deliberately committed by the goveru- ports. The terror, the distress, the ment. The ambassadors of the six hopeless anguish of these people, which powers have declared this to be an un- we see constantly, cannot be described, questionable fact in the Joint Notebut, as we can do nothing for them, it addressed to the Porte.

makes Constantinople seem like a hell. Since the massacre this same govern. It is not only the ruin of the Armenians, ment has been carrying on a warfare but the ruin of the city. Many kinds of against the Armenians which is hardly business have become impossible. The less inhuman than beating out their wild Kurds who have taken the place brains with clubs. There were from of the Armenians at the Custom House one hundred and fifty thousand to two cannot do the work. It takes about five hundred thousand Armenians in Con- times as long to coal a steamer as forstantinople. They

merchants, merly. shopkeepers, confidential clerks, em- There is no one in the city to fill the ployés in banks and offices of every place of the Armenians in the offices kind-the chief business men of ibe and houses, or to run the bakeries. But city. They were the bakers of th: city, these statements convey no true im. they had charge of the khans an:1 pression of the real state of things. It bazaars and the wealth of the city; they is not simply that men are wanting, or were the porters, house servants and that shops are closed. The foundations navvies. Many thousands of them of society have been overthrown and all were from the interior — from the confidence has disappeared. There is provinces which have been devastated no longer any trusted power in the city during the past two years—earning to represent the principles of law and money in Constantinople to pay their order. Any government, however se taxes and support their families. It is vere, which represents these is tolerthis money which has kept alive tens of able. Every man knows what to thousands of families since the massa- expect. But when a so-called governcres. Now the government has under ment uses its power for the destruction taken to ruin this whole population.. rather than the preservation of the lives They are hunted about the city and and property of its subjects; when it over the hills, like wild beasts. Every organizes mobs to massacre quiet and day we see gangs of them brought in, unoffending men in the streets, and to hungry, ragged, with utter despair in plunder the town; when it destroys the their faces. The banks, the Debt Com- means of doing business, and exiles by mission, the Régie, and all public the thousand its most industrious subcompanies have been required to dis- jects without a pretence of law, then miss their Armenian employés; they we have a condition of society which is have taken them from the Custom worse than anarchy. It is a reign of House, the coal wharves, the khans, terror. It is the Armenians to-day. It shops, and offices, and even from pri- may be the Greeks or foreigners to-morvate houses. Thousands have been sent row; and there is no power in Constanoff at once to the Black Sea ports, to tipople to resist the forces at the find their way as best they can without disposal of the palace. There is no money or food to their desolated vil- ground of security anywhere; and no lages in the interior. Other thousands, hope of relief from the present terror. on paying blackmail to the officers, Every one feels that we are on the eve have been allowed a few days to close of events even more terrible than what up their business. Thousands have we ha

It is this which has fled to foreign countries, leaving every- brought about the financial ruin of the thing behind them, taking advantage city, which is in itself a source of dan. of the intervention of the foreign con- ger. We have the remnant of the suls, who have put them on the steam- Armenians starving and without the ers in the harbor without passports. means of earning a living, and the The wealthy families are getting away Armenian revolutionists driven to desby paying enormous bribes for pass- peration by the action of the govern




ment, and we have the whole Turkish posal I do not see what more they could population and the army-dependent have done; but the result was a very directly or indirectly upon the govern. humiliating one, one which would have ment, which has no money and is been deemed impossible a few years rapidly destroying all its own resources. ago. The sultan laughed at their The Turkish population is not only in threats and the massacre went on undistress for money, but it has been checked for two days. He was startled demoralized by the action of the govern- by their telegram into giving orders to ment. Its natural respect for law has stop it, but he has gone on with the been shaken, and we see evidence every work of destroying the Armenians in day of disorder and disorganization another way unconcernedly among the common people. · Lawless- though the ambassadors did not exist. ness in all the relations of life is an So far as we can see, he feels as sure inevitable result of such .events, and it of his absolute security from all interis surprising to see how rapidly this ference as he did last January-after spirit is developed in Constantinople. he had come to an understanding with How far it has extended to the army Russia. And he seems to have no idea will appear at the next massacre. that he is himself ruining his empire.

