personally to so much detailed busi- will have learnt how they want to ness, and then, weary as he was, to make me dress up in brocade, very write far into the night about his much against my will, but they say it anxiety at the ailments of his chilis the custom here." And then, a few dren, teething and the like; about their weeks later, comes a full account of little gardens, their studies, their play the sumptuous ceremonial, which, he things, and his yearning to get back says, he wishes his children could have home to them. From all sides of his seen as his nephew (the Cardinal Archvast dominions came trouble to him. duke Albert) did from a window. “I Rival pretenders were disputing inch have conferred the Golden Fleece on by inch his claim to Portugal, and it the Duke of Braganza,” he says, “and was a duel to the death now between we both went to mass together with him and his late subjects, the stub- our collars (of the order) on, but mine born Dutchmen. Alençon was being looked very bad over my mourning, backed up in Flanders by his mother, and he was much smarter than I; Catharine de Medici and Elizabeth of although it is said that the day of the England. Spanish colonies were being ceremony was the first time he had sacked and Spanish commerce swept worn shoes, though every one wears from the seas by Drake and the Prot- them here now but I.” In the midst estant privateers, and from all quar- of his business he finds time to enclose ters came the cry for money, money for his daughters a new seal, the first and more money, from Philip's plun- that had been cut with the arms of dered and empty treasury. And yet, Portugal, henceforward his, and is in face of all, this gloomy, unhappy curious to see how it will come out man is ever ready to jest with his chil- in wax. It is interesting, by the way, dren, sometimes

at his

to note that sealing-wax is regarded expense; as when (4th June, 1582) his somewhat in the light of an experidaughters seem to have twitted him mental curiosity, and only with having told them twice about a apparently in the form of a present certain "tribune" looking into the from the "Indies.” On one occasion chapel from which his sister, the the king sends a small piece of white empress, heard mass, and on reading sealing-wax to his girls, as quite a over his letter he finds he has described rarity, and tells them to try how it the said tribune for the third time. looks with a seal, although he thinks “There,” he says, “now I have gone the effect will be cold. and told you all about it again, so you In another letter the king, who had may see how my head whirls with all then been absent for nearly eighteen the things I have to cram into it, but months, asks whether the children still I am well, which is a great deal;" have grown much, how little Diego is or again, when in answer to the great getting with his letters, and news that the baby-girl Maria, aged whether baby Maria's teeth are coming. two, had cut an eye-tooth, he says it He gives directions to his eldest daughis very early for that, but doubtless ter to send him the exact measureit is to make up for two of his own ments in ribbon of all the children, and which are ready to fall out; "and I to promise Diego a pretty Indian desk doubt not they will be lacking when I if he will learn to read nicely. He get home, but if nothing worse happen agrees that Diego will look pretty in to me I can put up with it.”

his short coats, discusses how the garThe first letter of the series preserved dens at Aranjuez want rain, the progat Turin is dated 3rd April, 1581, at ress of little Philip, the exact age of Thomar, where the first Portuguese them all, and the dozen other little Cortes was to be held, and the oath of home topics such as interest a fond allegiance taken to Philip. He tells his father absent from his family. children how the people are already But the most extraordinary feature flocking into the town, and says, “You in these letters is Philip's references



