the whole Turkish Empire in Asia We are entitled to demand of the sulagainst Russian attack. On the other tan the immediate fulfilment, under his hand, the sultan undertook to reform treaty with us, of his engagements, and his government in concert with En- to treat his non-compliance as, under gland. So that we actually made our- the law of nations, other breaches of selves in honor partakers of the gov- treaty are, or may be, dealt with. ernment of those widely extended We have in the face of the world countries, and such we should have bound ourselves to secure good governbeen in act, had the sultan fulfilled his ment for Armenia and for Asiatic promise. He not only did not fulfil it. Turkey. In Armenia, he read Reform to mean And for thus binding ourselves we “Massacre." The peculiarity of the have received what we have declared treaty was that his promise of reform to be valuable consideration in a virtual was stipulated as being “in return” for addition to the territory of the empire. the truly valuable engagement he had And all this we have done, not in conalready obtained. Not only was the cert with Europe, but by our own sole pledge broken, but it was broken after action, on our own sole responsibility. he had received actual and weighty

However we may desire and strive to value in return.

obtain the co-operation of others, is it The Armenians were no parties to the possible for us to lay down this docConvention. They have no treaty trine: England may give for herself the rights, international existence.

most solemn pledges in the most bind. They are only men; for, though they ing shape, but she now claims the right happen to be also Christians, this does of referring it to some other person or not affect the substance of the case.

persons, State or States, not consulted But who can deny with "honor" that,

or concerned in her act, to determine when we made this treaty over their whether she shall endeavor to the utheads, we undertook not only heavy most of her ability to fulfil them? juridical obligations as towards Tur

If this doctrine is really to be adopted, key, but also real and profound moral

I would respectfully propose that the obligations as towards them?

old word "honor" should be effaced But there is another enchancing con- from our dictionaries, and dropped sideration, which has not, I think, as from our language. yet been sufficiently borne in mind. We

W. E. GLADSTONE. too in this treaty took "value received;" and we have it, so to speak, at this moment in our pockets. The sultan made over to us, without limit of time, the CURRENT SPANISH DISCUSSION. occupation and administration, that is the virtual dominion, of the Island of Emilio Castelar contributes monthly Cyprus.

to the chief magazine of Madrid, the Perhaps it may be said, and I might Espaua Moderna, International concur in the opinion, that Cyprus is of Chronicle. In the latest number he no value to us. But that reply is discusses the present condition of wholly foreign to the purpose. If it did Chinese affairs, the Greek church, and not add to our strength or resources, it the later literature of France as shown added, as we were told, to our prestige. in the books and life of the Goncourts. It was boasted of in Parliament at the Señor Castelar gives one characteristic time as a territorialacquisition, and was page to a review of the Spanish-Cuban highly popular. We cannot now turn relations:round upon it and declare it valueless. "In Spain the legislative debates have We took it as value, and as value we just been finished on the subject of the have now to abide by it in the present message to the crown, and fortunately argument.

also the debates in both houses on the The case then stands briefly thus:- great affair which concerns us in Spain






so closely, the affair of Cuba. These for having flung against our national burning and dangerous controversies peace the blazing hand of parricidal always to be expected in time of war, insurrection. controversies wherein verbal blood “But even in this punishment may be flows and fire consumes have given us found regenerating elements, which all just cause to fear that the origin will in the end free the island from all and occasion of our troubles would be devastating horrors, and envelop it in imputed to one party or another, since the living light of our national spirit.” all embroiled in the struggle.

“Fortunately, however, national sentiment rises superior to party strife. A Señor P. Dorado contributes to Espana new danger threatens our country, forc- Moderna a review of a little book recently. ing the hearts of all Spaniards to make published, containing an address given that sacrifice most difficult to a people by Señor Don Vicente Santamaria de eloquent and fond, the sacrifice of their Paredes before the Royal Academy of eloquence, forcing them to bridle their Political and Moral Science in Madrid. tongues.