The action of the embassies during On the contrary, he believes, as he told the massacre is worthy of special atten- his ministers two years ago, that he is tion. The Austrian, Russian, Italian, the wisest and most powerful sovereign and German ambassadors were here, in the world. There is no possibility of England and France were well repre- any change here for the better so long sented by very able chargés d'affaires. as the Great Powers maintain their So far as I can learn, all were left for present attitude,' and abstain from ten days without any instructions from armed intervention. The work of detheir governments and acted on their struction will go on. Lawlessness will own responsibility. They acted to- increase and extend to the army. New gether in perfect harmony, and so far massacres will take place, involving as words could go they acted with other nationalities, until the ruin of the energy, but the experience of the past city is complete. believe that there two years has not been such as to give is not an ambassador in Constantinople much weight to ambassadorial threats. who is not of this opinion. No one It was no doubt known at the palace familiar with the principles of political that they were not acting under instruc- science can doubt it. Constantinople is tions, and it was not until they had sent a doomed city. It will not be the first an open telegram to the sultan such as time that Europe has looked on with he had never seen before that, after indifference at its destruction. In 1453 two days of slaughter, orders were it was the last bulwark in the way of given to stop the massacre. Such use

the progress of Mohammedan conquest. as was possible was made of the small

Europe turned a deaf ear to its cry for gunboats, and men were landed to pro- help, and suffered the penalty in ce?)tect the embassies and other official turies of conflict with the Turks. We buildings. The ambassadors or their look back with contempt upon the petty secretaries and dragomans went about jealousies of that day which led to such the city and saw for themselves what a lamentable result. We belong to a was going on. They remonstrated at higher civilization, the fruit of all these the palace again and again, and finally, centuries of development, and have as we have said, threatened the over- broader views of the mutual interde throw of the sultan. They sent a pendence of nations. It would have formal note to the Porte, declaring that been a hard struggle for the Europe of the massacre was the deliberate work that day to save Constantinople, but we of the government, and that it would be bave armies and fleets enough to work held responsible for it by the Great cur will almost without an effort. Yet Powers. They still hold to this pos!. once more the cry has gone up froin this tion. With the small force at their dis. devoted city to enlightened Christian Europe to save it from destruction, and pean war which has been made the exagain a deaf ear has been turned to this cuse for leaving the Christians of cry. The city is once more left to its Turkey to their fate. fate-a far more base and ignoble fate than that which befell it when it became the proud capital of the great conqueror. To me the indifference of Europe is

From The Leisure Hour. inexplicable. It is not true that there

A “FIDGETYcould be no interference here without

QUESTION IN SPELLING. endangering the peace of Europe. It is

“Don't be fidgety,” she wrote; then not true that nothing could be done she paused and considered; then on the without a full settlement of the Eastern edge of her blotting-pad she scribbled question. The sultan might be deposed down fidgetty; then compared the two within a week and a responsible gov

forms with a critical balance of examiernment established here, to the great nation; and finally adopted the two-t-ed joy of Turks and Christians, and this variant. And she was wrong! And without disturbing the limits of the maybe you ask "Why? Because, good empire, if England, France, and Russia madam, or good sir, a word of two sylcould agree between themselves to do it lables ending in a single consonant pre-or better, if all the six powers would ceded by a single vowel, before the consent. In my opinion, the anxiety addition of such suffixes as -ed, -er, -ing, not to disturb the peace of Europe at -y, doubles the final consonant—“Just the present time is so great that war

so!" you exclaim, “and so tt was right.” would not result if a single power, Nay, but hear me out—doubles the final either Russia, France, or England, consonant only when the accent is on should intervene by force to put an end the last syllable of the word, not otherto this régime and save Constantinople.

wise. This is a matter of opinion-but it is

The accent! ay, there's the rub; macy certain that the simple reason why whose ear has not been delicately there has been no intervention thus far trained by poetic culture, whilst speakin the name of civilization and humanity, ing correctly enough and pronouncing is that no one of the powers has been

words with perfectly proper accentuasufficiently moved by events here to be tion, do so unconsciously, having imwilling to make sacrifices and incur bibed it with their mother's milk, or risks, or endanger prospective advan- assimilated it somewhat later with tages to rescue this empire from its childhood's more solid fare, and have present ruler. That they have not been

no active discriminating perception of so moved is what is to me inexplicable. what they thus do.

