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And envy now; or dead or dumb,

Hard lot! yet light their griefs who bear Forbears to blame what they admire. The ills, which they may not ando. Goddess of the-sweet-sounding lute!

Which thy harmonious touch obeys; Wno can'st the finny race, though mute,

Monuments, perhaps, after all, of To cygnets' dying accents raise;

misdirected ingenuity, these collecThy gift it is, that all with ease,

tions, for “to catch the aroma of green Me, prince of Roman lyrics own; tea" is a pursuit not more elusive than That while I live my numbers please, this attempted decanting of the old If pleasing be thy gift alone.

wine of Mantua into British bottles. It has been a gentlemanlike diver- Still, the pursuit has amused many sion—this worrying of Horace-for

generations not unprofitably, and Hor

ace, for our comfort, is never a whit nigh three hundred years. At last

the worse for it all. What says Austin there are signs of the fashion having

Dobson?. fallen into disuse, unless Mr. Gladstone is to claim credit for its revival. Our "world" to-day's as good or ill, Not the first of ex-prime ministers, he,

As cultured (nearly), to indulge in the diversion. Does no

As yours was, Horace! you alone, body remember the Earl of Derby's Unmatched, unmet, we have not known. odes?

CHARLES COOPER.

a

Think for the morrow nought: enjoy

Each day the boons bestow'd by chance;
Nor rudely spurn, too happy boy,
Or love's delight, or joyous dance.

From The Quarterly Review.

THE IDEALS OF ANARCHY.1
While crabbed age is far away,
Now manly sports beseem thy years,

Somewhere about the year 1716, so And whispers soft, at close of day,

runs the story, a Polish gentleman be How sweetly breath'd in willing ears! longing to the noble house of Nietzsky

was condemned to death for having And tell-tale laugh of merry maid

conspired as a Protestant, with other In corner hid; and slender wrist

Protestants, against the Republic. He Of bracelet spoil'd, or ring convey'd made his escape, with wife and child, From fingers that but half resist.

into German territory. Of him nothNor should Calverley be forgot. ing more is known; and even these

details may be little else than Here is a fine fragment from the ode

legend. But Friedrich to Virgil on the death of Quinctilius:

Nietzsche,

whose life and opinions we are proUnshamed, unchecked for one so dear posing to narrate, was proud of his

We sorrow. Lead the mournful choir, Polish origin; nor did his restless, brilMelpomene, to whom thy sire

liant, self-centred, and unmanageable Gave harp, and song-notes liquid-clear! character, which at last broke down

into madness, belie the affinities Sleeps he the sleep that knows no morn? whereby we are led to think, if not, Oh Honor, ob twin-born with Right,

as he would persuade us, of CoperniPure Faith, and Truth that loves the light,

11. Das Leben F. Nietzsche's. Von seiner When shall again his like be born?

Schwester. Leipzig, 1895.

2. Die Werke F. Neitzsche's. Eight vols. Leip

zig, 1896. Were sweeter lute than Orpheus given

3. Thus Spake Zarathustra. Translated by To thee, did trees thy voice obey;

Dr. Tille. London, 1896. The blood revisits not the clay

4. The Case of Wagner, etc. Translated by Which He, with lifted wand, hath driven. Thos. Common. London, 1896.

5. Der Einzige und sein' Eigenthum. Von Max Into his dark assemblage, who

Stirner. Zweite Auflage. Leipzig, 1882. Unlocks not fate to mortal's prayer.

And many other works.

men

cus, yet certainly of Chopin. He is the pastor of Wollmirstadt in Thuringia, latest, and by no means the least sig. Doctor of Divinity, and superintendent nificant, of those spirits that, like the at Eilenburg. He published sermons, too often quoted Mephistopheles, "say vindicated the Second Epistle of Peter no” to an entire civilization. His one against Grotius, offered a "Rational veto, his Nie pozwalam, or "I decline to View of Religion, Education, Loyalty, agree," uttered with explosive rhetoric, and Benevolence" to those whom the and flowing out into ten thousand "present excitement in the world of aphorisms, has made him the hero as theologis" seemed likely to trouble; well as the prophet of free-thinkers. and, dying at the age of seventy, left To him, the Church seems an effete behind him the reputation of a worthy superstition, the State mere tyranny, and learned parson. He was twice metaphysics the ghost of religion sit- married, and had ten children. His ting upon its grave, morality a bug- second wife, sister of Dr. Krause and bear, law the enemy of life, and every widow of Superintendent Krüger, exthing permissible so long as

ercised no small influence

over the please themselves.