This review gives a glimpse of the “The Liberal party desiring reform has present condition of social science in shown much circumspection, and their Spain:chief has made glowing promises, but "Señor Santamaria de Paredes havthere are to-day no Spaniards who in- ing been asked to deliver the last annidulge in any vacillation concerning the versary address before the Academy grave problem which confronts us all. had the happy thought to choose for his The Liberals ask to have the methods subject, for the lucid and self-explanaof the war reformed. The Conserva- tory title of his work, “The Conception tives push it to the extreme of violence. of Society as an Organism.” Whether The Liberals know that it is not pos- society is or is not an organism is our sible to hold by violence sovereignty modern question. If the answer is over a people without an autocratic affirmative, therein are contained all dominion in that country. The Con- the other sociological questions, large servatives understand that they cannot and small, which are discussed to-day, continue to tyrannize over a people and the solution of one is the solution who breathe with every breath the free of all. air of liberty. Fortunately the Spanish "In this new book by Señor SantaConservative party, with my beloved maria are found the qualities which friend Señor Canovas as its illustrious distinguish all his works, great clearleader, is not oppressed by its over ness, a fine order in the exposition of his obstinacy. It knows enough to change subject matter, and no little knowledge when change is called for. Experi- of its literature. His research in these ments already made in Cuba have lines is singularly complete, and his proved that she will not be ruled with knowledge of current important scienan absolute dominion. The vital logic tific works is indisputable. of events points us therefore to the "But he shows a certain zeal, surely adoption of the progressive code which praiseworthy, but from my point of has been unanimously adopted in both view not readily fruitful of result, for houses of our Spanish government as a the reconciliation, without union, howpart of our future progress. Indeed we

ever, old social tradition, springing from all look forward to the application of primitive conceptions, with the results this code as indispensable to our future of modern investigation. The pracprogress.

tical sequel thereof might prove a dose “We do not doubt that democracy and not to be exactly relished by this truly liberty are needful for all the world,

philosophical spirit, whose genius for that they are the saviours of the world. organization and synthesis, whose solid Cuba deserves her punishment for hav- and ample culture are revealed in this ing attacked our national supremacy, book, in the style which always dis

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tinguishes the genuine man of science waters swelled hissing landward, from the mere amateur.

under the cold, hard wind that led in “The work is divided into three parts, the tide. general, historical, and critical, and Teige, son of Diarmaid Bhade, bendthere is a valuable introduction demon- ing forward in his seat in the long strating our need of accurate definition boat behind the rowers, looked with of the word 'organism,' and of rescuing all his eyes into the inky space about it from the vagueness which still hangs him. The ceaseless plunge and lifting over this word. The historical part of of the boat gave him well enough the the book is especially full. The author measure of the waves they rode. In has brought under discussion all the good time would come the guiding best known material regarding the con- clamor of the breakers tearing at the sideration of society as an organism, cliffs which stood as watch-towers to drawing from ancient authorities, his haven. There was no fear in his limited enough, as well as from those thoughts, or in the minds of his men, since the time of the French Revolu- of harm from the sea that bore them. tion, and he indicates the roads which Yet ever he stared with anxious gaze all converge to one particular point, in into the darkness, and now he gasped the sphere of purely speculative and and put forth his hand. abstract philosophy, as well as the "You would have seen it this time?" sphere of naturalistic, anthropological he demanded of the man nearest him. and sociological investigation, I be- Flann, kneeling in his place, pushed lieve, none the less, that there remain, his paddle through the weight of water outside his picture, several schools and that held it. Then, as the boat glided many authors who might well have downward, he spoke without turning figured there.

