main to us from early times, but as the request has been granted, and he remeaning has been lost such mnemonics ceived the results in his heart. cannot be explained. We must then Now, far as this may be in detail from learn about such a stage, the first fore- the ideas of other and older civilizarunner of any regular writing, by look- tions, yet when we see in the system of ing to some living people who are in hieroglyphs which preceded alphabetic this stage at present. These we find in writing, the use of ideographic figures the North Americans. They have long for an object or an action, quite apart records of this kind, chronologies of the from the expression of the sound of the years for a century past, each noted by word itself, we may fairly conclude some ideogram of the most striking that such a system of emblems of ideas event. And their sacred songs of initia. -much like that of the North Amertion are likewise outlined, so that no icans-has also had place in Egypt and section shall be forgotten. The system other lands. In fact, we have before of these reminders has been fully ex- us a typical product of the working of amined and recorded in the splendid the mind, when aids to record and to volumes of the Bureau of Ethnology memory are being first developed. We belonging to the Smithsonian Institu- have thus just sighted a little of that tion. From that we may take one of stage of civilization which is perhaps those examples which are most clear to the most noteworthy of all-where the our minds. It is a song of initiation mind has attained the greatest insight sung by the magician to the candidate. and feeling for nature, while it yet First is a head of a listening man, lines draws its ideas directly from the senses, of sound flow into his ears, and he is in and before conventionalism obtains its a state of exaltation, or of power, great power from the permanence of shown by the horns and point on his writing. We see how in the business of head. The song is, “I hear the spirit life the Egyptian had developed almost speaking to us.” Then comes the figure all that marked his later civilization. of a man, and an enclosure through The weapons, the tools, the boats, the which a pathway-line is drawn; he ornaments, and the various forms of his sings, “I am going into the magic en- architecture were all reached before the closure." Then arms stretched out use of writing. And though we have as reach to lumps of material, and he sings, yet no fine artistic work remaining from “I am gathering magic things to make those same times, yet, when we see how me live.” And he then offers to confer on the earliest monuments of the age of his own ability on the candidate; “I hieroglyphs the sculptures of the anigive to you magic knowledge,” shown mals and men are unsurpassed in their by the figure of the super-humanly cun- truth and beauty by any later period, ning bear; "and a magic enclosure also," we are almost bound to place the rise shown by the space with an entrance at of this skill and taste in the age before either end. Then the magician says, writing. In Dacia we also see the arms “I am flying into my habitation,” shown and the costumes of a people who had by a bird flying up to the sky, as the a high development in the arts of life, magician is appealing to heavenly and who yet had no writing except powers. Next the answer comes from what they later borrowed from the the sky, “The spirit has dropped magic Romans. And in Greece we have perthings from the sky where we can get haps the fullest bloom of purely artistic them,” shown by the lines of communi- work, in the splendid decorative and cation coming from the sky and parting natural designs on architecture and to various spots on earth. Lastly he jewelry, belonging to the age when but boasts, "I have the magic in my heart," few traces of any mode of writing can figured by the man to whom the im- be discerned, and when certainly no parted magic is now communicated. influence on the mind could have Thus he has united the candidate with resulted from it. All of these countries him in' his appeal for magic powers, the show us that the highest skill, the finest taste, the keenest insight are reached sweeping kitchens; sleepy lasses, with without the use of recorded words; and warm, rosy faces, come yawning downwe may see that the true place of writ- stairs, tying their aprons on the way; ing is for registering details that are too little children in their attic-nests are many for the mind to carry, or for rapid twittering like swallows under the and distant communication. It is, in eaves; and the bread-winners, still short, one of the requirements of a com- curled up under their piles of blankets, plex civilization, but not in itself of any hear the morning clatter and bustle virtue. On the contrary, it brings the and know that their hour is at hand. great evil in its train of trusting the Soon the crackling and spluttering of imperfect record of the senses of others, the newly kindled wood will be sucin place of the true development of the ceeded by the singing of the kettle and mind on the basis of the natural growth the hissing of bacon in the pan; of the faculties. Its real place is by the “th' missus" will come to the foot of side of the railway and the telegraph, the stairs presently, and shout; and if things that do not add the least to the she does not at once hear the thud of nature of the mind, but are mere tools bare feet on the floor, she will mount imposed upon us by the need of not to give her "gaffer" a wifely shake and being outstripped by those who use to pull the bedclothes off the lads. them. The horseman who leisurely It is not altogether a cheerful hour rides over the bill with a light heart in this, especially in the dark cold mornthe sunshine cannot possibly compete ings when the outer world is as yet against the express train that is tearing invisible, and the little world within through the level tunnel far beneath his is lit but dimly by a single candle, or feet. Yet who sees most? Does life an evil-smelling paraffin-lamp. "Feyconsist in what man is or what he does ? ther's rheumatiz" is apt to “catch him Is the highest product a reflective and awful” as he prepares to sally forth, well-nourished mind or a restless body? and the young folk grumble while their Are we to think most of the means or