household in which young Friedrich This Great Charter, drawn in out- grew up at Naumburg on the Saale. line more than half a century ago by Like all his kinsfolk, she was sincerely Max Stirner,—whom Dr. Nordau religious, but in the somewhat lightbrushes aside as a "crazy Hegelian,” tempered fashion which dwelt more --finds in Nietzsche such a wealth of upon making the world happy than light and color—it is proclaimed with upon her neighbors' sinfulness. Two so sweeping an eloquence, and, we of her sons became clergymen, and must add, with such “damnable itera- Karl Ludwig, tbe father of that boy tion"—that none can marvel if the an- who was to bring his Lutheran anarchists of all nations flock to his cestors so much fame and shame, not standard. What, in comparison with only distinguished himself in his unihis laughing, singing, and dancing versity course at Halle, but while strophes are the pale arguments of a quite a young man was appointed as Max Stirner, the rants and furies of tutor of the Princesses of SachsenBakunin, the geographical lectures Altenburg, one of whom afterwards and moral-revolutionary pleadings of became Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, Prince Kropotkin, or the halting de- and a second Grand Duchess Constanductions of Mr. Herbert Spencer? tine of Russia. In 1841, when Ludwig And in the deep gloom which hangs was not yet thirty, he had gained the over Nietzsche, in his wanderings of friendship as well as the personal acthe mind and the feet through so quaintance of his sovereign, Frederick many high and wild landscapes, in the William IV., whose religious mystipathos of contrast suggested by his cism agreed in large measure with his early and his latter years, in his pres- own. The king gave him an excellent ent condition of insanity without hope, living at Röcken, a pleasant village, while his books

sumptuously standing with its ivy-clad churchedited, carefully translated, and stud- tower in a country of wood and water, ied from New York to St. Petersburg, not far from Lützen. There Friedrich all the elements of tragedy are min- was born, to his father's great joy, on gled.

the king's birthday, October 15, 1844. Those who suffer persecution for a He received the pious monarch's creed will naturally be drawn to name; and the event is recorded with preach it; and the family of the Polish trembling gratitude, in the pastor's fugitive, once established on a peace- baptismal register. What would have ful soil, dedicated themselves to the been that good man's feeling, had service of the Lutheran Church. some unpitying genius shown him in Friedrich, the grandfather of our an- vision the pages of “Zarathustra," archist, born at Bibra in 1756, was which this child, whom he was dedi

are

cating with such solemn words, was Lutheran piety, spending their holidestined one day to publish!

days with a clerical grandfather in his But he foresaw no evil and died country-living of Pobles, or with a when Friedrich was not five years old. clerical uncle at Nirmsdorf, and shel. Meeting with a bad accident, by fall- tered from the world by aunts and ing down a flight of steps, he under- other feminine kindred, who might went an illness which lasted some sometimes read the newspapers but eléven months and terminated in were zealous for converting the softening of the brain. It does not heathen. They heard of Berlin, and appear, from the minute details given studied the shop windows in Leipzig; of her family by Madame Förster- but they “feared no evil, for they Nietzsche, to whom we owe our knowl- knew no sin." When the grandmother edge, that there was any taint of un- passed away, they moved into a soundness in the blood; neither would smaller house, which had its old-fashthe copious early writings in prose ioned garden to delight these oldand verse of Nietzsche himself, or his fashioned little people; and Fritz, first published compositions, lead us enamoured of music and verse-makto suspect in him congenital derange- ing, spent many hours in the arbor ment of intellect. Young as he was, composing stanzas, some of which behe felt deeply both his father's death tray remarkable perfection of form, and the change from Röcken, to which and a truth of emotion that is exceedhe was always attached,-from a coun- ingly rare in boys of twelve or thirtry village, with its freedom and fresh teen. The fragments of autobiogair, to the rather melancholy streets raphy, which have been préserved from of Naumburg. And in accordance the same period are still more strikwith his grandmother's theory of edu- ing. Not only does the lad write with cation, he must attend the common judgment and sense when to write at school, and mix with the town-chil- all would have been an uncommon dren,-an ordeal which this highly- merit,-he looks before and after, knits sensitive, perhaps over-refined spirit up his literary enterprises into could not endure.