his head. "In the critical part of the work Señor “What is it a man would be seeing Santamaria occupies himself with the with this blackness on him?'' possible application of his idea of an "It is the third time!" answered organism to the conception of state and Teige, in eager tones. "A small burnsociety, and of the reconciliation be- ing light at the top of the wave-close tween a social organism and individual here to our side. And I have knowlliberty. The position of the author here edge now what it signifies. It is a is very similar in form and general corpse-candle, Flann, that I have seen tendency to that of Fouilléa aad many on the waters! Three times it has been others. While he admits the concep- lit for me, and not at all for you,and tion of a social organism with individ- what should be the meaning of that?" ual liberty, his thought is at bottom in He lifted his head and put out a strong the traditional position, the position of voice: "Bend your weight upon the the old writers, with Krause and his stick, Manus, and you, Tomaltagh,, disciples. On the whole, the discourse and those before you! There are tidof Señor Santamaria may worthily at- ings for us on the land. At the first tract the attention of our students of gate we will be hearing new things!" sociology, particularly as we have in But at the first gate there was black Spain but a very slight body of litera- silence. Teige and his nine men had ture on this suvject."

brought their boat safely round Translated from the Spanish by Minna Caroline between the unseen crags, and through Smith and Jean Raymond Bidwell.

the foaming ridge of weed-laden breakers beyond, and dragged it up into the shelter of the higher rocks without a

slip of the foot. They had gathered its From The Pall Mall Magazine. burden of wreckers' booty into their THE WOOING OF TEIGE.

arms, and, thus laden, had climbed The old moon would be seen no more, noiselessly along the dizzy path from and the night was very black. The one narrow foothold to another, up the face of the cliff, with no need for a mine! It should not be stated against light. Now, when the sea-wall of me." Ballydevlin barred their progress, they With a gentle push of the arm Teige halted, and Teige blew a loud, bray- sent the fellow rolling at his feet. ing blast upon the horn slung at his Look at me through the eye that back.


has been spared to you,” he said, with Here, on the height, the shape of laughter in his voice. “Bebold me things could be dimly distinguished. well and carefully. The drink is Above the tall masonry of the gateway thick on your calf's face and on your and wall, a vague grey difference old woman's tongue, but your eye has marked the skyline. Faintly discern- its brightness. I will be hearing you ing one another, the men murmured tell me who I am.” complainingly at the delay, Teige, The herr had risen to his knees. The standing foremost, sent echoes rolling single black, twinkling little eye that from the horn once more, and then, he turned upward to the big man. over with a backward step, swung bis axe him was full of cunning and solicitude. to strike the door.

You were the son of the master when "The gate is open!" cried another, you put forth in your boat three days of keener vision; and Teige, checking ago, to take a prey in the wake of the the weapon in its circuit, let it sink ship from Waterford,” he ventured, upon his shoulder with a doubtful with caution. laugh. He pushed forward, and there “And what is it that I am now?" was nothing to hinder him. The men Teige demanded, in a loud, confident followed on behind him, under the voice. “I will surely take that eye heavy roof of the gateway, and up the from your head if you have not the grass-grown slope of the outer bawn. good word for me.” The high bulk of the castle pile, uncer- Malachy's long jaw twisted itself tain in the blackness, was visible to slowly in a drunken grimace. His eye them. And now, rising above the sparkled like a gem in the torchlight. splashing din of the waters down “Now," he said, speaking as deliberbehind them, their ears caught sounds ately as he dared—"at this present time of another sort—the vibrant ring of in which you do be listening to me, harp strings and the chatter of human I crave a boon of you, for I am the voices.

first to make it known to you—the first "It was my word that tidings would to kneel before youawait us,” said Teige over his shoulder Teige tbrust the torch upward to the to Flann.

arm's length, and with a groan of joy Of a sudden a glare of red light close turned on his heel to the men behind at hand smote his eyes. Blinking and him. frowning at it, he made out a torch, “Hail me!” he cried, and marked a held in wavering fashion by some one flaming circle in the air above his who had opened the second gate.

