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showed that among the republics of political freedom through denying per ancient Greece those whose constitu- sonal freedom to the negro. tions were comparatively democratic The principles of justice, and the unfared better on the whole, and did more seen power making for justice, were for humanity, than those in which the same two thousand years ago as power was monopolized by very few. they are now, and are the same now in But if we remember that Athens had London and Pekin. But the average probably a smaller proportion of voters deviations from the true standard difto non-voters, and certainly enforced fer widely in different places and times, more rigidly the exclusion of Uit- so that conduct which would be reprolanders than the much abused Trans- bated as outrageous in modern En vaal republic;. that the machinery of gland might be excused, even popular government had not advanced praised as comparatively just and merbeyond that crudest of all methods, di- ciful, in a Norman baron or a general rect voting in one general assembly, of ancient Rome. From this it seems and that consequently full member- to follow that periods very different ship of a Greek State could never be from our own, for which very large alextended beyond the number that could lowances have to be made, are better attend the same meeting and listen to suited to exercise the moral judgments the same speeches; and lastly, if we of advanced students than of beginremember that almost every citizen of

Still more advanced must be the freest Greek community was a the students who can profitably study slave-owner, we must recognize the history from the evolutionary point of impossibility of deducing any but the view, i.e., trying to trace some general vaguest generalities from a comparison law of development from the moral of the so-called democracies of an

ideas of the lowest savage to those of tiquity with the great representative a Tennyson or a Spencer, similar to the democracies of modern times.

physical changes which zoologists trace The utmost that we can hold to be

from the hipparion to the modern raceestablished in this way is that the ad- horse, and which are traced by conjecmission of free discussion and equal

ture from the ape to the lowest known

human being. voting within however narrow a range

I must own that I find evolutionary has a wholesome and humanizing effect

history too advanced for me. I havo as far as it goes, and that on the other

tried it with Spencer, with Sir H. hand, the principle of equal freedom

Maine, and with Kidd, but so far withmust either go on extending itself or

out feeling much the wiser. So I will perish; that a group which is exter

say nothing more about it, but ask nally aggressive, which finds its main

whether, apart from that, modern hisemployment in preying upon and en

tory is not likely to be more suitable slaving weaker groups, cannot long remain internally free. These simple

than ancient for elementary instruc

tion. but not superfluous lessons are quite

Here I can imagine an objector saylegitimately deduced from the history of ancient Greece, and cannot well being that the facts are more distorted missed under the masterly guidance of by partisan prejudice the nearer we ap

proach our own times. On this ground such a writer as Grote. But surely

it used to be the fashion to prohibit they can also be learned much nearer

school debating societies discussing home, from the story of our own politi- any events less than fifty years old. cal freedom "broadening slowly down

The answer is that you cannot escape from precedent to precedent," from the from party feeling so long as there is failures and successes of our colonial

any analogy between past and present policy, or by observing the narrow es- controversies, as we have just seen in cape of our American cousins thirty- the case of Mitford and Grote, and five years ago from losing their own that where the analogy ceases the in

terest and utility of the study cease many centuries before the English inalso.

vasion, apparently in order to suggest The only remaining plea for taking the inference that the Irish never had the earlier before the later periods is been and never would be capable of that a knowledge of the earlier is nec- maintaining an orderly national govessary to the proper understanding of ernment. Still deeper, as will appear the later. But this brings us back to shortly, lie the roots of the eternal what has been already noticed as the Eastern question. first use of historical study-namely, In short, there can be no general rule to help the solution of present problems for determining where historical inby ascertaining how things came to be quiry of this practical kind should end; as we find them.

but it does not seem very difficult to However well primed we may be say where it ought to begin. Only after with general maxims, our opinion as to we have ascertained the immediate the merits of any particular dispute causes of our phenomena can we be in will not be worth much unless we have a position to push our inquiry into the taken the trouble to ascertain at least causes of those causes. the immediate antecedents of the It may be said that historical investitransactions whose propriety is in ques- gation is one thing and the teaching of tion. And the larger the transactions history another. But

all teachers with which we are concerned, the fur- know that the first condition of effecther may it be necessary to trace their tive teaching is to arouse attention, to roots back into the past.

stimulate curiosity; and how can this To determine a dispute between two object be better obtained than by children, a retrospect of a few minutes starting from the facts which we canor hours will generally be sufficient.

not help attending to because they diTo decide whether Mary or Jane will rectly concern us, and showing just be the more eligible housemaid, their where they need illumination from the character for the last five or six years past? will be the utmost that we shall gen- No doubt the ordinary way of tellerally care to inquire into. If Smith ing a story is to begin at the beginwants to know whether Jones has a ning, whether it be in the witness-box, safe marketable title to the estate he in conversation with a friend, or in a is offering for sale, it may be necessary three-volume novel. But that is beto go back forty years or more. When cause in these cases the starting-point the question is whether the Irish claim and the terminus are equally familiar for a separate Parliament should be or equally unfamiliar. Where it is conceded, the statesman must carry his otherwise, we begin the end.

