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riage, a clause providing for the free exercise of the Greek religion, and also that a chapel should be allowed in the Tuileries for the worship of that faith, was strongly objected to by some of the members as likely to render the marriage unpopular in France. At this moment Swartzenburg offered a Princess of the house of Austria. Napoleon replied, it was quite indifferent to him, so they gave him no trouble on the subject: this business was speedily settled. This was at ten o'clock at night; before midnight the copy of a treaty was drawn out (copied nearly word for word from the marriage contract between Louis the XVIth and Maria Antoinette), signed by him, transmitted to Vienna, and Maria Louisa became the new Empress.
Thursday, 17th.-Napoleon did not make his appearance till dinner; he conversed a little, and retired early to the after-cabin; he remained but a short time at the card-table. In a conversation last night with Sir George Cockburn it turned on Waterloo; he said that he should not have attacked Wellington on the 18th, had he supposed he would have fought him; he acknowledged that he had not exactly reconnoitred the position; he praised the British troops, and gave the same account of the final result as in the official despatch; he denied that the movement of the Prussians on his flank had any effect; the malevolent, he said, raised the cry of sauve qui peut, and as it was already dark he could not remedy it. "Had there been daylight," he added, "I should have thrown aside my cloak, and every Frenchman would have rallied round me; but darkness and treachery were too much for me."
Friday, 18th. - Napoleon in good spirits and looking well; he conversed after dinner for a considerable time with the Admiral; he mentioned Maria Louisa, and said she was much at tached to him; she was asked by the Queen of Naples (at Vienna) why she did not join her husband in Elba? she replied her inclination led her to do so, but she was prevented by her parents. The Queen replied, that if she loved a man nothing should prevent her fol
lowing him, if there were windows in the house, and sheets to enable her to let herself down from them. He spoke with interest of his boy, and appeared pleased to relate that when the Queen of Naples said to the child, "Well, my boy, your game is now over, you will be obliged to turn Capuchin," he replied, "I never will be a priest, I will be a soldier." In Germany he said he had intercepted a letter written by the young Prince of Orange, in which he said the Prince was not very lavish in his praises of our Royal family, but that a lady at Dresden, who had either been mentioned in it, or had some reason for wishing that it might not be made public, entreated him so earnestly not to send it to the Moniteur, that he withheld it.
Saturday, 19th.—At dinner Napoleon talked of Toulon with animation; he said the only wound he had ever received was from an English sailor (by a pike) in the hand, at the storm of Fort Mulgrave, the possession of which led to the evacuation of that town. This led to talking of the navy; he said the only good officer he had was one whose name he pronounced Cas-mo, who, when Admiral Dumanoir was acquitted by a court-martial (having been tried for leaving the battle of Trafalgar, and for having afterwards surrendered to Sir R. Strachan), took the sword that was delivered to him by the President and broke it. The Admiral asked him for some other naval character, whose name I have forgotten; he answered, "He behaved well in one action; I made him a rear-admiral on the spot; the consequence was the very next year he lost me two ships in the Bay of Roses" [Rosas]. In conversation with the Admiral before dinner he made the following remarkable observation: "I was at the head of an army at twenty-four; at thirty, from nothing I had risen to be the head of my country; for, as first Consul, I had as much power as I afterwards had as Emperor. I should have died," he added, "the day after I entered Moscow; my glory then would have been established forever." The Admiral replied that to be a truly great character it was necessary to
suffer adversity as well as prosperity. good action, it was answered, either
He assented, but said, "My lot has been a little too severe."