whole, and displays a gift of introAt first he made no friends, and was spection such as Goethe himself might too earnest for his years. The boys have envied at that premature age. called him "little clergyman;" they So promising a student was not took home stories of his extraordinary likely to be overlooked; and in 1858 acquaintance with the Bible, and how the rector of the Land-School at Pforta he recited hymns that made them cry. gave Fritz a scholarship in that faLater on, his comrades made a hero

institution. The history of of Friedrich; his sister worshipped Pforta would be worth telling, bad him; and her recollections of his skill we space to describe its vicissitudes. in amusements at home, his fantasies Certain monks of the Order of St. Berand fairy tales, his enthusiasm for the nard, Cistercians, driven out by the Russians during the Crimean War, his heathen Slavs in the twelfth century, Homeric studies which infected all had taken refuge with Udo, Bishop of around, and his anxiety to understand Naumburg, and founded their new as well as practise the religious prin- monastery at Pforta in 1136, “Cenociples taught him, furnish us with a bium Stæ Mariæ de Porta." By and child's biography, not very deep or by the Reformation came; and in 1543 philosophical, but pleasing and true. Maurice Duke of Saxony, putting out It is the old German home, with some the old monks, made of it a public added polish and an almost artistic school. The lines of this change were clearness of feature, that charms by quaintly described by Duke Maurice its combination of the picturesque and himself as early as 1540. "To the dethe natural. These two were pattern vout life,” says his instruction, "shall children, bred in the atmosphere of the lads be brought up; and in the art

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of speaking, in discipline, and in vir- man scholar's life, long before he came tue shall they be instructed six years to

read Schopenhauer's diatribes long;" in consideration of all which, against the University system. "they shall be provided with masters Neither was he impetuous in friendand servants, teachers, living, and ship, though attached and serviceable; other necessaries, gratis. If the school he disliked the sentimental style; soon accept them, for six years shall they drew back from societies in which his be entertained and taught, I say quite un-German love of pure air and gratis, yet so that they appear apt to his refined courtesy met with no satisstudy.” Fritz Nietzsche was, if ever

faction; and was evidently thinking a lad of his age, “apt to study," and for himself, despite the almost milihe went to Pforta, "willing, with re- tary discipline under which he lived luctant mind.” For he was shy, soli- at Pforta. In many ways, now and tary, and a prey to home sickness. later, we are reminded of an unhappy

Pforta had kept its walls, ten or English genius and New-Pagan, John twelve feet high, and was a vast en- Addington Symonds, whom Nietzsche closure of meadows watered by the not a little resembled. Both were Saale, and of buildings still severe and outwardly diffident, at heart self-susmonastic in their grey old age. The tained and intractable; in either the discipline was strict, chapels frequent, capacity for mental suffering, heightand studies austere. There were two ened by illness and introspection, gave hundred students, including twenty a keen sense of what pleasure there externs. Fritz spent his six years in might be in life, were health its norlearning the classics, for which he felt mal condition; each luxuriated in mua lifelong enthusiasm; but he could sic yet was an imbecile in'mathematmake no way with mathematics, and ics; and both combined an intense love his one other passion was music- of the Greek and Roman literature luckily or unluckily for the European with the modern feeling for landscape, public which has read his criticisms especially for the pictured shores of on Wagner with admiration, wrath, the Riviera, and high Alpinė regions and perplexity. The passion for re- like the Engadine in which they found serve and reverie, grew in solitude; he a home. Both, finally, turning from lived on his weekly visit home; and he metaphysics as delusion, and breathed out in verse that deep de vinced that religion, above all in its pression no anodyne for which was Christian dogmatic form,

the anywhere accessible to him. With ruin of art and the chief hindrance to school-friends he founded the society man's advancement, devised in its "Germania,” which, short-lived enough, stead an Epicurean stoicism, or rule of gave him scope for the attempts in pleasure founded upon the mystery of music and literature that he was ever pain, with the mortality of the soul to making. Sometimes, thinking where put a sting into it, and death as the he should travel during his holidays, great deliverance. We may now folhe fell into strange dreams and trav- low up the record of Nietzsche's youth elled in his sleep; and once, thus roam- and manhood, taking this clue to guide ing, as he thought, under comfortless vivid sunshine, there struck upon his From Pforta, where he had acear a cry from the neighboring asy- quitted himself honorably, the scholar lum, which he records in a melancholy –he was already entitled to that name yet defiant tone. He did not foresee -passed at twenty, in 1864, to the Unithe future.