If an mind back at least to the commence- old friend turns up unexpectedly, the ment of the present century, when the chances are that our first question will Act of Union was passed, which the be, "How did you come here?” and toat Nationalists propose to repeal; and hav- after explaining the immediate reason ing got so far he will probably feel that for his presence, he will go back to the for a complete understanding of that date of his last meeting with us, and transaction, and of the present state of give an outline of his doings in the Irish sentiment, he must go on to ex- interval in chronological order. But plore the three or four preceding cen- in making a new acquaintance there is turies, to William III., or to Elizabeth, no last meeting to refer to, so conversaperhaps even to Earl Strongbow. In- tion finds its starting-point in the indeed, I remember noticing that the edi- cident which brought us together, or in tions of Whitaker's Almanack pub- the personality of the friend who introlished while the controversy was at its duced us, and thence travels back to height, contained statistics as to the earlier events connected with one or short reigns and mostly violent deaths the other. of the Irish kings for I forget how Obviously, the study of history resembles the second case rather than the In the days, not so very long ago, first. There is no last meeting to refer when it was currently believed that the to; no remote past already more fa- first man was created exactly four miliar than the recent past. Each bis- thousand years before the birth of torical personage who comes on the Christ, and that at least one genealogy scene is bound to justify his intrusion could be traced without a break from by tacking himself on to somebody of the first Adam to the second, there was whom we have heard before; and who perhaps a little more sense in this talk can the first introducer be, if not some about beginning at the beginning. But living contemporary?

for those who accept the modern teachSee where we are landed by the re- ing there is no beginning, only gradverse process.

You may interest me ually diminishing light as we grope in Moses, as the person who brought our way further and further back from the Israelites out of Egypt, provided I the present time. already know something of their going Granting that our comprehension of down into Egypt; and you may interest the present will be assisted, more or me in Joseph going down into Egypt, less, by every extension of our acif I already know something of Abra quaintance with the past; still, the ham, Isaac and Jacob; but where in practical question for most of us who this ascending scale shall we come to do not see our way to mastering all hisa person with whom I may be presumed tory before the time comes for applyto be familiar before my studies com- ing our knowledge is, Which portion mence? In reality Moses interests us had we better make sure of first? I because of his connection, through He- say, begin with the living present, and brew history, the New Testament, and with that branch of public affairs which many other links, with that religious for any reason excites your interest atmosphere, described loosely as Chris- most strongly. Learn, as best you can, tianity, in which we live and move and to distinguish truth from falsehood in have our being.

what you read in the newspapers. The late Professor Freeman was so Make out from Whitaker's Almanack, great a stickler for “beginning at the or some equally obvious source, the beginning,” that when he was appointed population, resources, expenditure, and Regius professor of modern history at constitution of your own country. This Oxford, he objected strongly to the done, it will be time to inquire where title, but consoled himself by reflect- the need for historical explanations of ing that the university had not at- the phenomena before you comes in, tempted to define “modern history.” and to take steps for supplying them. One friend had told him that modern Freeman compares the study of rehistory began with the French Revolu- cent history before the earlier periods tion; and another distinguished scholar to building the superstructure before bad held that it began with the call of the foundations.1 But why do we Abraham! He himself considered the build upwards from the ground, inlatest real starting-point to be “the first stead of downwards from the sky? beginnings of the recorded history of Surely, because we find ourselves on Aryan Europe”—that is, I suppose, the ground, and can only approach the practically either the poems of Homer, higher levels by utilizing the materials or the first Olympiad. It may be that lie around us. Just so we find our that we only need a little more light selves in this year of grace, 1896, and from the Assyriologists and Egyptolo- can only come to know anything about gists to display the Greek civilization what happened before we were born growing as gradually and naturally out by utilizing the materials now existing; of those older types of social order as by applying our sense of hearing to the the Roman out of the Greek, or the spoken narratives of our elders, and our Teutonic out of the Roman.

sight and touch to the books in our 1 Methods of Historical Study, pp. 21, 27, 114.

libraries, and to the coins and imple

ments in our museums. Present phe- country; and how they are connomena are truly the foundation of all nected with each other through our knowledge; inferences therefrom the Cabinet and the sovereign. as to the past or the future are the 3. Responsibility of the central govsuperstructure.

ernment as a whole to Parliament I will now try to give an example of and ultimately to the electors, the method I am recommending. It Constitution and working of Parmust, however, be clearly understood liament. that it is not put forward as something 4. Peculiarities of Scotch and Irish that has stood the test of experience in government. the hands of a professed teacher of 5. Relation of the British government history. Though the teaching of an- to the colonies and India. cient history in the old-fashioned way 6. The army and navy, and what they was for several years one of my regular are wanted for. Foreign reladuties, that has itself become matter tions; the civilized and the unof ancient history, and I am now writ- civilized, the great and the small, ing as a mere outside critic, offering powers with which we have to tentative suggestions on the chance of deal. their being taken up and licked into shape by somebody more directly con- It would sound like a truism, if it cerned. The number of lectures that had not been so generally neglected in would be required to fill up properly practice, that at least as much ground the outline here sketched out would as this must be fairly well mastered depend, of course, on the age and char- before any useful purpose can be acter of the class and other special cir- served by travelling back into history, cumstances; but I would suggest as a properly SO called; or, as Freeman minimum, six for the preliminary and would put it, from present politics into a dozen for the properly historical past politics. The popularity of Arnold