stiff frozen fingers fumble with button of the ends which they should serve? or brace. There is a lesson for us in this retro- But when the aforesaid clock-hands, spect—the lesson that the mind is having jerked and clicked round their greater than all its tools and appliances, circle, take up the same position in the and that even knowledge and its record afternoon, things have a very different are but the means to a greater end.

aspect. Even from afar the hamlet

wears a cosy and jubilant look that Prof. Flinders Petrie—(Address before the British Association for the Advancement of Science.) must gladden the hearts of the toilers

who plod homewards. Especially is this the case when the days are light enough to show the glow of time-worn

brick and yellow stone, the glint of From Blackwood's Magazine. hay and corn-stacks, the golden-green TEA-TIME IN THE VILLAGE.

of sun-warmed leaves and lichenIf one were bidden to choose a single bespread roofs. Matrons are gossiping hour of the day as that best calculated in their open doorways while they to show the different aspects of vile await the advent of the men-folk; lage life, one would, I think, name five they have "cleaned them" after their o'clock. Five o'clock in the afternoon, day's work, and hair is shining and be it understood. The bamlet is, faces are aglow; their fresh aprons indeed, awake and on foot when, in hang in crisp folds, and the little ones, the early morning, the hands of the clinging to their skirts, or balanced on tall "grandfather's clock” boasted by their arms, rejoice in clean “bishops" nearly every household point to the and “tie-ups” of various hues. But same hour. Then busy matrons are the neatness of these small fry, too already astir, raking out grates and helpless to break away from motherly

VOL. XII. 599



control, is not imitated by their elder the drivers' whips and the sound of brothers and sisters. Yonder a group their voices can be heard, even above may be seen playing hop-scotch or the roll of the wheels, which, at cermarbles; sturdy, well-grown lads and tain moments, when the train reaches lasses, with hands comfortably grimy, à turn in the road, amounts to a kind and round, rosy faces smeared with of roar; and now little bands of laborreminiscences of recent excursions to ers make their appearance, walking the sweet-shop. Now and then an irate leisurely, though they are “sharp set" mother will make a descent, and seiz- and ready for their tea. These, emerging "our Teddy" or "our Maggie” by ing from this door-way in the high the arm, desires him or her with a vig- wall which forms the right-hand bounorous shake to "give over that non- dary to the village, are all employed

“Goo an' clean thysel,' do. at “the Hall.” Here are the two carFor shame of thee—thou's ha' no tay, penters and the boy who holds the if thou mak's sich a seet o' thysel'!" nails and the pots of paint; there are

But a more ignorant parent will per the mason and his assistant, and the haps allow her scapegrace to enjoy herd and his underling, and the garhis game in peace, and even present dener and his men-one remains behind him with a "traycle-butty” to munch in the "bothy" to see to the bot-houses. the while.

