vulgarity," while the effect produced by tion which is open to correction or alterit he stigmatized as being "far removed ation according to taste, and on this from real and refined enjoyment." account, doubtless, some of Walker's After describing the absurdity, the sketches of little dinners might be immany mistakes, and even the nuisance proved. Still, his principles are excelof the overladen table, the unneces- lent, and I take it that some readers of sarily long bill of fare, and the tedious "The Original” who have come to riper service, he boldly advocated that din- years have felt considerable respect for ners should be composed of few but a host who, in the thirties, 'could magreally good dishes, each of which, thor- nanimously protect his guests from the oughly complete in regard to its ad- tyranny of turkey and roast heef on juncts, should be brought in separately Christmas day, and bid them tuke for with as little parade and waste of time their pièce de résistance woodcocks "at as possible. Together with this he discretion," one or more as each might urged the abolition of the senseless desire, brought in hot and hot. In the practice of ornamentation, and the plac- matter of wine, however, is there not a ing of hideous “centrepieces" and smack of the good old times in this?epergnes upon the table. In plain En. “With the turtle there will be punch; glish these ideas were at least fifty champagne and claret afterwards; the years in advance of the time when they two former I have ordered to be well were written. Even Mr. Hayward, who iced. I shall permit no other wines, reviewed the papers in the Quarterly unless perchance a bottle or two of port, Reviero in 1836, was evidently too as I hold variety of wines to be a great warmly prejudiced in favor of the exist- mistake.” From this we gather that a ing fashions to accord the full meed of few bottles of port more or less were praise that Thomas Walker's conten- a mere bagatelle, hardly worth mentiontions, viewed from the modern stand- ing, even in the opinion of the author of point, merited. he allowed that the “The Original.” 'Lastly, the most brief smali dinner might be all very well for summary of Thomas Walker's writings certain people and certain occasions, would be incomplete without adver“but to desire the gorgeous establish- tence to his many happy phrases, which, ments of our first rate Amphitryons to if quoted separately, might take rank as be broken up, and the ornate style of equal, if not superior to the aphorisms living to be totally suppressed, would of Brillat Savarin. For instance, rebe,” said he, "as unreasonable as to pro- ferring to the "monstrous absurdity" pose the suppression of palaces because of attempting to entertain in an elabohouses are better fitted for the ordinary rate style with insufficient means and an purposes of life.” This, of course, was inadequate establishment,

he says: an evasion of the question argued in “State without the machinery of state “The Original.” Walker did not sug- is of all states the worst.” Again, in ergest the breaking up of any establish- plaining the characteristics of port and ments but a general simplification of champagne: “There is about the same the method in vogue on the grounds of difference between these two that in good taste, artistic feeling, and the ser- poetry exists between “Paradise Lost" vice of food at its best. Things have by and “The Rape of the Lock.” And this: degrees worked round to that standard, “Ostentation excites disgust or conand in the last decade of the century we tempt, and destroys enjoyment for the are able to appreciate the right judg- sake of display, by introducing variety ment and cultivated mind of the man without reference to reason." "Thomas who lifted up his voice against the Walker," wrote Mr. Henry Morley in an Philistinism of sixty years ago. The introduction to a reprint of "The Orig. selection of agreeable combinations of inal” in 1887, “frankly delivered himfood is a task that few can hope to self, and brought the way of life, as it fulfil to the satisfaction of every reader. was seen by a refined und social gentleThe written menu is at best a sugges- man, well educated, shrewd, and with




out one low thought, so plainly within the boundaries of kindness and good view of his reader that neither young taste. A frequent diner-out, he made nor old, rich or poor, learned or un- the most of his opportunities, and being learned, could read through his book an appreciative disciple of Gastræa, without having been in some degree very naturally acquired a great expeamused and taught through his expe- rience and became an acknowledged rience.”

