the moral element squarely in the face comedy, it is psychical and physical and abide by the fact of its tremendous pleasure, it is the interplay of a thouproportion in the scheme of things. sand rude or delicate motions and emoThe moral element, it cannot be de- tions, it is the grimmest and the mernied, predominates enormously in the riest motley of phantasmagoria that human drama. The moral struggle, could appeal to the gravest or the madthe creation of character, the moral dest brush ever put to palette; but it is ideal, failure and success in reaching it, steadily and sturdily and always moral anguish and ecstasy in missing or gain- responsibility. An artist can no more ing it, the instinct to extend the appre- fling off the moral sense from his work ciation of moral beauty and to worship than he can oust it from his private its Eternal Source-these exist where life. A great artist (let me repeat) is ever human being does. The whole too great to try to do so. With one or magnificent play of the moral nature two familiar exceptions, of which more sweeps over the human stage with a might be said, the greatest have laid in force, a splendor, and a diversity of the moral values of their pictures just effect which no artist can deny if lie as life lays them in; and in life they are would, which the greatest artist never not to be evaded. There is a squeamtries to withstand, and against which ishness against "ethicism” which is the smallest will protest in vain.

quite as much to be avoided as any Strike "etbicism” out of life, good squeamishness about “the moral nude friends, before you shake it out of in art” or other debatable question. story! Fear less to seem “Puritan” The great way is to go grandly in, as than to be inadequate. Fear more to the Creator did when he made the be superficial than to seem “deep." models which we are fain to copy. Fear less to point your moral than to After all, the Great Artist is not a poor miss your opportunity. It is for us to master; all His foregrounds stand out remind you, since it seems to us that against the perspective of the moral you overlook the fact, that in any highly nature. Why go tiptoeing about the formed or fully formed creative power easel to avoid it? the “ethical” as well as the "æstheti

By Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. cal sense is developed. Where “the taste” is developed at the expense of "the conscience” the artist is incomplete. He is, in this case, at least as incomplete as he is where the ethical sense is developed at the expense of

From The Century Magazine, the æsthetic. Specialism in literary

AMERICA AND ENGLAND. art, as in science, has its uses, but it is

1895-1896. not symmetry; and this is not a law intended to work only one way.

It is an ancient and honorable rule of Hast thou forgot the breasts that gave us rhetoric, that he is the greatest writer suck, who, other things being equal, has the And whence our likeness to our fathers greatest subject. He is, let us say, the

came, largest artist who, other things being

Though from our arms twice stooping

with the same equal, holds the largest view of human life. The largest view of human life,

Great blow that Runnymede and Naseby

struck? we contend, is that which recognizes it in the greatest way.

Out of thy heart the imperial spark we

pluck In a word, the province of the artist

Which in our blood is breaking into is to portray life as it is, and life is

flame; moral responsibility. Life is several

Oh, of one honor make not double other things, we do not deny. It is

shame; beauty, it is joy, it is tragedy, it is Give not the English race to wanton luck!




Thy reef of war

our seaboard Answer, O South, if yet where Gordon thrown,

sank, Fortress and arsenal against us stored- Spent arrow of the far and lone Soudan, Trust not in them! the awful summons There comes a whisper out of wasted blown,

death! High o'er the long sea-blaze and battle O every ocean, every land, that drank poured

The blood of England, answer, if ye can, Through all the marches of the open What is it that giveth her immortal North,

breath? On our uplifted arms thy Child rides forth,


Then the West answered: “Is the sword's II.

keen edge Mother of nations, of them eldest we,

Like to the mind for sharpness? Doth

the flame Well is it found, and happy for the state,

Devour like thought? Many When that which makes men proud first

with makes them great,

chariots came, And such our fortune is who sprang from

Squadron and phalanx, legion, square, thee,

and wedge; And brought to this new land from orer

They mounted up; they wound from ledge

to ledge sea The faith that can with every house

Of battle-glory dark with battle-shame; hold mate,

But God hath burled them from the And freedom whereof law is magis

heights of fame trate,

Who from the soul took no eternal pledge. And thoughts that make men brave, and leave them free.

“Because above her people and her throne

She hath erected reason's sovereignty;

Because wherever human speech is known O Mother of our faith, our law, our lore,

The touch of English breath doth make What shall we answer thee if thou

thought free; shouldst ask

Therefore forever is her glory blown How this fair birthright doth in us in

About the hills, and flashed beneath the crease?

sea." There is no home but Christ is at the

door; Freely our toiling millions choose life's task;

First of mankind we bid our eagles pause Justice we love, and next to justice

Before the pure tribunal of the mind, peace.

Where swordless justice sball the sen

tence find, III.

And righteous reason arbitrate the cause.