versity of Bonn. His last piece of His school-days began to weary him; school-work had been an essay upon never could this intractable though Theognis of Megara, in which the old modest-seeming temper submit to rou- Greek moralist and tyrant was held tine; and he hated the traditions as up to admiration above the heads of much as the advantages of the Ger- the vile democracy, or regiment of

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slaves—for such to this haughty and fund of humor, and could laugh at his disdainful mind did the civic constitu- own conceits,-nor did he fail in comtion appear to be, whether in Athens rádeship, although the Kneipe was not or in Paris, and by instinct he had al- his Paradise. That which was wantready chosen his side, the unpopular, ing to him at a critical moment was the anti-Liberal, and Napoleonic. The authority of a teacher to whom he "strong lonely man,” were he Peisis- could look up. For now he had begun tratus, Julius Cæsar, or Cæsar Borgia, to vex himself with the problems of had become his pattern of greatness; the New Testament and the Christian but years must elapse ere he could origins, supposing, as he said afterpreach, to a generation intoxicated wards, that history-with the aid of with "progress,” the doctrine he was the science of language-could give a now bringing into light from ancient direct answer to questions of religion. deeps of history in which, ever since During his first term, he was down for Aristotle, it bad lain forgotten. the lectures in divinity,-his interests

discussing Theognis, however, as well as his associations seemed to Nietzsche did not aim at a theory of fit him for the office and work of a politics; seldom was he troubled with clergyman, to which from boyhood he politics in the common use of the term; was drawn. But another spirit came his ideal was perfection to be achieved upon him at Bonn. So far from deby himself, first as freedom of intel- siring to be a pastor, he ceased, in lect, and then as an untrammelled self- fact, to be a Christian. His evangeli. directing life. He walked alone, and cal training could make no stand regarded no man. Yet this proud sol- against Bible criticism, as it was pracitary could feel enthusiasm for his tised by the eminent men around him. teachers, believing in them with pas- And the familiar, painful experience sionate devotion, and offering them followed,-distress at home when his the incense of a rhetoric that flamed changed views were realized, a void in up in words most eloquent.

his own heart, the loneliness of life inWhen he found himself at Bonn, tensified, the past melting into learned in books, ignorant of the legendary mist, the future a blank. world as it lives and moves outside His two years at Bonn were, perhaps, books, he was still boyish enough to the least comfortable he ever spent; take the German undergraduate seri- but they marked the turning-point at ously. He joined the “Franconia,” which, forsaking the path his ancesfought his duel, contracted, as he says, tors had travelled, Nietzsche joined "debts and rheumatism," and made that throng of bewildered and disoran effort to combine his studies in phi- derly pilgrims who have substituted lology with copious draughts of beer. inquiry for belief and become seekers In vain, however; yet a little while after the unknown. and he puts the whole “Burschen- Leipzig, which was his next halting schaft" from him as vulgar and Philis- place, attracted him by the fame of tine. Nietzsche

not made to

its

professors, Curtius, Dindorf, drink, smoke, or waste his substance Ritschl, and Tischendorf, all of whom in riotous living. He attempted even helped him to attain that minuteness to reform the Franconians,-an essay of knowledge, if hardly the breadth which was repulsed with astonish- of view, which he deemed requisite to ment by these swaggering philoso- a student of mankind. But his true phers. And so he drew back into sol- master at Leipzig was none of these; itude again. It must not be imagined it was the dead Schopenhauer, in from this hasty sketch that the youth whom, until a certain memorable day, whose daintiness of word and con- he had not read one line. Finding the duct we have insisted upon was that volumes at an old bookseller's, some affliction to mankind known as a "su- demon, as he tells us, whispered to perior person,”-Fritz had a natural him, "Take them home;" he obeyed

as

was

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