to his retainers. Porreño and other his sister, the Empress Maria, whom contemporary historians have much to he had not seen for twenty-six years, say of Philip's patience and forbear and for whom, all through these letance with his servants; how, on one ters, he expresses the most devoted occasion, on retiring to rest very attachment. In the same letter of weary, he found his bed unmade and April, 1582, he answers, in a playful his room in confusion; whereupon, strain, the youthful boasts of his without uttering a word of reproach, daughters about their hunting prowhe patiently waited whilst the neglect- ess, in a way which shows how careful servants did their forgotten duty; fully he reads the children's letters. and how, on another occasion, he had “O!” he says, "you must be graud sat up half through the night writing crossbow-women, both of you, to kill a despatch, over which, when it was so many bucks and rabbits as you say. finished, a sleepy attendant poured the But you, the elder, say that your ink instead of the sand, without a basty brother (hermano) had become quite word from the king. But English famous at it. I think you must mean readers, at all events, have conjured up your sister (hermana), and must have such a harsh, repellent Philip, that it put an o for an a. You left out anis hard to realize that those who sur- other word as well, so I think you rounded him were not in the least must have written your letter hurafraid of him; although Cabrera said riedly." of him that “his dagger and his smile One is struck by the constant recurwent close together.” He appears to rence of tertian ,and quartan fevers, have been accompanied on his Portu- from which the children, and, indeed, guese journey by an old woman called every one else, seemed to suffer. The Madalena, probably one of those ill- anxiety of the father about the health looking dwarfs who were generally of the youngsters during these conattached to Spanish royalty; and this tinual attacks shows how deeply atwoman was the standing joke between tached he was to them. Not a detail the king and his daughters. There is of their small lives escapes him. Their hardly a letter in which she is not changes of dress, their birthdays, the mentioned. She is presented to us as arrangement of their apartments, the a cross, quarrelsome old woman, much repair and alterations of various paloverfond of wine, of whose anger the aces, and, above all, the flowers, and king was, or pretended to be, very fruits, and birds in the gardens, are much afraid. In the letter I am now never-failing subjects of chat with his quoting (1st May, 1581), he says that daughters. All his own journeys and Madalena misses most the strawber- excursions are described in style and ries of Aranjuez, “but my greatest words to suit the tender ages of his wish is to hear the song of the nightin- correspondents, and he frequently gales, although a few sometimes are

stops to explain the meaning of a word heard from my window here." In

that he thinks may be unfamiliar to another letter, written in the following them, such as “skiff,” for instance, spring (April, 1582), he again refers to which he tells them is a little boat used this. “I was delighted,” he says, “with to take him from the landing-stairs to your letters from Aranjuez. What I

his galley in the river. His galley, he have missed more than anything else says, is rowed by three hundred slaves, is the song of the nightingales, which

who strip to the skin with the excepI do not hear now, as I am here (i.e., in tion of white kilt drawers.

On one Lisbon) far away from the country. I occasion, in July, 1581, when he and don't know whether I shall hear any the Archduke Albert go to the mouth of them on the road, for I am going of the river to inspect Santa Cruz's across the river to-morrow to sleep at fleet of galleons, which was to crush Barreiro,” etc., etc. The reason for Don Antonio and Catharine de Medici's this journey to Almerin was to meet fleet in the Azores, he relates that be



fore they left the galley "they had the farthingales, which are really terrible, Salve sung, as they were accustomed to except that of Doña Graciosa, with do every Saturday, in order that Albert whom Mortara has had a great fall might hear it. It was very well sung out. Indeed, I don't know how long by some of the slaves who are min- it is since we were able to induce him strels, and play excellently on many to go to my sister's apartments. instruments." The king must have Whilst I am writing this I hear a great been fond of music, for in his numer- outcry in the street after him, although ous and minute descriptions of the they do not cry after him so much as church ceremonies he attends, he usu- they used to do." ally has something to say about it, and This baiting of the buffoons by the he complains on one occasion that as Lisbon crowd seems to have been a there is no good organist in Lisbon, regular thing, but the pampered Madahe is sending for his Spanish musician, lena did not relish it. When the king Cabezon, to improve the musical ser- went to Belem by water she accomvices.

panied him in the galley, and in his letNo person, perhaps, even in that ter to his daughters, he says, “Mada