Ask them at unIs there no God in Europe but mam

awares “Where was the accent on that mon? Is our boasted civilization a

word ?” and the chances are quite even, degeneration rather than a develop

or possibly a little adverse, that they'll ment? Has Russia forgotten all her make a mistake. Ask, for instance, sympathy for the Christians of the whether “prefer," "proffer,” “wainEast, to care only for dominion in scot," "sonnet," "abet” are accented on Europe? Has England no longer any

the first or second syllable, and two or care for the oppressed? Has France three of the five will probably go wrong: abandoned her place among the nations, experto crede. and her time-honored policy in Turker?

It is accent, however, and accent Whatever the explanation of this in- alone, that determines the right spellcredible indifference may be, the con- ing of the inflected forms of such sequences of it will not be confined to words; and a hint or two on the subConstantinople any

more than hev ject may prove useful. The plan for a were in 1453. The retribution will not novice is this: Exaggerate the stress of come again in the form of Moslem con

the accent on each syllable in turn; quest, but probably in that very Euro- make it fall plump and full, like the

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thud of a piston-rod; and this will re- ts and ns; but we must confess that veal the truth. The exaggerated stress when we come to the letter p, we find is unnoticeable and harmless on the ourselves face to face with the delight syllable to which it properly belongs; of peddling grammarians and the debut on the other it gives a grotesque spair of impatient learners, the excepand abnormal effect that is almost tions “that prove the rule.” For, alstartling. Try fidgety with a swinging though we experience no difficulty in fidg- to begin it, and it goes quite nat- “galloping” after the hounds or “gossipurally; but let the force of the voice ing” with a neighbor, yet, in spite of acdwell on the -et, as if you paired it off cent and all, everybody says that in with Lydd jetty, and the mispronun- “worshipping" the "worshipper worcianion is glaringly manifest. Had shipped," and that in "kidnapping” the our hypothetical lady correspondent "kidnapper kidnapped,” and doubles adopted this plan, she would neither the p without a single twinge of his orhave disfigured her blotting-pad with a thographical conscience. This is but scribble, nor her letter with a blunder.

a lean and paltry exception indeed, Or, again, let the question be raised which may perhaps some day be boldly whether the operation of covering a set right by a purist innovator whom tin box with a glossy coat of paint and all may be content to imitate; we bevarnish is “japaning" or "japanning.” lieve that our American cousins, with If we then strike the first syllable with a their practical utilitarian contempt for strong stress, as if we were pronounc- mere tradition, have made a start aling “happening,” or even asserting that ready. the ja'paning is now ha'ppening, we They have for some time, moreover, get what is clearly wrong; but if the led the way with regard to another force of our utterance falls strenu- whole class of these words, those endously upon the pan, we may smite it as ing in l, in which on this side the Atvigorously as we please, with no sense lantic waters spelling law is set calmly of jar (pardon the paradox; we mean at defiance. “Rival," and "shrivel” jarring sound), and


and “apparel,” and “flannel," and thereby that the accent is on the second “pencil," and "devil,” and “gambol,” syllable, and the true spelling with nn.

and many more, are all accented on the This seems simple and easy enough; penult, the last syllable but one; and but that the difficulty is a real and prac- yet, reversing the proverbial phrase, tical one is evidenced by the facts con

and taking an inch of license while we cerding such a word as "faceted." In give a superfluous l, we are accustomed Dr. Murray's “New English Diction- in cold weather to "apparelling" our ary" this word is quoted in its alphabet- "shrivelled" limbs in "flannellette” (if ical place, under "Facet” and

we may say so without fear of prose“Faceted,” eleven times; only twice cution, we admire the "unrivalled correctly, and no less than nine times pencillings of a Tenniel or Du Mauwith a superfluous and erroneous t. rier, and it is “gambolling" sheep that Browning in his “Red Cotton Nightcap provide us ultimately with "devilled" Country” has the word in rhythm, and kidneys. Brother Jonathan is more is guided to the proper spelling, as he consistent: in all these and similar writes

words he adheres to the strict rule; and

hence in America there are "unequaled” The liquid name "Miranda"-faceted as

facilities for the "traveler" to pass lovelily As his own gift, the gem.

through “tuneled” mountains and over

"leveled” valleys without “imperiling" But Carlyle is made to say that “Fried- his life; nay, even “caroling” with gladrich loves the sharp facetted cut of the ness as he goes. Strange to say, howman;" and others, high and low, follow ever, there is one word which, even in suit.

