosophical neces- insight), amid a people so stupidly dilsity of suffering against doctrines ettante and given over to hearsay,which would abolish pain and bring wretched mimics of every style bein a republic of all the pleasures; for cause they have none of their own? acknowledgment of facts against the With them learning has eaten out the pedantry of professors; and for substance of life; the Germans have largeness of life that could not exist no feelings except in the abstract; without perils encountered and trag- they are scholastics, chamber-philosoedy in the sequence. He spoke, it is phers, not cultivated but dictionaries true, of resignation; but in his inner- of culture. When will they perceive most soul he did not mean it. He was that a healthy human life means forfar from resigned. Had he been so, getfulness of the too-insistent, the inhe would have kept silence in public, finite past? That culture is a unigone on with his “Democritus,” and versal method, a tone running through let the world wag. Instead of leading conduct as well as through language, the vita umbratilis which befitted res- and that the only test of genius, about ignation, and was quite easy to him which they write volumes, is creation? now at Basle, he put forward his “Un- They cram their young men with hisseasonable Reflections" on Strauss, tories, philosophies, criticisms, until Schopenhauer, and Wagner, on the at twenty-five the unhappy mortals abuse of history, and the delusions exclaim, as Faust did, that they see which went by the name of German they can know nothing; alles ist erlebt, culture. We find in these earlier es- selection has become impossible, and says a resemblance of substance no the university, which was to train less than of form to Carlyle,-not the them for life, turns out mercantile proCarlyle who wrote Carlylese, and fessors, journalists without principles, whose “pessimism was an undigested and Philistines acquainted with every dinner," as Nietzsche says, but the literature, but sceptical of all that the pensive troubled soul at Craigenput- "every-day man" cannot grind into tock, whose thinking aloud is so per- profit or amusement. suasive and his modesty unfeigned. It is a bitter spirit that utters these Nietzsche had the shy ways of genius home truths. Yet not altogether dewhen he began; his tone was imper- spairing. Nietzsche said afterwards sonal, not arrogant, and there is an in his satirical way, “It will be reair of apology in his humor. But his membered among my friends at least, arrows draw blood. He cannot endure that I rushed upon this modern world that a “Philistine of culture," such as with some errors and over-estimates, David Strauss, "an impotent fanatic," but, in any case, as a hopeful person.” LIVING AGE.

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VOL. XII.

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