First of mankind, whom yet no power What is the strength of England, and her o'erawes, pride

One kin would we confederate and bind; Among the nations, when she makes her Let the great instrument be made and boast?

signed, Has the East heard it, where her far- The mold and pattern of earth's mightflung host

ier laws! Hangs like a javelin in India's side? Does the sea know it, where her navies Crown with this act the thousand years ride,

of thought, Like towers of stars, about the silver O Mother-Queen, and wheresoever

coast, Or from the great Capes to the utter- Thy sea-flown brood, and bulwarked most


states hath wrought Parts of the North like ocean meteors Far as the loneliest wave of ocean glide?



Thy children's love with veneration into oblivion, though it was faintly rebrought

membered when William Gordon and Shall warm thy hearthstone from their John Pickering made the inquiry which million homes.

they report. Both were competent By G. E. Woodberry. students; both found that the caucus

had something to do with the calkers; and the advertisement of the calkers'

trust in 1740-41 appears to complete the From The New England Magazine.

chain of evidence. The Boston Gazette THE FIRST “CAUCUS.”

of May 5 and 12, 1760, uses the term in The finance debate of the forties,

its modern sense. The etymology sugwhen the Land Bank tried a hand at gested by J. H. Trumbull is not tenthe issue of paper money, occasioned the able; in fact it is not supported by hisword caucus, which has become a part of

tory. To associate the caucus with the English language. To express con

mediæval Latin seems more daring fidence in the bills of the Land Bank, than to identify the town pump with Sam Adams, the father of the patriot, the matchless pomp of the Ancients organized a labor meeting.

The me

and Honorables. Meanwhile the Boschanics of those days were generally ton word has passed into the statutes paid in what we call store orders. Το

of Massachusetts, and figures in the get their wages in money, if only in pa- politics of our kin beyond sea. per bills, seemed attractive. So the From “Words Coined in Boston." By C.W.Ernst. calkers formed a labor union and trust -the word trust is theirs-binding themselves "under a penalty for the performance of their agreement,” which

From The St. Nicholas, was to the effect that they would take THE FAILURE OF THE RUSSIAN wages in merchandise or money only,

OVERLAND. money to include the notes of the Land On the evening of May 31, 1867, as I Bank. This novel trust was perfected sat trying to draw a map in the little on Sunday, February 8, 1740, old style, one-story log-house which served as and duly announced in the papers of the headquarters of the Siberian divithe time. The effect may be imagined. sion, I was interrupted by the sudden A labor union was a novelty in Bos. and hasty entrance of my friend and ton; a labor trust occasioned some. comrade, Lewis, who rushed into the thing like consternation, particularly. room, crying excitedly, “Oh, Mr. Kenas it undertook to sustain the ominous nan! Did you hear the cannon?” I Land Bank. Under British law, such had not heard it, but I understood intrust was a crime. To get rid of the stantly the significance of the inquiry. Land Bank, which was at the bottom A cannon-shot meant that there was a of all this offending, the Boston mer- ship in sight from the beacon-tower chants appealed to Parliament for re- at the mouth of the river. We were lief, and obtained it. Yet the calkers accustomed every spring to get our earheld together, and their cast-iron agree- liest news from the civilized world ment became a by-word for any agree through American wbaling-vessels, ment from which there was no reced- which resort at that season of the year ing. The phrase "calkers' agreement" to the Okhotsk Sea. About the middle was carried into politics, and in 1760 of May, therefore, we generally sent a we read of “the old and true Corcas," couple of Cossacks to the harbor at the meaning the mechanics; also of "the mouth of the river, with instructions to new and grand Corcas,” meaning a keep a sharp lookout from the log beacommittee of merchants who had con-tower on the bluff, and fire three adopted the method of the calkers. By cannon-shots the moment they should 1763 we find the present spelling of see a whaler or other vessel cruising in caucus, the origin of the term falling the Gulf.

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In less than ten minutes the news rigged vessel in the offing, five or six that there was a vessel in sight from miles beyond Matuga Island. climbed the beacon-tower had reached every hastily up the bluff, and had no diffihouse in the village, and a little group culty in making out with a glass the of Cossacks gathered at the landing- masts and sails of a good-sized bark, place, where a boat was being prepared evidently a whaler, which, although to take Robinson, Lewis, and me to the hull down, was apparently cruising seacoast. Half an hour later we were back and forth with a light southerly gliding swiftly down the river in one breeze across the Gulf. We ate breakof the light skiffs known in that part of fast hastily, put on our fur kukhlankas Siberia as “lodkas." We had a faint and caps, and started in a whaleboat hope that the ship which had been sig under oars for the ship, which was naled would prove to be one of our own distant about fifteen miles. Although vessels; but even if she should turn out the wind was light and the sea comparto be a whaler, she would at least bring atively smooth, it was a hard, tedious us late news from the outside world, pull, and we did not get alongside until and we felt a burning curiosity to know after ten o'clock. Pacing the quarterwhat had been the result of the second deck, as we climbed on board, was a attempt to lay an Atlantic cable. Had good-looking, ruddy-faced, grey-haired our competitors beaten us, or was there man whom I took to be the captain. He still a fighting chance that we might evidently thought, from our outer fur beat them?

dress, that we were only a party of naWe reached the mouth of the river tives come off to trade; and he paid no late in the evening, and were met at the attention whatever to us until I walked landing by one of the Cossacks from aft and said, “Are you the captain of the beacon-tower.

this bark?" “What ship is it?” I inquired.