authority what Walker called And now a few words about the very "aristology." As I have already able little treatise on “The Art of Din- pointed out, the fashion of his time was ing,” by the writer whose name I have not the fashion of these our modern mentioned so often, Mr. Abraham Hay days as far as the comparison and seryward. This book was made up by a re- ing of a dinner were concerned. arrangement, in 1853, of two articles ought not, therefore, to wonder that the which he had written in the years '35 menus he proposes for the four seasons and '36 for the Quarterly Review—the are far too long and heavy for the presone to which I have already referred ent generation. The dinner he deabout “The Original,” and the other scribes which was given to Lord entitled “Gastronomy and Gastrono- Chesterfield at the Clarendon, on his mers.” his object having been 'to bring quitting the office of master of the down and adapt to the present time the buckhounds, may be taken as a sample disquisitions, descriptions, and direc- of the highly-finished banquet of that tions contained in them.” Here we find period. The party consisted of thirty, that, in addition to his remarks upon the price was six guineas a head, and the reform suggested by Thomas the dinner ordered by Count Walker, Mr. Hayward gave a very care- d'Orsay. There were thirteen entrées ful analysis of the “Physiologie du and fifteen entremets, and before the goat” and traced the history of gas- reader loses the thread of the narrative tronomy from its earliest days to the in "et cetera,” he can count fifty-two period of his personal experiences. No different dishes! The mention of name of any note in connection with Count d'Orsay's name reminds me that the subject is omitted in this work, and Hayward quotes in extenso a letter from terrupted flow of genial humor and that undoubtedly reliable authority on anecdote which will probably never be the subject of the Parisian restaurants petter managed by any writer who of 1852. Knowing, as most of us now may aspire hereafter to carry on the do, that one by one nearly all the celechronicles of the æsthetics of the dinner brated places have disappeared, it is intable. Not only was Hayward very teresting to read Count d'Orsay's well read in regard to the ast records gloomy opinion of them as far back as of food and feeding, but he lived for forty-three years ago. Writing from many years in the midst of all that was

Paris he says with regret that "the clever and entertaining in the society culinary art has sadly fallen off," and of two capitals. He knew his Paris goes on to name four first-rate, four almost as well as his London. Of most second-rate, and four third- rate houses, of the leading Amphitryons of his time but adds: “At none of the places could he was a personal friend, and with no

you find dinners now such as were prorestaurant or chef of repute was he duced by Ude; by Soyer, formerly with unacquainted. As a tale-teller with an Lord Chesterfield; by Rotival, with inexhaustive répertoire of incidents Lord Wilton; or by Perron, with Lord both interesting and amusing concern- Londonderry.” He complains of the ing people of note politically, socially, expensiveness and vulgarity of the and gastronomically he was probably cooking—"a sort of tripotage of truffles, without a rival. From this store he cockscombs, and crawfish, mounted on throughout the resumé there is an unin- the back of a fillet of beef, and not a seems to have drawn in a pleasant single entrée which a connoisseur can chatty way without a trespass beyond eat; the roast game tourmentés and


cold, for their feathers are stuck on and various chefs whom the editor again before they are served up.” knew, and partly, to use the words of . “French gastronomy,” adds he, in con- Sir Henry Thompson, "a medley of clusion, "has emigrated to England, and scientific jottings, with plenty of gossip has no wish to return. We do not abso- and numerous anecdotes." It is, of lutely die of hunger here, and that is all course, only with the latter part that we that can be said.” A recapitulation of need now concern ourselves. After even half of the stories told in this having read "Les Classiques de la entertaining book would occupy far table,” the reader will find that a conmore space than I can possibly take up, siderable part of Dumas' chit-chat came but an instance or two of the author's from that source, but here and there he light and pleasing style ought not to be tells a good story, such as that to which omitted. Speaking of conversation at I have just referred in connection with dinner, and the very necessary part it the Marquis de Cussy. One of Naplays in the enjoyment of a party, he poleon will bear repeating, because it observes, “but what a deceased clerical gives an improved version of an inci. wit called 'flashes of silence' may occa- dent which as generally described is no sionally intervene. We