Sunday, 20th.-Napoleon at dinner again began to question the clergyman respecting the Reformed religion, whether we used the crucifix, how many sacraments we used. Grace was said, and he asked whether it was a Benedicite. He walked for a considerable time by moonlight, and, seeing that the Admiral did not play at cards, refrained himself. He talked of Egypt; he said the "Mamelukes ought to be the first cavalry in the world; no Frenchman is equal to them. Five Frenchmen could never stand against the same number of Mamelukes, or even one hundred; but three hundred Frenchmen would, by manœuvring and having reserves, beat an equal number or even a greater." He continued to say that "Kléber was a good general, but not a politician sufficient to prosper in that country. Having landed in Egypt with a small army, and cut off from any reinforcements, he was obliged to practise every artifice to gain the goodwill of the people: for this he and his followers professed the Mahomedan religion," which he made no scruple in acknowledging he had done himself. He had great difficulty in bringing the sheiks to waive what is considered both by the Jews and Mahomedans an important part of the religion. The next difficulty to be obviated was that of drinking wine. He said the Franks were natives of a colder climate, and for so long a time had been accustomed to it, that they could not relinquish it, and proposed they should be allowed a dispensation. A consultation was held. The result was, that the Franks might certainly drink wine, but that they would be damned for it. Bonaparte replied that they by no means wished to enter the pale of their Church on such terms, and begged they would reconsider it. The next answer proved more favorable: it was decreed that they should be allowed to drink wine, provided every day before they did so they should resolve to do a good action. On being pressed to know what was considered a
almsgiving, building (or contributing towards building) a mosque, or digging a well in the desert. Having promised faithfully to comply with these terms, he concluded by saying, "We were received into the mosque, and I derived from it the most important results."
December 6th.-Longwood is now ready for the reception of Bonaparte, and I called yesterday at the Briars to accompany him thither. He received me with some apologies in his robe de chambre, and excused himself from going on account of the smell of paint. He appeared to be in unusual good spirits, having on the table English papers to the 15th of September. The greater confusion there is in France, the greater chance he fancies there is of his being allowed to return, as he thinks the English Government will be obliged to recall him to compose the confusion that exists in that unhappy country. I have just seen Captain Mackey, the officer who has the charge of him; he appears to wish to remain another day. There is no knowing what he is about. He does not know his own mind two minutes together.
December 21st.-Since I last wrote, Napoleon has been removed to Longwood. He appears in better health, and has been in good spirits. I called. on him on Monday and had a long audience, in which he was very particular in his questions relating to our mess, entering into the most minute particulars, even so far as to ask who cooked for us, male or female, white or black. On Friday I met him as I was marching with my regiment.1 He rides now every day within his bounds (but never exceeds them), with a British officer, which he cannot yet reconcile himself to. His attendants are, as usual, split into parties, and they have procured the removal of Bertrand (who has at least the merit of being his oldest and most faithful servant) from the superintendence of the household.
1 Sir George Bingham had not at this time received intimation of his promotion; nor was he informed of his appointment of brigadier-general on the Staff till the arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe. His commission was dated the 21st of October.
1816. January 1st.-Last Tuesday I introduced all the officers to Bonaparte; it was evidently an effort on his part, although the proposal, in the first instance, came from himself; he asked a number of questions, which were exceedingly absurd. He has been in great spirits since the last arrivals; he has heard that "all the virtues," with Sir Francis Burdett at their head, are to advocate their cause and his recall, and he sanguinely looks forward to the result.
January 8th.-Since I wrote last I have dined with Napoleon; it was a most superb dinner, that lasted only forty minutes, when we retired into the drawing-room to play cards. The dessert service was Sèvres china, with gold knives, forks, and spoons. The coffee-cups were the most beautiful I ever saw. On each cup was an Egyptian view, and on the saucer a portrait of some Bey, or other distinguished character. They cost twenty-five guineas, the cup and saucer, in France. The dinner was stupid enough; the people who live with him scarcely spoke out of a whisper, and he was so much engaged in eating that he hardly said a word to any one; he had so filled the room with wax candles, that it was as hot as any oven. He said to me, after I had entered the drawing-room, "You are not accustomed to such short dinners." He has generally one or two officers of the 53rd to dinner, or rather supper, for it is half past eight before he sits down.
