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he says, would it have been to see the There are constant loving messages persons themselves; but amidst chat for, and anxious inquiries about, the about the pretty gardens, and his heir, Diego. Rosaries, pictures, books, yearning to see his little ones, a lurid toys, letters to fill in with paint, and light flashes across the page, and we other trifles, are sent to the little prince; have before us again for a moment, the and when the
empress came she Philip we know of old. “Yesterday," brought with her his portrait, with a he says (2nd April, 1582), “my nephew childish letter and the picture of a horse and I went to the Auto, and we saw and he had painted, which the proud father heard everything very well from a thought better than before, and prom. window. They gave us papers with ises him lots of pretty pictures as a re the names of all those whom they ward. brought out. I send you mine that you As the end of the year 1582 apmay see who they were. First, there proached, Portugal now being comwas a sermon, as usual, and we stayed pletely quelled by Alva's iron rule, until the sentences were ended, and Philip prepared to return home. Listhen went away, because in the house bon and the ships from the Indies were where we were the secular authorities scoured for presents for the children. had to sentence to be burnt those Case after case of curious trifes was whom the Inquisition had handed over sent off to Madrid, and still, writes the to them. We went at eight and got king (25th October), “I am seeking back to dinner at nearly one. God other things to bring with me, but they keep all in safety as I desire!”
are hard to find.” But soon his joyous It is easy to see that his greatest anticipations of re-union with the solace and pleasure were the gardens. young people were dashed with anxiety. Every feature of them in the succes- The whole family fell ill of small-pox. sive seasons is dwelt upon. On one oc- Granyelle wrote at first that Diego had casion, his daughters sent him some it very mildly, but soon he and the by peaches from their own little garden, Maria died. Little four-year-old Philip but they arrived in such a condition was, says Granvelle, improved by the as to be unrecognizable. “I was fell disease; and the two elder girls, sorry,” he says, “I could not taste Philip thanks God, are but slightly them, for I am sure I should have liked marked. The blow was a crushing one them, as they come from the little gar- for the bereaved king, but, as he writes den under your window." Then he to Granvelle, “If it be God's will to sends him an extra-big sweet lime, afflict him with so many troubles, one which has been given him (but which over the other, he must bear them withhe believes is a lemon), and some roses out repining." So grief-stricken he and orange-blossom, “that they ma, came home to his remaining children, see that there are such things there, and his ceaseless treadmill-toil at his for the Calabrian (his gardener) brings papers which was only to end with his me nosegays of them every day, and life. sometimes bunches of violets. I don't The elder of the two daughters, to think there are any jonquils, or they whom these letters were written, was would have come into bloom already.” that famous Infanta Isabel who was to Jonquils seem to have been but re- have been queen of England if the cently introduced, as he tells the girls Armada had succeeded; and who, that the yellow jonquils they received with her husband, the Archduke Albert, from Aranjuez must be the wild vari
was subsequently sovereign of the ety which comes earlier than the gar- Netherlands. A loving faithful daugh. den sort, but does not smell so sweetly; ter to the end, she closed her father's “but I expect there will be plenty of all eyes in that poor cell in the Escorial, sorts in good time for my sister to see. where he breathed his last; and from I don't think she has seen any, as the time of her imperious youthful there were none when she left Spain." beauty, as Anthony More represents her
in her portrait at Hampton Court, to the from its chain of lakes—in that plain, so time when Vandyk painted her as a often in our own day the scene of Italy's hard-faced, heavy-jawed old nun, her struggles to drive back her Austrian father and her father's memory were oppressors—there stood, two thousand all in all to her. Catharine, the years ago, near the village of Andes, the younger daughter, who kept these let- homestead of the father of Virgil. ters so carefully, married her cousin, Here, with the help of his wife, Maia, Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, in 1585; he cultivated his little patrimony, and and by the marriage of her grand- here their son, Publius Virgilius Maro, daughter into the house of Bourbon, be- was born, October 15, B.C. 70. They came the ancestress of the present royal had sufficient wealth and good sense family of Spain.
