tained by Philip on the Continent. his first wife, when he was only eighLight and frivolous, questionably teen, and during his nine years' widowmoral, indeed, as some of her proceed- hood, the connection with Doña Isabel ings were, she was certainly not the Osorio was commenced and continued, brazen Theodora, bated and loathed but none but the most censorious would by her own people as she was repre

venture to blame him on that account. sented by the Catholic scribes of her Orange's second charge was that he time; nor was Orange the impious vo- had lived with, and had a daughter by, luptuary which Philip's ban of 1580 Doña Eufrasia de Guzman, whom he made him out to be. But if Philip had married to the Prince of Ascoli could maintain his Father Parsons, to hide his fault, and this is doubtless Elizabeth could entertain her Antonio true. It is probable, indeed, as SorPerez, and the attacks on Philip's per- zano, the Venetian ambassador in sonal character, were as cruel, and Madrid, says, that Philip gave the probably less warrantable, than those Prince of Ascoli an office in the palace, upon Elizabeth. Nothing is further in order to retain the lady near him, from my thoughts at present than to after his marriage with Elizabeth de attempt an apology for the methods or Valois in 1560; but the arrangement objects of the Spanish king, but it may could not have lasted long, as in 1564 render us somewhat less arrogant and Saint Sulpice, the French ambassador, dogmatic in our judgment of him, if writes home, saying that Ruy Gomez we find that in his domestic relations had assured him that the relations had he was not altogether the unnatural then ceased, and that the lady had and repulsive fiend which it has been gone away from the palace; so that the fashion to regard him, if we can everything was now going on as well prove by the evidence now forthcom- as could possibly be wished." ing that instead of being the murderer The romantic story of the king's of his wife and his first-born, he was a relations with the Princess of Eboli, good husband, a tender father, an Ruy Gomez's wife, invented by the affectionate brother, and a patient, false scoundrel Antonio Perez in exile, kindly master. It would doubtless be to make his own contemptible persontoo much to claim that he was beyond ality more interesting, has been conreproach in respect of his marital fidel- clusively disproved by Señor Gaspar ity; but at least it is the fact that he Muro, and' may henceforward be carefully avoided open scandal in the regarded

discredited fiction. matter, such as that given by his great These being the worst charges in this father and the contemporary kings of respect that the malice of his deadly France. William the Silent, in his enemies could bring against Philip, it “Apology” or answer to Philip's ban, will be conceded that not much need be carefully raked up every scandalous said in his defence, considering the story that was told about him, and morals of the time and the example of alleges that before he married the contemporary princes against whom Princess of Portugal, mother of Don no word is raised. Carlos, "he had been wedded to Doña Let us now consider him in his legitIsabel Osorio, by whom he had two imate relations. There must, for all or three children." Now Philip was his coldness, have been something very married to his first wife when he was lovable in the man whose three purely only sixteen and a half years old; he diplomatic marriages after his matur had been kept in close tutelage by the ity resulted in the fervent affection for emperor, and certainly no churchman him of his respective wives. Each of would have dared to perform the cere- these unions was effected under cirmony of marriage between the heir- cumstances which would seem to foreapparent and a private lady at any bode repulsion rather than attachment; such age as that. It is extremely prob- the first having been a duty-marriage, able that after the untimely death of undertaken at the orders of his father