After a short interval the keepers Out of this open gate come Farmer come; the hindmost, a taciturn, sternPrescott's milking-cows, making for looking old man, has a large piece cut the field, sedately threading their way out of his boot; he has long been through the children. A whistling "under the doctor" for that foot of his, urchin follows them, looking very but no earthly persuasion will induce important and cracking a broken cart- him to forego even one hour of his whip; occasionally he interrupts his daily tramp. There was a question shrill and rather quavering music to recently of finding bim some lighter utter a gruff admonition in a manner work, but the headkeeper, who knows copied from "Feyther,” and to bring him better than any one else, gave it down his whip on the sleek flank of as his opinion that he would "dee the hindmost; whereupon she breaks straight off” if the question were so into a clumsy trot, and, with deep- much as mooted; so until the other toned remonstrances and tossing of foot is in the grave the old fellow will horned heads, the company proceeds somehow hobble round his beat. in transitory disorder. Here comes a At last the wagons are actually lumteam of horses newly released from bering through the village, each drawn plough or harrow; the head of the by two, or even three, horses, harlaborer who walks beside them reaches nessed in single file; empty baskets only to the leader's dappled shoulder; are piled on some, and others are laden the great shaggy limbs move slowly. with manure, a yielding and odoriferthe immense hoofs ring on the hard ous bed for such of the drivers as are road; the tails and manes are plaited drowsy after their long day, and, perand fancifully decorated with ribbons baps frequent calls at divers places of and straw, and perhaps a green branch refreshment. Now there is a stir and or a bunch of flowers is fastened in a bustle indeed; children shouting and their bridles; their well-groomed skins climbing on to the wagons as the gleam in the sun; the brass and iron horses plod on-mothers giving a last mountings of the harness glitter again; distracted scream to their progeny, ere our North-country folk are proud of they return to their fire-lit kitchens to their animals, and treat them well. lay the table and make the tea. Hens

Now there echoes from afar off the begin to draw near to the back-doors; clatter of a string of wagons returning dogs emerge from their kennels, with a from the town. Some time before the sudden rattling of chains, and cast long row comes in sight the crack of amiably expectant glances in the same



direction; puss leaves her place of spread table, was overheard to remark ambush among the gooseberry bushes, that this wasn't what he called “a and steps daintily across the threshold; gradely do.” there is much squealing and grunting “Why not?” asked his neighbor, and running to and fro in the pig- pausing with his mouth full, and caststies; all the dumb things know it is ing a slow and appreciative glance at tea-time. The kettle bubbles on every the solid viands. “I dunnot see aught kitchen-hob. The table is spread in amiss. Theer's plenty an' more nor the warmest corner-summer and win- plenty, an' th' yäale's noan so ill ter alikewith preparations for a good neither." This

tantamount to solid meal. After a hard day's work in enthusiasm in a North-countryman; field or garden the men-folk are not but the sense of injury was strong. to be put off with a mere snack, and the upon Farmer Frith. children can always do "wi' a bit “Ye dunnot see aught amiss?" be extry.” The teapot is set down on the cried witheringly, “an' theer isn't a hob; the contents, well stewed and bit- single mince-poy!” ter, and rendered still more palatable As it happened to be a sweltering by a dash of spirits, will make the July day, the absence of this particular good-man of the house feel he has had dainty might not have been considered the full worth of that portion of his astonishing; but now that their attenwage which went to purchase a pound tion was drawn to it, the rest of the of “best mixed” last Saturday. On the guests began to feel aggrieved. This shining fender lies a smoking dish of was a pretty sort of do! No mince. buttered toast, or it may be a hone- pies! Healths were drunk with a baked cake, very solid and pale, with gloomy air, and when Farmer Frith but few raisins imbedded in its stodgy remarked towards the end of the depths, but exceedingly satisfying. repast that he wouldn't say but what Possibly a slice or two of cold bacon they'd known “jov’aler meetin's," it is set forth to give a relish to the crusty was felt that he expressed the general loaf on the table; and in the houses of opinion. the more well-to-do a knuckle of ham But to return to the village. or a goodly piece of beef invites the A few minutes after five every table attentions of the farmer and his men.

is surrounded. "Feyther" divests him“Eh, I cannot do wi' clemmin' folks,” self of his coat (if he has been wearing observed a sturdy old housewife once, one) and his boots; which precaution, on being laughingly taken to task for besides suiting his own idea of comextravagance. "As mich mate as ever fort, falls in with his wife's notions of they can heyt-an' good drink to 't I economy and cleanliness; he eats give 'em at meal-time an' theer's allus hugely and gulps down cupful after a bite o' summat an' a loaf set yonder cupful of tea. When the inner man is o'th' dresser as they con come an’ cut partially restored he begins to notice at if they'n a mind." The quantity of external things. He has a grunt in the food set before them concerns. answer to the “missus's" sigh about these big-framed hard-working rustics "yon taxman as looked in again this more than its quality; though some of arternoon,” and tells her he saw squire the older men are "a bit 'tickle an'