Forster's “Citizen Reader" is a proof From the standpoint of view here in that modern educationists take a more dicated, a course of instruction on common-sense view of this matter than present political phenomena is an ab- their predecessors; but how many of solutely indispensable preliminary to us, who have reached or passed middle any line of historical study whatever. life, can claim to have learned even so And on the principle of proceeding much as may be gathered from that gradually from the known to the un- little book (evidently written for quite known some such arrangement as the young children), before being introfollowing seems to suggest itself:- duced to Romulus and Remus or King

Alfred ?
Preliminary Course.

Having laid this foundation, it is

very much a matter of fancy which 1. Local government of London (or of the county in which the class is part of the superstructure shall first be

taken in hand. Shall we make it our held).

first business to go behind the Local 2. The central government of the

Government Acts of 1894 and 1888 to United Kingdom; what goes on in

the squirearchical rule in the rural disthe different offices about White

tricts, and behind the Municipal Corhall; who is at the head of each; poration Act of 1835 to the close corhow they ramify through the

porations which ruled our large towns, 1 Here and elsewhere in this article, when I and so on back to feudal times? Or speak of history simply I mean political history, shall we trace back the mutual relathe records of creation and application of public tions of sovereign, Cabinet, and Parforce. How far the backward method would be

liament? Or probe the deep-seated found applicable to the history of religion, literature, art, etc., I am not just now concerned to

causes of Irish discontent? Or, again, nquire.

shall the imposing statistics of our In



dian Empire tempt us to approach, step But at that point the attitude of the by step, its distant and obscure source two powers most interested was alin an Elizabethan trading company? most exactly the reverse of what it is Each of these courses would have its now. Great Britain protested against special attractions, and all ought un- any coercive measures. Russia took doubtedly to be taken at some time or up arms alone. Then we only just other. But for the special purpose of stopped short of fighting on the side of contrasting the backward method with the Turk, and did actually deprive the ordinary school teaching we shall do Russians of a large part of the fruits best to choose for our starting-point the of their hard-won victory. This alone present acute stage of the Eastern would go far to explain why Russia question.

should now be disinclined either to If the last lecture of our preliminary put herself forward in coercing the series has answered its purpose, the Turk, or to approve of England's unstudent will have grasped the general wonted forwardness. But the student distribution of political power over the will soon learn that there is much more face of the planet, and will understand behind. To explain the diplomatic that, while the United States may per- sparring between England and Russia haps claim a predominating influence in 1876 we must go back to the actual over the two continents of America, conflict in 1854-6, when we supported and Japan, the youngest member of the the Turk in his refusal to allow a genvery select company of great civilized eral Russian protectorate over powers, may count for a good deal in Christian subjects, and not only made the politics of the far East; yet, so far this protest good at the cost of a bloody as Europe, Africa, and the western half war, but deprived the Russians of their of Asia are concerned, there are six Black Sea fleet, and prevented them for great powers who can practically en- sixteen years from building another. force almost any point about which To explain our attitude on that occathey are agreed-namely, Great Brit- sion we should have to refer to the inain, France, Russia, Germany, Aus- terest, real or supposed, of our Indian tria-Hungary, and Italy. Now, when Empire; but the history of British Inhe learns from the newspapers that dia would be, as I have already said, these six powers addressed to the the subject of a separate course. To Porte last autumn a joint remon: explain the general opposition to Russirance against the horrible misgovern- sia we should have to notice the estabment disclosed by the Armenian massa- lished habit of European powers cres; that this remonstrance produced combining to prevent the excessive no effect beyond some paper reforms; preponderance of any one, the latyet that the idea of coercive measures, est previous example of which was joint or several, has now been aban- the overthrow of Napoleon. But doned, he will ask for an explanation, here, again, we must choose beand he will find it in the recent rela

tween tracing the relations of tions between Great Britain and Rus- Christian European powers to each sia.

other, and examining their common reTwenty years ago, he will be told, lation to the one non-Christian power. massacres very similar in character which constitutes what we call the took place in the European dominious Eastern question, and it will suit our of the sultan, but with the difference purpose better to choose the latter. Our that there the Christians formed a next question is, therefore, why the large majority instead of a small mi- treatment of Turkey by all the powers nority of the population. Then, as should be so different from their benow, the same six powers agreed in havior to each other, even in the case pressing on the sultan a scheme of re- of those most favorable to her. The form, which, however, instead of ac- reason must be either a degree of cepting on paper, he flatly rejected. habitual misgovernment greatly in ex

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