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with an ill-favored bride many years upon him the necessity for the Spanolder than himself, whom he had never iards to adopt the English manners seen, and whose subjects were bitterly and comport themselves with becomopposed to the match; the second being ing modesty; "and I am confident,” he in fulfilment of a treaty of peace in says, “that your Highness will caress which his new wife had first been them (i.e., the English) with your affianced to his son; and his third bride accustomed kindness.” Philip cerbeing his own niece, a mere girl, who tainly bettered his instruction, for be had for years been regarded as the was graciousness itself, from the first future wife of his son Carlos. When moment he set foot on English land at Philip was apprised by his father that Southampton. Cabrera says of hin, he had arranged for him to marry “Some of the English were inclined to Mary Tudor, he replied in a letter truly be sulky, but the king won them over filial in its tone. If, he said, his with his prudence and affability, and Majesty was determined not to marry with gifts and favors accompanied by the queen himself, which would be his family courtesy.” An Italian eyebest; and wished him, Philip, to do so, witness specially speaks of the prince's "Your Majesty knows that I being so "gentilezza di parlare;” and Sorzano, obedient a son have no other will than the Venetian ambassador in Madrid, yours, especially in a matter of such afterwards assured the doge, "That importance as this. I therefore leave the gentle courtesy he adopted in Enit to your Majesty to act as you may gland was continued after his return deem best.” He not only without a to Spain, and that while maintaining murmur did as his father wished, but his natural gravity and dignity, his as gaily and pleasantly as might be, kindness and graciousness to all persought to gain the affection of his sons were remarkable." elderly bride and his new subjects. Michaeli, the Venetian ambassador Froude, following French and Vene- in land, who had sided so strongly tian authorities, both bitterly opposed with Noailles in his opposition to the to the match, has presented Philip dur match, is also very emphatic in his ing his stay in England as gloomy, testimony to Philip's graciousness sulky and repellent. The very oppo- whilst in England, and says that his site was really the case. His position conduct towards his wife was enougl was an extremely difficult one. Marks to make any woman love him; “For of jealousy and hatred met him on in good truth, no one else in the world every side; the proud Spanish nobles could have been a better or a more lovwho attended him were openly insulted ing husband.” This, be it remembered, and maltreated whenever they ap- is the testimony of one of Pbilip's peared in public, the queen's govern- opponents. When the first bloom of ment from the first gave him to under- the honeymoon was fading, and the stand that he would not be allowed royal couple were at Richmond (19th to interfere in English affairs; it must August, 1554), one of Philip's courtiers have been evident to him, as it cer- writes, “Their Majesties are the baptainly was to his Spanish courtiers, piest couple in the world, and are more that he had sacrificed himself in vain. in love with each other than I can say and that the stubborn Anglo-Saxon here. He never leaves her, and on the was no more likely to be ruled from road is always by her side, lifting her Spain after the queen's marriage, than into the saddle and helping her to dishe was before it. And yet with all mount. He dines with her in public, this, Philip's gentle courtesy and gra- and they go to mass together on feast ciousness not only completely enam- days.” London was in a perfect frenzy oured the queen of him, but before he of panic, and the few Spanish courtiers left England actually won the hearts still remaining with the king were of the jealous English courtiers. It undisguised in their disappointment at is true that Renard had impressed the match; but Philip never lost his

patient graciousness, and in despite of teen, yellow with constant fever and the public fears of the Spaniards, ague; and although it is true that he became personally not unpopular dur- subsequently became deeply attached ing his stay. When at length it became to his step-mother, and her influence evident that no issue would result from over him, even in his maddest the marriage, and that Renard's plan moments, was supreme, it is almost had failed, Philip was forced to leave certain that her feelings towards him his queen and attend to the interests were always those which were warof his own world-wide empire, but he ranted by their position towards each did so with all kindness and gentle- other. However that may be, Elizaness; and her fervent love for him beth's first interview with Philip was whilst her life lasted, proves at least anything but propitious. As she that he was a good husband to her. approached the king she was so fright

Philip's next marriage would seem ened that she could only stare dumbly to have promised even less felicity at his grave face without making a than his former one. His bride was sign. He looked older than his years, not much over fourteen years of age and being conscious of the fact, doubtwhilst he was thirty-three; she was less read her thoughts aright. "What being handed over like a chattel to the are you looking at?" was his first man who had been at mortal feud with greeting to his bride. “Are you lookher family and country for years. The ing to see whether my hair is white?" gay and brilliant couri of her brother But Philip's habitual gentleness soon and mother was very dear to the beau- came back, and he and Elizabeth de tiul young French girl; and she knew Valois made an excellent couple. This full well that the splendid squalor and perhaps may have been to some extent rigid etiquette of her husband's life owing to the tact, ability, and beauty boded but ill for her future happiness. that made this daughter of Catharine So great was the distrust and dislike de Medici the most popular queen-conbetween France and Spain at the sort that Spain ever had, but it must time, that the most elaborate precau- have been greatly aided by Philip's tions had to be taken to prevent sur- constant solicitude and kindness. In prise or treachery on the part of the the midst of the marriage festivities courtiers of the respective countries the bride fell ill of small-pox, and the who met on the frontier, and the young husband's tender care for her was queen was kept waiting for days at redoubled. "The king," we are told, Roncesvalles in the snow whilst "prolonged his visits and multiplied Anthony de Bourbon was bickering his attentions to the young queen. His with the Spaniards as to who should persuasions and his tenderness precross the frontier first.