British use, keeps the single 1, and that So far we have dealt only with final unique individual is very appropriately


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“unparalleled;" whether the prospect practice in this point; and we can asof four ls in such close array was the sure them, and congratulate ourselves, deterrent influence we cannot say, but that if their judgment is biased in this the fact remains that, as far as we direction by these representations of Britons concerned, this word ours, there will, at any rate, be no sugstands out as the exception of an ex- gested thought of donkey-power in the ception. Logical analogy, were we to influence at work. Words of this class follow her guidance fully, would soon are not numerous, though fairly fremake it the type instead of the excep- quent; for instance, many people take tion.

delight at the proper season in “ChristWords in s present a certain amount masing” (as Southey tells us, and spells of difficulty. It is a good many years it wrong), and some have been engaged ago that we noticed in a popular scien- in “caucusing” (as Carlyle tells us, and tific book for the young the forms “fo- spells it right), and others have gone cussing,” “focused," "focussed," "fo- “chorusing,” and some have been "hocusing” scattered on various pages, as cused;" where “Christmassing" (as if on the generous principle of the ac- Southey puts it), “caucussing," "chocommodating

wax-work showman, russing," and "hocussed" would be who, when asked about the identity of manifestly incorrect. The “New Enone of his figures—“Was it Wellington glish Dictionary" has four instances

Napoleon ?”—replied benignly, of the adjective “Christmasy," and “Whichever you pleases, my little every one is wrongly spelled! In the dears; you pays your money and you past participle of such words, semitakes your choice.” But this is no iso- phonetic writers cut the Gordian knot lated case; reference again here to Mur- by writing "focust," "unbiast,” just as ray's Dictionary attests the prevalent they also write "worshipt,” “kidhaziness, or want of "focusing,” in the napt;" but this pretty little expedient treatment of this word. In the quota- is still unavailing for the derivatives in tions there recorded, the inflected -ing. forms of "focus" appear thirty-seven There remains one further group of times, and although the proportion of words to be considered, of which “unerror is not so overwhelming as in the paralleled” above is really an instance case of "facet," there are, neverthe. —namely, those of three syllables with less, twenty-seven instances of double the first accented, of which the comss to ten of single s. Two sample quo- monest example is “benefit.” The prestations from two art critics will serve ent writer in his salad days used to asto illustrate the rival spellings. Rus- sert that the past participle and tense kin, in “Modern Painters," (bk. iii., ch. of this word were “benefitted;" and he i., sec. 18), speaks of “the right grada- maintained his thesis, armed in full tion or focusing of light and color;" but logical panoply, by showing that while Thornbury, in his biography of Turner ben- bore the main accent, there never(vol. il., p. 209), says that “the painter's theless fell a subsidiary stress on -fit, genius was focussed, and his genius that -fit, therefore, was an accented gained by focussing.” Why, 'tis as if syllable, and that its t should be he said that the painter's genius was doubled before -ed. He found, howsubject to the malediction of his ene- ever, that the weight of usage was mies (“foe-cussed”), and that by such dead against him, and gave up the unmalediction endured or retorted (“foe- equal struggle, preferring, like other cussing”) his genius gained! Similarly, prudent heroes, to "live to fight another many people misrender their “un

day," and to fight, as the whirligig of biased” opinion into their "unbiassed" time brings it about, on the other side opinion, as if they would proudly claim of the fray. And yet he had many that it is not under the influence of who, analogically, if not actually, were donkeys (“un-by-ass'd”)! We hope his strenuous allies. Did not the Edinthey will be induced to change their burgh Review in 1815, in the hey-day of

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