February 14th.-I send you a little pen sketch of the house at Longwood, as it appears from my tent. It does not look here much like an imperial establishment; it has, however, great depth, and more room than there appears. The trees about the camp are gum wood, of a bluish-green color, and at a distance give you the idea of an old umbrella; you see Fehrszen's marquee and servants' tent amongst the trees in the foreground. Those trees are full of a species of canary bird, that sings as sweetly but are not so handsome as ours. There are also amadavats, and Java sparrows, with red beaks, and
these are the whole of the small birds on the island. When it was first discovered it had not a living creature on it. Partridges are now plenty, and there are a good many pheasants-more like the golden pheasant of China than our English birds; and some peacocks, which are rather smaller than our tame ones. I saw two the other day; they rose very majestically to fly away when disturbed; they are not allowed to be shot; and the pheasants are reserved for the Governor only. Yesterday I went to call on Bonaparte; he was going out to his carriage; he insisted on my going with him, and we had a drive together of three miles. He always asks after you,' and to-day, when he heard a packet was arrived from England, he said, "Now the Colonel will hear from Lady Bingham."
April 19th.-I called on Bonaparte last Sunday before the Phaeton had anchored, to announce to him the arrival of the new Governor. He re ceived me in his bedroom, in his robe de chambre, and a dirtier figure I never be. held. He was pleased with the compllment. He received Sir H. Lowe last Wednesday with marked attention, behaving at the same time in a manner pointedly rude to Sir George Cockburn. You have no idea of the dirty little intrigues of himself and set. If Sir Hudson Lowe has firmness enough not to give way to him, he will in a short time treat him in the same manner. For myself, it is said I am a favorite, I do not understand the claim I have to be such. Cockburn has certainly used great exertions to make him as comfortable as circumstances would permit; and for this, and for the care he took of him on board, he did not deserve to be treated as he was on that day, which was nothing more or less than insulting. When he was going to introduce Sir Hudson, and to say, "My charge ends; I beg to introduce my successor," they shut the door in his face, saying, "It is the Emperor's order that the Governor goes in alone."
There has been the usual fracas continued in the family. About a week 1 Lady Bingham.
since it was intimated to Madame Bertrand that she was so fond of the English and partial to their society that she might save herself the trouble of attending at dinner. The Emperor had dined in his room the day before, fearing he could not have kept his temper and have displayed a scene before the servants. Madame then made known that Napoleon was frequently in the habit of using language neither kingly or even gentlemanly towards his attendants, and that the ladies even were not respected in these fits of rage. The interdiction lasted a week, at the end of which time it was signified that "the Emperor permitted her to come to dinner." Napoleon received the intelligence of the death of Murat and Ney with the greatest indifference. Of the former he observed that he was a fool, and deserved his fate. He said he had behaved very ill to him, and had refused to lend him money when at Elba. Of the latter he said he had done him more harm than good, and did not appear to care the least about either.
[Letter from Lady Bingham.]
"On Tuesday last I went with Sir G. Bingham and Colonel Mansel to pay a visit to Buonaparte. When we first arrived he was out airing with his attendants, and after waiting for some little time in Captain Poppleton's1 room, we were informed of his return, and were shown into a small ante-room. where, at an inside door, stood his footman, dressed in green and gold, to open and shut it when necessary for his imperial master. When he was quite ready to receive us, we were ushered into his presence. I think him much better looking than I had expected, though his complexion is exceedingly sallow. The likeness Mr. Still brought home with him from Plymouth, etched by Mr. Planat, is a very just representation of him. He was extremely facetious, and in excellent humor, and after asking me a few frivolous questions, he desired me to walk into the garden, handed me out, and did me the honor