vailed upon her to be bled, for which Philip himself seems to have antici- she had extreme repugnance." pated no happiness from the marriage Through her convalescence and afterand advanced no further than Gua- wards Philip was ceaseless in his dalajara to meet his bride. All that attentions. “He never left her durnational distrust, glacial etiquette, and ing his hours of leisure, except when gloomy pomp could do to damp the absolutely necessary, and in every spirits of bride and bridegroom was way showed his tenderness for her;" done, and the poor child Elizabeth was and one of her ladies, writing some frightened nearly to death the time afterwards to Catharine de Memeeting with her future husband dici, assures the queen-mother, who was approached. The story of the romanc- apparently most anxious about her ers, that she had already seen and daughter's health and conduct, that fallen in love with her husband's son, “Elle dort toutes les nuits avec le roi Don Carlos, for whom she was first son mari, qui n'y faut jamais sans destined, may be dismissed. He was grande occasion." Her cousin, the a lame, sickly, big-headed boy of four- Countess of Clermont, also writes to





the queen-mother in a similar strain of so good a husband as the king was during the course of the queen's ill- to her.” When all was over “Philip

“The king,” she says, “comes retired,” says Fourquevault, “in great to see her every day, and stays longer anguish and sorrow and shut himself with her than usual. I can assure you up in the monastery of St. Geronimo." that when she is well his countenance Madrid, a very hot-bed of romantic shows his pleasure, and his sadness gossip, had known all about the attachwhen she is ill proves the love he bears ment of the unhappy Carlos for his her." The same lady writes later: young step-mother; and when the mad“The king is so unceasing in his atten- ness and death of the prince had set tions that he sends at all hours to the tongues of Liars-walk wagging, learn how she is, and though he has Elizabeth's name and that of her stepbeen advised not to come himself, he son were coupled, as usual. Brantome continues to do so every day. This hints that both Carlos and Elizabeth agrees with what an old woman here were done to death by Philip's orders, called the 'Beata,' told him; that he and Antonio Perez in his “Memorias," was the happiest man in the world to written expressly to injure the king have such a wife, and that he must love and please his enemies, formulates the her and never be angry with her, or charge nearly thirty years afterwards. God would punish him sorely.” The Brantome's thoughtless tattle, and queen herself, in her constant private Perez's venomous lies have been disletters to her mother, written during proved without doubt in own the whole course of her married life, times. The letters of the French never fails to praise the devotion and ambassador, Fourquevault, show attachment of her husband to her. It clearly that Elizabeth's death was a is unnecessary to multiply instances natural one. Philip, moreover, had of this; one of many will suffice: “I every reason for wishing his wife to can assure you, madam,” she says, live. They were deeply attached to "that if it were not for the good com- each other; his son Carlos had just pany I am in here, and the happiness died and he had no male heir to succeed I experience in seeing my husband him, although Elizabeth had borne him every day, I should find this place the two daughters. She would certainly most tiresome in the world; but I have have had more children if she had so good a husband, and I am so happy, lived, and there was no reason whatthat even if the place were a hundred ever for him to desire her disappeartimes as tiresome as it is, I should not

Llorente himself, an avowed be vexed' at it.” Through all the enemy of Philip, in his “History of the intrigue and jealousy that surrounded Inquisition,” confidently asserts that them, through the political and family "the queen died a natural death, and dissensions that kept Catharine de not by poison, and that she never gave Medici and her son-in-law at armed the king any cause for jealousy.” M. truce, through Philip's private sorrow Gachard, in his “Don Carlos et Philippe and public disasters, his loving devo- II.,” has similarly destroyed the fabric tion to his young wife never failed; of infamy raised by enemies and and when, after a too short married romancers, with regard to Philip's life, she was sacrificed to medical treatment of his wretched son. The unskilfulness, the grief of her husband fact is now understood that the latter was an echo of that which reigned all a dangerous homicidal maniac, over Spain.