once doubt familiar to many. The old story, dining with the author of 'Vanity Fair according to Hayward, was that the at the Rocher, when a matelote of sur- emperor, annoyed with some occurrence passing excellence was served up. 'My or other at a Conseil d'Etat, sat down to dear fellow,' exclaimed the distin- breakfast one moruing in one of his guished moralist, 'don't let us speak a worst tempers, and had hardly tasted a word until we have finished this dish.'' mouthful when stung to madness by In another place, apropos of Thomas some exasperating recollection, he drew Walker's advice to those who have to his chair back, and with one kick overdine alone, i.e., to approach the table threw the table and all its contents, with a cheerful mind after an interval then rose and paced the room with rapid of relaxation from whatever may have strides indicative of frenzied rage. seriously occupied the attention, and Dunand, the maître d'hôtel, looked on then to fix it upon "some agreeable ob- unmoved, and quietly gave his direcject,” he says, “We don't know what tions to the staff who cleared away the 'agreeable object was particularly wreck; and, as if by magic, rapidly laid meant here, but the author of 'The out a duplicate of the déjeuner, which Parson's Daughter,' when surprised was announced, as if nothing had ocone evening in his armchair two or curred, with the customary “Sa majesté three hours after dinner, is reported to est servie.” Napoleon, appreciating the have apologized by saying, 'when one is delicacy and tact of the action, turned alone, the bottle does come around so to the maître d'hôtel with one of his often.' It was Sir Hercules Langrishe inimitable smiles, and said, “Merci bien, who, being asked on a similar occasion, mon cher Dunand,” thus showing that 'What! have you finished all that port the hurricane had blown over. Dumas (three bottles) without assistance?' is much more circumstantial. It was a answered, “No-not quite that,I had time of political gravity, a rupture with the assistance of a bottle of Madeira.'” Prussia imminent. The emperor sat

For the next writer of note on the sub- down, took a few mouthfuls of soup, ject we are discussing, it is necessary and then removed the cover of one of again to cross the channel and consult the dishes which contained his favorite the "Grand Dictionnaire de Cuisine, crépinettes de cochon, when, becoming by Alexandre Dumas the elder. As I suddenly enraged he kicked over the mentioned in a former article, this work table, the whole of the breakfast with was partly a cookery-book, the practical the broken china being scattered over a part of which was supplied to a very priceless Persian carpet. The next great extent, by M. Vuillemot, the pro- moment he strode in an ungovernable prietor of the “Tête Noire" at St. Cloud, passion from the room. Dunand, think

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ing that there was something wrong has been accepted as a guiding prinwith the crépinettes, and perfectly ciple by every one who studies refineoverwhelmed with dismay, stood trem- ment and true art in connection with bling with fear. Duroc alone kept his dinner-giving, has long since shown that head, and calmed the affrighted maître "Food and Feeding” was not written in d'hôtel. “You don't know the emperor," vain. The book, in fact, soon made said he; "his anger had nothing to do numerous conversions, and led mauy with the breakfast. Take courage, and earnest disciples to practise in their provide another as quickly as you can.” entertainments that artistic simplicity As soon as matters were rearranged, of which Sir Henry Thompson is well the emperor was summoned, Roustum, known himself to be a most successful the favorite Mameluke, being deputed practical exponent. to perform the task. The great captain “Delicate Dining," by Mr. Theodore entered the room, and, missing Dunand, Child, is another work of well merited sent for him, upon which the maître reputation in this direction, and a little d'hôtel, still white with apprehension, brochure by “Grid” called “Real Cookappeared at the door carrying a beauti- ery," deserves honorable mention for its ful poulet rôti. Napoleon immediately sound advice, and the trenchant mantook a wing and ate a few crépinettes, ner in which the writer condemns the then, beckoning Dunand to approach, “vanity, humbug, and affectation" of the he stroked his cheek and said in accents highly decorative style of serving broken with emotion, “M. Dunand vous dinners—the “rose-dyed purees,” and êtes plus heureux d'être mon maître “the flock of miniature geese floating in d'hôtel que je ne le .suis d'être le roi de a pond of green aspic jelly." ce pays.” After this he finished his We have now entered upon a period breakfast in silence—"avec les traits in our social history in which the necesprofondément affectés.”