1 One of the officers of the 53d Regiment in atendance at Longwood.
(as I afterwards found it was) to walk with his head uncovered. He told me I had an excellent husband; that I ought to be very happy, as he loved me dearly; that he was also a gallant soldier, and that soldiers always made the best husbands. He asked me several questions about Louisa,' and made some remark about her husband and herself; but this I lost, as, owing to his speaking so remarkably fast, it is sometimes. with the utmost difficulty he can be understood. Notwithstanding the constant rain, I take a great deal of exercise on horseback, and as I have a most quiet animal, I ride without the least fear up Ladder Hill and other tremendous places, to the astonishment of the St. Heleneans. I assure you I pass here for a very superior horse-woman, which gave rise to a question from Napoleon, whether in England I often went a-fox-hunting? having a vast idea that the English ladies are exceedingly fond of that amusement. I told him it was one I was by no means partial to, or ever took part in. Napoleon has been much out of spirits of late, I fancy, from the little probability he sees of ever being able to make his escape from this island. He was within the last few days taken to play at skittles. Of all his followers, Madame Bertrand is the
one for whom I feel the most interest. She is, poor woman, so thoroughly unhappy that it is quite melancholy to see her. She is extremely pleasing and elegant in her manner. Just before I arrived, the French attendants had an offer made them of returning home; but they preferred signing a paper which now precludes all future idea of leav ing the island. Bertrand, it is said, agreed to this from an honorable motive, having promised Napoleon to remain with him during his captivity. Poor Madame, I fancy, would gladly have
laid aside all the honor had it been left to her arrangement.
"EMMA BINGHAM." [Letter from Lieut.-Col. Mansel.] "Deadwood Camp, June 14th. "We neither hear or see much of
2 Mrs. Mansel.
8 Colonel Mansel.
Buonaparte now. I fancy he confines himself much more than usual to the house, which will tend to increase his corpulence. He appears to be dropsical, and his complexion is very sallow; in short, he looks exceedingly out of health. I understand the Governor is rather desirous to move him nearer to Plantation House (his own residence), being suspicious of his attempting his escape, which makes Sir Hudson uneasy and feel somewhat alarmed. This he has not the slightest cause for, as he is perfectly secure both by sea and land. I should regret his removal from Longwood, as there is not on the island so beautiful a spot of ground as this. I have an excellent suite of barrackrooms, from the windows of which is seen a very grand and noble view, comprising sea, wood, a fine extensive plain, immense heights, rugged rocks, fortifications, barracks, tents, and people of all colors, etc,. the whole making a pretty panorama. I went to fish one day last week, and met with good success: the fish we caught weighed from one to two pounds, some of which I sent to Buonaparte. He was much pleased with them, and said they were the best he had eaten since he was on Mount Cennis.
From The Illustrated London News (Oct. 10). WILLIAM MORRIS.
Those who knew and loved William Morris-and to know him was to love him-will have been thinking for this week past that sixty-two years and a half are but a little span of life for a man of his native vigor and robust habit. They cannot yet take their stand on the platform whence the public will view the matter-the great public who have gained so much from the life cut short this day week-who knew not the man, but saw everywhere the output of his energy and his genius, and who can but say, if the question of his "allotted span" occurs to them: "Morris? Well, he has published vol
umes and volumes of fine poetry, numbers of prose romances, translated epics and sagas from the Greek, the Latin, the Icelandic; poured forth polemical tracts, histories, and treatises; carried on a fine-art decoration business which during some thirty years has been steadily revolutionizing British taste in matters of building, decoration, and upholstery; led for years that section of the Socialists whose demands are founded upon reason, editing several volumes of their journal; and lastly set up and carried on a press from which have issued quite a number of books, forming, perhaps, the finest examples of printing ever seen." Such a mass of work, to the public mind, must bring visions of a man "well stricken in years." But to those who were privileged to know him it was a standing wonder that Morris, at the age of sixty, and not looking sixty, had done all this work in the world-so various, so thorough, and so full of the most valuable qualities, and yet always found time to receive his friends and acquaintance, and give them the benefit not only of his hearty, cheery, companionship, but also of his unerring judgment and vast learning in all matters connected with the ways and means of beautifying the world and man's life in the world. This day week, if England did but know it, William Morris was the living Englishman she could least afford to lose. The personal qualities which made up the character of this man of genius would have been irresistibly attractive, even if he had had no genius at all. Kindliness, sagacity, courage, good comradeship, an inveterate habit of acting upon convictions deliberately formed, and an unswerving sense of honor and true decorum are admirable personal traits to find in one man-apart from genius and erudition: he had them all; and their combination is not so common that his friends can afford to grieve more for the genius than for the man.
William Morris was born at WalMarlthamstow on March 24, 1834. borough and Oxford (Exeter College) have the honor of his conventional