ready for any mischief, and that it was M. Fourquevault, the French ambas- simply a measure of necessary precausador in Spain who sent the queen's tion to isolate him; and at the same last sad words to her mother, relates time get him out of the way of the the details of the deathbed scene, and political intriguers who were taking describes Philip's farewell of his wife; advantage of his insanity. His death "enough,” he says, “to break the heart was the result of maniacal eccentrici

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ties of diet and hygiene. His lunacy oppressive the heat was in Lisbon at and death, followed so soon by the the time (14th August, 1581), but, he death of the queen, was a terrible blow says, not nearly as hot as at Badajoz. to Philip. His two little daughters by And then, as if overwhelmed with the Elizabeth, Isabella Clara Eugenia and recollection of his loss there, he adds, Catharine Michaela, growing up

“But I do not want to recall to my beautiful as their mother, and, the mind that unhappy place.” On the elder especially, inexpressibly dear to second anniversary of the queen's him for the rest of his life, were nev- death he again writes to his children ertheless unfit successors to the (25th October, 1582) a long letter full of extended empire which could only be kindly playfulness, sending them held by the sword. Philip at the age of plenty of toys and curious trifles, and forty-two was therefore again obliged discussing little home topics interesting to seek a bride for reasons of State. to them; and after closing the letter by His niece, Ana of Austria, daughter of saying that he is very weary and the his sister Maria, and his cousin the hour is late, he dashed off a postscript, Emperor Maximilian, had been in- evidently wrung from the heart: “I tended for Carlos, but once more the shall never forget this night, if I live father stepped into the dead son's for a thousand years." No more than shoes and married his niece. She was that, but it is enough to show how a gentle, comfortable, prolific crea- poignant was still the sense of his loss. ture, possessing all the homely virtues, When Queen Ana died only three of and bore him many children, all of her children

surviving-Don whom died but one, but she must have Diego, Prince of Asturias, heir to the loved her husband very dearly, for crown, aged five years; Philip, who the chroniclers of her time relate, and subsequently succeeded, aged two and no doubt she herself thought, that she a half; and an infant daughter named sacrificed her own life for his. Philip Maria. The eldest daughter of Elizawas proceeding slowly on his way to beth de Valois, Isabella Clara Eugenia, conquer Portugal, in the autumn of aged fifteen, and her younger sister 1580, when at Badajoz on the frontier Catharine, aged about thirteen, comthe mysterious disease we now call pleted Philip's family. The children "influenza" suddenly appeared. The were left behind at Madrid under the king was stricken down and was like governorship of Count de Barajas and to die, when the queen, in prayer for Countess de Paredes; and however him night and day, besought heaven busy and anxious the king might be, to take her life instead of that of her he never failed to send by every couhusband. She at once sickened with rier pleasant, fatherly, kindly letters to the disease and died, whilst Philip his two eldest daughters. These letrapidly recovered. He had never been ters, which show Philip in an entirely a gay personage, but from the hour his new light, were religiously preserved fourth wife died he grew more and by the younger princess, who took more moody. He had started on his them with her to her new home when trip to Portugal with his yellow beard she married the Duke of Savoy a few hardly touched with grey; Cardinal de years afterwards. They were found Granvelle wrote to Margaret of Parma in the State archives of Turin by M. on his return that it had in the interval Gachard and published in Spanish with turned snow-white; and in the remark- a French translation in Paris in 1884. able series of letters to his daughters It is not too much to say that the peruto which I shall presently refer, Philip sal of these tender, affectionate letters, more than once bitterly alludes to his side by side with the king's numerous grief.

State despatches on all subjects, of Nearly a year after his wife's death concurrent dates, inspires a feeling of at Badajoz he mentions in one of his absolute wonder at the patient laborichatty letters to his children, how ousness which enabled him to attend

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