did time, ever apparelled himself lena went to the galley to-day after so magnificently as did Philip in his me, and I think she was a bit sea-sick. younger years, but at the time these She does not venture to roam much letters were written, and for the rest about the city. I think it is in order of his life, he dressed in mourning that they may not cry after her as But still he occasionally mentions his they do after the others, 'This way for own garb. When he went to meet his the clever wench.' Don't say I do not sister, he relates that his nephew send you plenty of news. God bless Albert was dressed very smartly in you.” Madalena seems to have misred; "and I wore (black) satin and behaved herself somehow this cap.” He tells his daughters, in April, excursion, for in the next letter the 1582, eighteen months after the death king says, “Madalena is very cross of their step-mother, that they may with me, because I scolded her put some gold trimming their for something she did in the galley;" mourning on the occasion of the mar- and again in October, “Madalena has riage of one of the maids of honor, been very cross with me since I wrote and in another letter he approves of last, because I did not scold Luis Tristheir leaving off their mourning wim- tan for quarrelling with her in the ples. The girls appear to have rather presence of my nephew. I did not hear made fun of the German ladies who it, but I believe she began by calling accompanied the empress and made a him names. She is very angry with short stay in Madrid with her, before me, and says she will go away, and she continued her journey to join her that he will kill her, but I expect she brother in Portugal. They must have will have forgotten all about it to-mortold their father of the tremendous row." A few weeks later, he says that ruffs they wore, those in Madrid hav- Madalena is not so cross with him, ing remained narrow until years after- but she has been ill, and has remained wards, when Philip III. married his in a very bad humor. "She came home German cousin. When the German yesterday. She is much broken and ladies came to Portugal, Philip says: weak, and old, and deaf, and half dot. "I do not think their ruffs are so very ing, but I believe it is all drink, and for large as you say, they must have made that reason I think she is really glad them smaller since seeing how they that her son-in-law has gone away. I were worn in Madrid, but I have not have not seen her to-day, but I don't seen much of them yet, and cannot think she is writing to you because tell you much about them. But if she is so cross. She yesterday they have narrowed their frills, they she was not angry with the woman have certainly not done so with their who wrote to you, whose name is Mari





fernandez, but who is called Mariola, but they are so long I could not do so. as she likes to hear her sing; and she Don't let him know on any account or is right, for she sings very well, only he will be very cross with me. Someshe is so fat and big that she can times I give him messages from you, hardly get through the doorway.” A for I have to do everything to keep few months later (January, 1582) Ma- him in a good temper, although he is dalena is again to the fore. “Madalena sometimes very angry with me, but said she was going to write to you not so bad as he used to be. I don't to-day, but she has not come yet. I know how he will be after his illness." don't know what has come over her After the Corpus processions each lately, as she does not come to me só parish in Lisbon had a special procesoften. I do not know whether the sion of its own, on an especially grand wine has anything to do with it. She • scale, and Philip, his sister, and would give it me finely if she knew I nephew, saw their parochial proceswrote such a thing.” Madalena must sion of St. Gian (St. Julian) from a have known the empress before she window in the Rua Nova. A manuleft Spain, for, says the king (7th May, script in the Paris archives says this 1582), "She is very merry with my sis procession


twelve thousand ter, although a taffety dress she wears ducats, and Philip tells his daughters is all in rags. But it is my fault, for that it was better than he expected. I have given her nothing, although she “I was so sorry," he said, “that your has not failed to remind me of it. She brother could not see it, for there were must wait till we get back to Lisbon. some devils that looked like devils out She wears a chain, and my sister is of a picture by Jerome Bosc, of which much surprised to see her so decked I am sure he would not have been out, although she says she has not frightened.” The authorities had changed.”

given Philip a Portuguese programme The king writes an interesting letter of the procession, which he says was on 25th June, 1582, again saying how very necessary, “so that he should he yearned to be at home with his chil- understand each thing as it passed." dren, and mentions, apropos of the This programme he sent to his daughempress having been bled, a curious ters, although, as he says, there is a custom in Germany of making presents great difference between seeing things to a person bled for the first time. He on paper and seeing them with your then goes on to describe the Corpus eyes. The young princesses assured Christi feasts in Lisbon. It appears their father that they understood that little Diego had been frightened at every word of it, at which he was the masks in Madrid, and the king tells somewhat incredulous. "You must," his daughters to explain them and allay he says, “understand Portuguese very his fear. “There were no morris- well if you could read all the prodances but many dances by women, gramme, for there were some words and some of the women sang very well, in it that I could not make out myself. but as I was at the very end of the long I don't think you understood it quite procession, I could not see much, and all. If the bull-fight to-morrow, in Madalena writes you a full account of front of my windows, is as good as the it. She is now here, and says that she procession,. we shall have nothing to would rather be with you herself than complain of. They are putting up the send messages. I tell her that however hoarding now very fine, as if it were to much her feet may beat time when she last for a long time. Madalena has a hears the music she gets too tired to little bit of a balcony looking on to the dance. She had a faint the other day Place, and she is so busy dressing it and is now very weak. They say Mor- out that she has no time to write. I tara is better, but he does not come don't believe, for my part, that she here yet. He has asked me many wanted to write, although I have retimes to give you messages from him, minded her very often about it. She