head. "I am come into my lordship. Teige leaped forward and snatched I am Teige, the Magnanimous Son. I the torch. Casting his axe aside, he did not raise my hand to my father. seized the bearer by the neck of his It is well known to you, and to all shirt, dragged him to his knees, and men, that he was no proper lord. His twisted his head sidewise into the cir- voice was hoarse with endless shoutcle of the light. It was Malachy Caoch, ing, but no one heeded him. His castle the one-eyed little herd, who crouched there before you was sacked and and whimpered under Teige's heavy burnt by Murty Mordha, a mere ignohand.

rant bullock; my brothers were given "My blind eye is uppermost," he up to be slain and our ships were driven wbined. “It may be a great hero who from the water because of his folly. lays his hand on me, and I having no He behaved falsely to his friends, yet knowledge who he is! It is no sin of took no profit from his artifices; he



gave soft words to his enemies, and crones. Between these hooded mournthey trod upon him. He bestowed rich ers Teige now saw a long, narrow gifts upon the Church-much more mound of pebbles. than was needful-yet they won him He moved about on the bawn, with no kindness from the saints or the the torch held low, till he found a clergy. He made at last a great pil- small stone. This he picked up, and grimage, and brought back with him returning, tossed it on the heap. only the leprosy. He would not even "It will be written and sung of me,die in his boat, with the blood of his he said with gravity to his company, foes to smooth like oil the rough “that to the last I was the best son waters about him, but lay mewling in any man ever had." his straw through four harvests, with “Oh, it is you who will be the great none but old women to hearken to him. lord, moreover!” cried the herd, drawAnd now he has died the death, and I ing near, with a new burst of coniam well rid of him-yet I will have it dence. said that I never struck him. Though “Cause meat and pieces of money to it is a wonderful thing, he did not once be given to these women," commanded feel the weight of my hand. I was Teige, as he moved away. "Who is it before all else a good son. And now that makes music in the hall, Malachy, I will be a good lord to all my people my small man?" according to all their deserts."

“A wandering poet from the O'SulThe armed men had bowed before livans. He was here at the break of Teige, and struck their

weapons the morning, yesterday. God knows together and raised a shout to him. how he learned of our death. These Still bearing the torch aloft, but now poets have the scent of ravens for a with the axe again in his other hand, burial.” he led them forward through the inner

II. gate.

"The burial shall be on the night “Sing to me again your poem of the after to-morrow night,” he said to the young woman. It is more to my mind little herd, who shambled beside him. than the others." “He shall at least be given the good Thus, two hours further into the fortune of the new moon. Where he night, spoke Teige. His burly form has gone such help will not be amiss." sprawled at its ease in the great chair,

Malachy shot up a swift glance from over against the fireplace, where, his one eye, and leering, stepped aside though it was summer still by the calbeyond the reach of a blow.

endar, some clods of turf smoked on “He is buried already,” he replied. the stones. His long reddish hair was As the young chief said nothing, Ma- thrown back from his brows, and the lachy raised his voice, and flung his broad face thus made bare, roughened arm out in a gesture.

and crimsoned by weather and sun, "Hold hither the torch, O'Mahony," wore a look of rude kindliness. He he urged. "See the stones we have plucked idly at the soft yellow down piled upon him-here to your east. Up on his cheeks and chin as he lay back with you, Sava! and you, Moree. It in his seat. He had covered his shoulis the master who is here!"

ders with a blue mantle; his sandalled Two gloomy figures rose haltingly feet rested upon a cushion of Italian from the ground, at the place to which velvet, which years before his father Malachy pointed. The torchlight had had from the sea. flared

upon their wrinkled, bare About the large room, on skins and shanks, and reddened, unshapely feet; cloaks spread over straw and rushes from head to knees they were shrouded on the floor, lay the men who called in black cloaks, from under which pro- him lord-in all a score, half weak. ceeded the monotonous, mumbling lings or aged creatures, who drove the lamentations of weary and aged herds, or drew the nets, or helped the

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