drive past,

that “owd Tommy dainty" at times, and upset the equa- Latham seems to be warsenin';" or, if nimity of their “missuses” by calling he has been to “town," he will perhaps out for apple-sauce with their pork, and

announce that "taters” is down again. grumbling at the scarcity of gravy By and by his rugged face will crease with the Sunday beef. Not long ago itself into a slow and good-natured a portly and red-faced old farmer was

smile, and leaning forward he will observed to lay down his knife and

uplift the chin of one of the little folk fork at a certain rent-dinner, and, after

so busily at work with tightly-clenched rolling a dissatisfied eye over the well

spoons, and inquire how is our Annie



to-day? or what mischief has our Wil- woman yet an' hasn't finished wi' her lie “agate"? laughing loudly at the fam'ly.” There is no knowing what lisped response. One or more of the may yet be in store for him. But babies will be clambering on his knees granny presently reassures him by presently, and the others will gather giving it as her opinion that “they round to search his capacious pockets twins an' sich-like seldom grow up and be regaled with sweets, or same's other childer.” Then, search"bracelets,” as the little girls call the ing her memory, she begins to relate strings of bright-colored beads he how she heard once as a bricklayer's brings them, though the chubby wrists wife up Bootle way had three babies are not to be adorned by them, but the at a birth—"or were it four ?" round sunburnt necks. Perhaps if "Ho, ho!” chuckles her son “weren't feyther” is of a literary turn he will it five now-or happen six! Put a twoproduce a newspaper from his pocket, three more to't while yo’re at it." folded into a square and greasy little "It were four," cries grandma dogslab. When “th' missus” has "sided” gedly. "Theer's no need to laugh. I the tea-things, and washed up, and fed mind it well. It were four." Mrs. the chickens, and put the children to Clark as towd me heerd it fro' her bed, and got through the remainder of cousin as lived at Bootle--an' hoo said her "odd jobs," she will sit down and they was all put together in a clothesspell out its contents for the edifica- basket-mich same as kittens they tion of herself and the elder members looked, hoo said-an' folks was trampof her family. Politics are not consid- lin' in an' out fro' morn to neet to look ered entertaining, nor accounts of the at 'em. An' the mother charged a doings of royalty; though a transient penny a-piece, for hoo couldn't do wi' excitement is perceptible when it is sich a many strangers comin' in, yo' mentioned that the queen is indis known, an' pullin' blankets off th' posed, and

one will observe childer an' handlin' 'em. But they "hoo's gettin' into years same as th' didn't live so long I don't think." rest on us," with a pleasurable sense of "Feyther" is struck dumb; but triumph at the discovery. A ship- mother and the children are much wreck or a good burglary is what the interested, and granny is plied with family circle finds most exhilarating, questions anent this remarkable occurunless it be, perhaps, the announce- rence for the remainder of the evening. ment of the birth of triplets some- But it is long past five o'clock when where. Even toothless granny in the these discussions take place; the teacorner wakes up to cackle and clap hour is never unduly prolonged, though her hands over that.

it is comfortable and restful. There is “Eh, dear o me! to think on't,” says still much business to be got through th' missus meditatively. “Anth' before people have time to read newsqueen sent her three pounds! Fancy papers. The pig is to be fed. and sticks that now! Hoo'd be pleased I doubt, for kindling have to be chopped, and poor soul.

Eh, but however would “th' garden is gettin' shameful weedy," hoo manage wi' so many? Three on the missus complains, and “they cab. 'em! Hoo'd be very nigh druv mad wi’ bages mun be thinned out”-she will 'em, I reckon. All skrikin' an' yam- find plenty of jobs for her gaffer to do merin' together, an' two on 'em wakin' while she is busy within. up as like as not, soon's iver hoo'd In certain seasons many of the larger getten th' third to sleep.”

farmhouses are almost deserted at tea"Happen they'll not live,” says "fey- time; the men sit down to their "bagther,” after ruminating for a moment. gin'” in the field. The meek horses “It's aʼmost to be 'oped not,” he adds, stand by the hedges (swinging their casting sudden anxious glance tails and extending tentative tremutowards his good dame, who, as the lous lips toward the sweet new hay other matrons say, “is nobbut a young beneath their hoofs, or the long grass



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