At the first word of English he “We don't know," he replied. “We stopped as if transfixed, stared at me saw dark smoke, like the smoke of a for a moment in silence, and then exsteamer, off Matuga [Mah'-too-gal) claimed in a tone of profound astonishIsland just before we fired the cannon, ment, “Well! Has the universal Yanbut in a little while it blew away and kee got up here?” we have seen nothing since."

“Yes, captain," I replied, “he is not “If it was a whaler trying-out oil,” only here, but he has been here two said Robinson, “we'll find her there in years or more. What bark is this?” the morning.

“The Sea Breeze, of New Bedford, Leaving the Cossack to take our bag. Massachusetts,” he replied, “and I am gage out of the lodka, we all climberl Captain Hamilton. But what are you up to the beacon-tower with the hope doing up in this forsaken country? that, as it was still fairly light, we Have you been shipwrecked ?" might be able to see with a glass the “No," I said, “we're up here trying to vessel that had made the smoke; but build a telegraph line.” from the high, black cliffs of Matuga A telegraph line!” he shouted. Island on one side of the gulf, to the “Well, if that isn't the craziest thing I steep slope of Cape Catharine on the ever heard of! Who's going to teleother, there was nothing to break the graph from here?level horizon line except here and there I explained to him that we were trya field of drifting ice. Returning to the ing to establish telegraphic communiCossack barrack, we spread our bear- cation between America and Europe skins and blankets down on the rough by way of Alaska, Bering Strait, and plank floor and went disconsolate to Siberia, and asked him if he had never bed.

heard of the Russian American TeleEarly the next morning I was awak- graph Company. ened by one of the Cossacks with the “Never," he replied. “I didn't know welcome news that there was a square- there was such a company; but I've been out two years on a cruise, and I observation. The louse probably dishaven't kept up very well with the covered the hydra the first time by accinews."

dent; but when it swam back to the “How about the Atlantic cable?" I in- source of its food-supply the second quired. “Do you know anything about time and then returned again to its that?"

sheltering bit of mud, it clearly evinced “Oh, yes,” he replied cheerfully, as if conscious memory of route and sense he were giving me the best news in the of direction. world, “the cable is laid all right.”

The common garden-snail is a homing “Does it work?" I asked with a sink- animal, and will always return to a ing heart.

particular spot after it has made an ex“Works like a snatch-tackle," he re- cursion in pursuit of food. In front of sponded heartily. “The Frisco pa pers my dwelling there is a brick wall are publishing every morning the Lon- capped by a stone coping; the overhangdon news of the day before. I've got ing edge of this coping forms a moist, a lot of 'em on board that I'll give you. cool home in summer for hundreds of Perhaps you'll find something in them snails. Last summer I took six of these about your company."

creatures, and, after marking their I think the captain must have noticed, shells with a paint of gum arabic and from the sudden change in the expres- oxide of zinc, set them free on the lawn sion of our faces, that his news about

some distance away from the wall. In the Atlantic cable was a staggering the course of time four of them returned blow to us, for he immediately dropped to their homes beneath the stone copthe subject and suggested the propriety ing; the other two were probably de of going below.

stroyed by blackbirds, numbers of From “How the Bad News Came to Siberia.” By which I noticed during the day feeding George Kendan.

on the lawn.

The centre of the sixth sense (sense of direction) in snails is located at the

base of the cephalic ganglion; this From Lippincott's Magazine.

ganglion lies immediately between and THE SIXTH SENSE.

below the "horns," and is composed of After nine years of careful, system- several circumscribed and well-marked atic, and painstaking investigation, I accumulations or corpuscles of nerveam prepared to affirm that, besides the cells and nerve-filaments. The centre five senses, sight, smell, taste, touch, of the sixth sense can easily be de and hearing, certain animals have yet stroyed without inflicting injury on the another sense, the sense of locality, or circumjacent sense-centres. Whenever of direction, commonly called the “hom- this is done the snail loses its sense of ing instinct.”

direction and locality, and cannot find

its way back to its home when it is carEvidences of this sixth sense are to ried therefrom and deposited among be observed in animals of exceedingly new surroundings. It is not killed by low organization. On one occasion, the mutilation, for I have seen marked while studying a water-louse, I saw the snails, in which the centre of the sixth little creature swim to a hydra, pluck sense had been destroyed, alive and apoff one of its buds, then swim a short parently in good health several weeks distance away and take shelter behind after having undergone this operation; a small bit of mud, where it proceėded they found temporary homes wherever to devour its tender morsel. In a short they chanced to be. while, much to my surprise, the louse The limpet, a distant relation of the again swam to the hydra, again pro- snail, is likewise a homing animal, and cured a bud, and again swam back to invariably returns to its home after its hiding-place; this occurred three journeys in search of sustenance. times during the hour I had it under Lieutenant 1-, an officer in the En


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