says she cannot settle down to write owed sister is almost boyish in its on the eve of a bull-fight, and she is as eagerness. He keeps saying how he delighted as if it was going to be a envies his daughters because they will good one instead of a very poor thing see her before he will, and counts the as I expect. The best of it will be the days that must pass before he meets dancers who will appear in the Place. her, on each stage of her slow journey. Madalena will write you all about it, He anticipates her pleasure in seeing if she don't forget it before next Mon- the gardens she knew as a girl, and day, as I expect she will."

gives the most minute directions for But Madalena fell ill soon afterwards her comfort at each of the palaces she and the king writes (1st October, 1582): visits. His eldest daughter reminds “The bull-fight was as shabby an affair him that he and the empress much as I said it would be, and I have no resembled each other when they were more to say about it. Madalena came young, especially in the hanging lower to me to-day, but very weak, and with lip, to which he replies that he wonders a bad color, for she has been ill with whether they are still alike. “I envy fever and has been purged and bled. you much,” he says (19th February, You cannot complain of her to-day, for 1582), "for by this time you will have without anything being said she has seen my sister. Write me plenty of brought me the enclosed letter for you. news about her, which I hope will be Really she is so weak to-day that I good; if she is stout or thin, if we are think the least thing would carry her still alike as we used to be; but I don't off. But she soon pulls up again, and think she will have aged as I have. will be greatly helped by a gold chain Write about your cousin and my sister sent her, and bracelets from whether you can understand her, as I my niece, as presents in the German am told she speaks but little Spanish. fashion when she bled.” His Tell me about everything. How I envy kindly consideration for his servants you, too, for going to the Pardo, where is not confined to his jesters. There you doubtless now are, for Salazar was a man called Tofiño in attendance writes that it is very pleasant. I am on the young princesses, and on Phil- so glad my sister will see it. I wonder ip's journey to Lisbon with the whether she has forgotten it." empress, all four in one coach, as he The girls seem to have entertained says (i.e., himself, the empress, and her their aunt well, and the father is evison and daughter), "for we had to take dently proud of them. The elder told out some of the cushions to make room him she was now taller than her aunt for us, as my sister would not allow with her pattens on, and the king reme to sit in one of the doorways as I plies: "According to that you must wished,” they met this man Tofiño on have grown; and you, the younger, foot, whom Philip says he had forgot- also, as you say, you are bigger than ten, “and we were all very merry with your cousin, who is older than you. him, although I have not been able to But you must not be vain of it, as I see him since, as I am so busy with my expect it is rather that she is oversister and the despatch of the mails.” small than you over-tall. If you saw It appears that the younger princess, me now you would not think my sister Catharine, bad had a fall at Aranjuez looked older than I, but the contrary, and had not mentioned it to her father. and, indeed, I am thirteen months He learnt of it from some one else, and older.” He tells them, again, to send reproaches her for her silence on the their exact measurements in ribbons, subject; and then apparently thinking and says that, although the elder has that the princess may blame Toiño for grown so much and is now the great telling him, he says that she must not age of fifteen, they must not think they think he learnt it from Tofiño, “as I are quite grown-up women yet. And have bardly had time to speak to him.” then, when the measurements came, he His delight at the coming of his wid- expressed his delight; but still greater,


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