to bestow on their gifted child a liberal Truly the human heart is a hard book education, sending him to the schools w decipher. The man who could gaze of Milan and Cremona, and afterwards upon human creatures undergoing the to Naples, where he studied the Greek tortures of the damned by his orders be language and literature. Probably to cause they differed from him, has been this early acquaintance with the city handed down to eternal infamy-and of "sweet Parthenope,” to use his own perhaps rightly so—on the strength of expression, we may trace his enduring his public acts. It is unreasonable to love for her enchanting shores. His ask that his tyranny and cruelty should poetic soul must have glowed responbe forgotten, because there was a soft sive to her luxuriant loveliness, and spot even in his stony heart for those her milder air and soft sea-breezes probwho were nearest him, that the sicken- ably suited his health better than the ing fumes of scorching human flesh rougher blasts of his Mantuan home. should be overpowered by the scent of For all his life he was never robust, and flowers which Philip loved, or that the we do not read of his ever having shreiks of the myriad martyrs should taken part in the stirring military be drowned by the song of his night- events of his time. ingales; but at least, the facts I have The battle of Philippi, B.C. 42, while adduced, prove that he was a human it made Octavian master of the Roman creature and not a fiend, and go to sup world, left him in great difficulties as port my contention that he was con- to the payment of his victorious vetscientiously and devoutly convinced erans. To meet their demands, he gave that he was acting for the best, in ruth. them grants of land, chiefly in northern lessly crushing those whom he looked Italy, and in this way the Virgilian upon the enemies of God and patrimony passed into other bands. Society.
About this time there appeared before MARTIN A. S. HUME.
Augustus a tall, slender young man, stooping in gait and slow of speech, whose complexion, browned by exposure to the summer sun, and whose
rural air placed him in strong contrast VIRGIL AS A MAGICIAN.
with the gilded youth of the luxurious The doubtful honor of being consid- Rome of that day, but in whose eyes ered a mighty magician, which in the was glowing the fire of genius. This Middle Ages so often fell to the lot of was the unknown poet, who was to sing men of superior gifts, was shared by of "Arms and the Man” to his own and Virgil in a remarkable degree. Why future generations. He had come to apthe great poet was thus distinguished, peal on his father's behalf for the restiwe may discover in the circumstances tution of the little Mantuan farm, and of his life and his special genius. in this it is probable he succeeded with
In the wide, flat pasture lands of the the emperor, to whom he afterwards Mantuan plain, watered by the Mincio, testified his gratitude in his first and enriched by the damp fogs arising Eclogue, where he addresses him under
From Good Words.
the name of Melibæus. Fortune con- (Mantua gave
birth, Calabria tinued to smile upon the young Virgil, snatched me from life; Parthenope has with the patronage of the rich and my ashes. I sang of pastures, fields, and generous Mæcenas, to whom he soon shepherds.) after introduced Horace, his friend and The urn has long ago disappeared, but brother bard. Whether through the
a modern stone, bearing the same infavor of this powerful patron,
scription, has been placed where it through that of Augustus himself, stood. In 1226, the tomb was in a good Virgil, a little later, became possessed state of preservation when Petrarch, as of a villa on the height of Posilippo, he tells us in his Itinerary, was taken near Naples. Henceforward this was
to see it by King Robert of Sicily, and his home; here he wrote his greatest here he planted a laurel in memory of works, cultivated his vineyards and the great Latin poet. This laurel is said gardens, and from the resources of his to have existed till the last century, practical knowledge of nature often
when it was gradually destroyed by gave useful hints to the peasants of his
reckless curiosity-hunters. In 1544, the neighborhood, and to the fishermen who following inscription, which is still to be plied their craft at the foot of bis rocks.