sity of attention to gastronomy is fully No sketch of the principal writings on recognized. As I have said enlightened the subject of the æsthetics of the din- views of the characteristics of a nice ner-table would be complete without dinner have been generally adopted. a few words concerning Sir Henry The demand thus created for any inforThompson's charming little treatise, mation that may lead to further de"Food and Feeding.” With just suffi- velopment has been met by the press, cient science to come well within the and in many papers the cookery column understanding of the ordinary reader, has become an institution. In an age with the clearest explanation of the · of universal newness it is perhaps only values of various kinds of food, and of natural that here and there this should the culinary processes adapted to their have been taken up in a new way. The better preparation, there is in this book old-fashioned string of recipes would be much excellent advice on the subject of too heavy, no doubt, for society chrondining with good taste and discrimina- icles, so Margery writes to Belinda, and, tion. The first edition appeared at the after a discussion concerning frillery very moment (1880) when such counsel and tucks, chattily communicates a was much needed. "Perhaps the truth beautifully ambiguous recipe coaxed is scarcely yet sufficiently recognized," out of the cook with great difficulty wrote the author, “that the quality or while staying with the “dear Dulcharacter of a dinner does not depevd cimers.” Nor is the æsthetic lost sight on the number, the complexity, the cost. of. Certain fair correspondents have or ever the rarity of the component arisen who can paint fancy pictures in dishes. Let these be few in number words—"all out of their own heads,” as and be simple in composition; but if the the children say-about breakfasts and material itself is the best of its kind, luncheons and dinners which, if not well cooked, and tastefully presented, very valuable from the practical point the dinner may rank with the best and of view, are, at all events, amusing. is certain to please.” That this precept Indeed, it may be admitted that occa

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sionally a good suggestion may be thus more impressively saintly than those picked up, for, to quote Hayward yet of any of his contemporaries. We once more, "a tone of mock seriousness have enjoyed the bright originality or careless gaiety does not necessarily and fervent veracity of Charles Kingsimply the absence of sound reflection, ley. We have thrilled to the impasand the laughing philosopher may prove sioned periods of Samuel Wilberforce, better worth attention than the solemn whom, together with John Bright and pedant."

Mr. Gladstone, I would call the three A. KENNEY HERBERT. most truly eloquent speakers whom I

have ever heard. We have listened by the hour to the fine English and lofty thought of Canon Liddon. We

have known, and heard, and loved From The Contemporary Review.

Arthur Stanley, a man whose intellect, TWO ARCHBISHOPS.

learning, and-as Lord Beaconsfield All

who know the Church of phrased it with his usual felicity -England best and love her most are

whose "picturesque sensibility” reviviwell aware of the serious drawbacks fied for us those Bible stories which, to her influence, of the perilous phases

for many, had long been given over as through which she passes from time

a prey to feeble conventionality. In to time, of the many defects and weak- spite of rancorous party attempts to nesses in her organization. But her disparage his labors, Dean Stanley worst enemies cannot deny that in

rendered higher and more permanent the present and the passing genera

services to theology, in its truest tion, and within the personal memory

sense, than ninety-nine hundredths of of thousands who have not yet

the critics who looked down upon him reached their threescore years and

from the whole height of their inferiten, a multitude of men have appeared ority; and he will be remembered and in the ranks of ber ministry who

honored a hundred years after the would have adorned any Church at

Church reviews and newspaper's any epoch-men of the most varied which heaped scorn on him have sunk and brilliant endowments, of wide

into the oblivion from which for a learning, of great eloquence, of high


month they sometimes spiritual power. In early days we

emerge. used to delight in the ornate and Who can ever forget the radiant thrilling periods of Melville, the pol- charm of his unaffected simplicity, of ished oratory of McNeile, the fervid his transparent sincerity, of his childearnestness of Hugh Stowell, the like saintliness? It would take a large thoughtful and illuminating insight of space to attempt the characterization T. W. Robertson. We knew and may of men so very diversely endowed, yet have listened to the two men-widely each in their degree so gifted and so different from each other, yet each so good, as Deans Merivale, Plumptre, eminent in his own sphere—whose de- Jeremie, Church, and Wellesley. We parture into another fold

the have gained vast stores of information severest blow from which, in this cen. from the writings of Deans Hook and tury, the Church of England has suf- Goode and Milman; of professors and 'fered-Cardinals Newman and Man- masters of colleges like Sidgwick, ning. Some of us were brought up at Whewell, Jowett, Pusey, and Hort; of the feet of the prophet of the last gen- bishops so wise, learned, and sincere, eration, F. D. Maurice, a

wbo Lonsdale, Thirlwall, Lightfoot, more truly recalls the ideal of some of Selwyn, and Fraser; of archbishops so the Hebrew prophets than any divine conspicuous for great qualities, as of this century; a man whose wisdom Tait, Trench, Thomson, Magee, and was more humble, whose heart was Benson. And yet I have not even (deeper and nobler, whose life mentioned half the names of admi







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