seen, was placed in the adjoining wall But in the midst of his varied occupa of the vineyard:tions, and the many interests offered by the old Greek city of Neapolis, he never Qui cineres? tumuli hæc vestigia? Conforgot the farmhouse at Andes, and fre- ditur olim quently sent money to his father, who Ille hic qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. became blind in his later life. Thus passed the tranquil years, varied
(Whose are these ashes? Whose this probably by occasional visits to the ruined tomb? It once contained the
ashes of him who sang of pastures, fields, metropolis. He died of fever at
and shepherds.) Brindisi, September 22, B.C. 19, on his return journey from Athens, whither he
Within a few years of the poet's death, had gone to meet his friend and patron,
so well was his fame already estabAugustus, coming home from an east lished, that statues were everywhere ern campaign. His ashes, according to erected to his memory, an annual celehis own directions, were taken to his bration was held at the tomb, and, beloved Posilippo, and placed in a tomb highest honor of all, even during the on the hillside looking towards Naples. reign of Augustus the use of his writThis tomb soon became a shrine, where ings as schoolbooks had begun. Very poet and peasant, philosopher and fish- early, too, the custom arose of attempterman, alike repaired to pay a tribute ing to read Fate by the random opening of veneration to departed genius and of his works, and taking as prophetic love of humanity. It still stands on the the line that first met the eye, as in sunny slope, half hidden in a tangle of after days was so often done with the vines and cactus, and though modern Bible. It is said that the acceptance or antiquarians in their scepticism would refusal of the empire was more than once throw doubt on its authenticity, they decided by these "sortes Virgiliana,” as cannot despoil it of its interest. It is a they were called. small, square, vaulted chamber, unmis
The remarkable words of the fourth takably a Roman columbarium, con- Eclogue, beginning • Ultima Oumæi taining ten niches for urns. The urn venit jam carminis ætas,” were, as is which held the ashes of Virgil was of well known, supposed by many from marble, supported on nine small pillars, the earliest Christian times to be a and stood alone, opposite the entrance. prophecy of the coming of the Messiah. It bore this inscription:
When we remember that Virgil's death Mantua me genuit, Calabria me rapuit,
occurred only nineteen years before tenet nunc
that event, we need not wonder at the Parthenope; cecini pascua, rura, duces. effect produced on some of the followers
of the new faith by the prediction of the poem will remember, this is put in the near approach of the Golden Age in- mouth of the poet Statius, suffering in augurated by the coming of a Divine Purgatory for the denial in his lifetime Child, words so strangely in accordance of his faith in Christianity. Addressing with those of the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah Virgil, he says: “Thou wert the first to ix, 6, 7). Nor can we be surprised that send me to Parnassus to drink from her they regarded the writer with a sym- springs, and then thou lightedst my pathetic feeling, and doubted, pagan path to God. When thou saidst, 'The though he was, whether the gates of age will be renewed, justice and the heaven were closed upon him. When earlier days of humanity will return, St. Paul, on his way to Rome, landed and a new race will descend from at Pozzuoli (Acts xxviii. 13), then heaven,' thou wert like one who walks Puteoli, a busy commercial city, he by night, carrying a lamp whose light spent seven days there. We may avails not to himself, but to those who naturally suppose that he looked south- follow after him. Through thee I be wards across the shining bay to the came a poet, through thee I became a headland of Posilippo, and a beautiful Christian” (Purg. xxii. 64-73). tradition says that, remembering the This feeling lingered long in the great poet who there had lived and sung, minds of men, ultimately resolving the Apostle of the Gentiles lamented itself into the belief that Virgil, though that he had not been privileged to tell debarred from the blessings of Christhe story of the Saviour of the world to tianity, was gifted with magic powers, the man who in ignorance had predicted which he used for the good of mankind. his glorious advent. Another version At first skill in the black art is not is, that St. Paul even visited the tomb attributed to him, but only power arison the steep hillside, and there wept ing from his intimate knowledge of the over the fate of this gifted spirit. So most recondite secrets of nature. He late as the fifteenth century, at Mantua, figures especially as the great benewhen the mass of St. Paul's Day was factor of Naples, where by degrees he celebrated, a hymn was sung which re- came to be regarded by the more ignocorded the story in the following lines:- rant of the population as a maker of
talismans and charms. In and around Ad Maronis mausoleum
Naples we feel ourselves truly in the Ductus, fudit super eum
Virgil country, not only because of the Piæ rorem lacrimæ.
proximity of many places named in the Quem te, iniquit, reddidissem
Æneid, but also from local names and
traditions. The fisherman still points
out "The Rocks of Virgil," and the oldIn the mystery plays of the Middle est of the tunnels by which the hill of Ages, Virgil was often represented with Posilippo is pierced, is called up to the the Sibyls, who; yet in the night of present day the Grotto of Virgil. For paganism. had announced the coming many centuries this was the only direct of the dawn.
way of communication between Naples In the Divina Commedia, Dante and the Phlegræan Fields. It is said gives utterance to the prevailing feeling that Virgil, seeing what a boon it would of sorrow that such a soul should, be to the country people, who had to through not having been baptized, be bring the produce of their farms to the cut off from the joys of Paradise. city either by boat or by a toilsome Dante was sorely troubled for his "be- journey over the hill, made the tunnel loved master," his "sweetest father," as by enchantment in one night. Our own he calls his guide through the regions of Marlowe thus refers to this in his "Doceternal woe and purifying fire, who, tor Faustus” (Act iii., scene 1):alas! was forever relegated to a "pale realm of shade," the limbo of the un
There saw we learned Maro's golden baptized. As readers of the marvellous
The Way he cut an english mile in length one of the old gates of Naples, a VirThoroug a rock of stone in one night's gilian tradition long lingered. Gervais space.
of Tilbury, an Englishman, who pub
lished a book of travels in 1212, thus That this was the popular belief is relates it. He says: “We call those shown by the fact of King Robert of things wonderful which, although Sicily having brought Petrarch here, natural, are beyond our understanding; when his guest in Naples, to ask his our inability to explain them alone opinion on the subject. Petrarch tells makes them marvellous." He goes on us that he thus replied to the king: “I to tell some of the many magic deeds know well that Virgil was a poet and attributed to Virgil by popular report, not a magician; besides, I see here the and then gives his own experience, marks of the iron tool used in the exca- which he declares must have been in. vation." Whoever he may have been credible to him had it not fallen under who planned “this very dark and most his own observation. He was at Saobscure passage, fearful to him who en- lerno, he says, in 1190, when Philip, son tered it,” as an old writer says, did of the Earl of Salisbury, unexpectedly merciful work, saving many a weary landed there on luis way to the siege of step to men and horses.
Acre. Gervais decided to accompany In one of the public squares of Naples him, and the two went to Naples to there stood, five hundred years ago, a seek a ship to take them to Palestine colossal bronze horse, probably Greek, without delay and with as little expense but said to be the magic work of the as possible. Arrived in the city, they poet, and endowed by him with curative went to the house of the Archdeacon powers for all equine maladies. So Giovanni Pignatelli, who received them great was its fame and reputed success hospitably, and, while dinner was being that the farriers, who were losing their prepared, went with them down to the trade, bored a hole in its body, and thus sea. They had no trouble in obtaindeprived it of its magic power. But it ing what they desired; a vessel was was still regarded with such supersti- found whose captain was willing to tious veneration that the Archbishop hasten his departure, and to take them of Naples in 1322 had it taken down, for the sum they named. On their exand the body melted into a bell for the pressing to the archdeacon their surcathedral. The head was saved, and prise at their easy success, he asked:since 1809 it has been in the Museum "By which gate did you enter the of Naples, where the visitor may still city?”. see it in the gallery of the bronzes, a They answered, “By the Porta masterly piece of sculpture, instinct Nolana.” with fiery life. The rings in the mouth “And at which side of the gate did were put there by the Emperor Conrad, you come in ?" about 1251, to hold a bridle, as symbol- “As we approached the gate. we were ical of the bridle with which he threat- nearest the left side, but an ass laden ened the Neapolitans. The forelock is with wood coming up we were obliged tied up in a knot on the forehead, and it to take the right." is curious to observe how this style The archdeacon replied, “In order of decoration still prevails in Naples, that you may see what wonders Virgil where the best kept cab-horses have has wrought for our city, I ask you to this knot of hair tied with bright-colored come with me that I may show you a ribbon,
record of him." In pity to the mosquito-tormented They accordingly all went to the Neapolitans. Virgil is reputed to have Porta Nolana, and there, on the right made a great fly of metal which had the side of the gate, the archdeacon pointed power of driving away all insect out a head in marble which bore an ex. plagues.
pression of hilarity, while on the left In connection with the Porta Nolana, was another head which seemed to