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"Man! thou hast cheated me to eat however, had worked at Zomba and at the beans twice, and refuse me any of Mandala, and may have picked it up them!” And the rabbit said, “Now I am from his Yao associates at one of those going to make a bow, and if that beast places, which seems all the more probcomes,

I will shoot it.” And while they able as the story was recognized by were cooking their beans the dzimwe took Harry Kambwiri, when I read to him the bow which the rabbit had made, and

the version I had taken down. It partly said, “Thou hast not made it well; give it

answers to one given in the Rev. Duff to me, I will make it right for thee.” And

Macdonald's “Africana”?—though with he kept cutting at the bow, by little and little, and he made it too thin in one part, considerable vari itions; Dzineso’s verand said, “Now it is good if the beast sion appears to be imperfect. I give it comes thou canst shoot him.” And the here, with omissions supplied from the dzimwe went to the water, and took off one in “Africana," and from informahis skin, and ran, and came to the place tion furnished by H. Kambwiri. where the rabbit was. When the rabbit

And the rabbit went away with the saw that beast coming, he took the bow

dzimwe, and they went along the road, and that he might shoot him, and the bow

(the dzimwe) said, "Go, let us ask for broke in his hand), and the rabbit ran

sugar-cane and reeds." (And they asked away once more. The dzimwe ate the

for them, and the people) said, “What do. beans and went to the water, and put on

you eat?”—because he asked for the reeds. his skin again, and returned and said, (And he said) “I eat sugar-cane.” And “Didst thou shoot that beast ?" and the the dzimwe ate the sugar-cane (and gave rabbit said "No; my bow broke, and I, the reeds to the rabbit). And they went ran away.” And, next day, they once

more along the road, and (the more cooked their beans, and the rabbit dzimwe) said, “Let us ask for mapira (a went away aside, and made his bow, and kind of millet) and pebbles.” And the hid it (in the grass). When the dzimwe dzimwe ate the mapira, and gave the pebwent to the water to wash himself, the bles to the rabbit. And they went along rabbit fetched that bow of his, and held the road and found a medicine-tree, and it firmly in his hand, and took a barbed the rabbit put (the medicine) into his bag, arrow. And that monstrous beast came

and he deceived the dzimwe, and said, “I again, and the rabbit took his bow and have dropped my arrow" (as an excuse pierced him through the heart, and the for stopping). And they came to a village, dzimwe said, “Mai! mai! mai! mai! com- and (the people there) cooked porridge for rade! how couldst thou wound me thus, all them, and the dzimwe said to the rabbit, on account of those beans; to-day I was Go back (to that tree) and fetch me some going to leave some for thee, that thou medicine," but the rabbit took some out of mightest eat.” And the rabbit said, "Ha! his bag. Then the dzimwe (was so vexed comrade! so thou hast been finishing up all that he) refused the nslma, (and the rabbit those beans by thyself? I thought it was ate it). a wild beast." And the dzimwe said, (And another time) he sent the rabbit "Ha! thou hast wounded me with a barbed back again to fetch other medicine, and

thou hast hurt me, comrade! (when he got back) refused him porridge How is this thing to be got out?” Anu (having eaten it himself in the mean time), when the dzimwe tried to pull it out he and he cheated him, saying that many died. And the rabbit ate the beans by strangers had arrived (who had eaten up himself, and then went away home. everything). Then the rabbit set his wits Here we have a point frequently re

to work, and stripped off his skin, and put curring in these tales — the enviable it in the verandah, and tied dance-rattles facility with which an impenetrable dis- dzimwe stopped eating (and came to look),

to his leg, and danced outside, so that the guise is acquired by stripping off the and the dzimwe ran away, and left the skin. It occurs in another “Kalulu and porridge, for he said that it was a wild Dzimwe” story, told me by an Angoni beast. (And the rabbit put on his skin boy-Dzineso, of Pampezi. Dzineso,

2 Vol. ii., p. 327. 1 A large village west of the Shire about 3 He wished to get the rabbit out of the way, twenty-five miles from Matope.

so as to eat the porridge while he was gone.

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again, and came and ate the porridge skin went to his garden. And the skin which the dzimwe had left.)

was changed back again into the same (Then the dzimwe came back, and the bird, and made itself a drum, and called people told him how the rabbit had fooled all the (man's) fowls, and danced the him. So he took off his skin and ran out chelecheteche:

into the sunshine, and died with the heat.

A na ngo ku tu ng'ande

Chelecheteche-che che che, Another story about these two com

Chelechetecherche che che, panions is as follows:

A na ngo ku tu ng'ande. Now there was a rabbit, and there was

When it had finished, it seized and ate a dzimwe, and they were herding the

one fowl. (Then it was changed back into goats. The rabbit hid his mother in the

a skin, and) next morning the owners of bush; the dzimwe had no mother. And the skin of that bird went again to their the rabbit used to disappear in order) to gardens, and the skin (again) changed into eat at his mother's; the dzimwe just went a bird, and danced the “chelecheteche." hungry. The rabbit (went and) ate every And (some people) remained in hiding, and day. One day, the rabbit said good-bye to saw what it did, eating the fowls, and they his mate, the dzimwe, and the dzimwe said, saw this bird that had been changed "Go.” The rabbit was going, and the (from the skin) and killed it. dzimwe passed on, and remained hidden from the rabbit in the path (i.e., followed This story is tantalizing and mystehim in the long grass beside the path). rious as it stands; but perhaps AgunWhen the rabbit called to his mother, the daga had forgotten some of it. The dzimwe knew that the rabbit had a

bird is introduced abruptly and allumother. Next day the dzimwe said good, sively, as chimbalame chache-his big bye to the rabbit, and passed on, and bird-perhaps there exists a tale of how walked, and he called the mother of the rabbit, and (when she came) he killed her, it came into the man's possession. and then he went back. The rabbit, on the Here, as elsewhere, I was at a disadday after, went to his mother's but (when vantage. It was necessary to seize the he got there) he found her-not there! propitious moment when the narrators And he cried, and he returned hungry; but were “so dispoged”-and the writing he did not tell his mate, the dzimwe; he down-though most of them were obligjust grieved by himself (a ka ngo dan ing enough to recite at a pace not daula).

difficult to follow-was a task requir

ing all one's faculties. If possible, I A variant of this story, heard in

read over the stories, when completed, Angoniland, goes on to say that the rabbit revenged himself by bringing a

to see if they were correct, and repeated hot stone, which he put into the

the process, when opportunity offered,

with other auditors, and sometimes obdzimwe's mouth, and so killed him.

tained emendations and additions in How he did it is not explained—but the dzimwe generally plays the part of the this way. But I seldom found I could giant in European folk-lore, being big dictated, and when able to study it at

quite understand the text when first and incredibly foolish, though cunning op to a certain point. He begins, as a

my leisure, often found points on which

I could with advantage have crossrule, by cheating, whereupon his victim

examined the narrators, when I no goes one better, and usually "has” him

longer had the chance. bithe most transparent of devices.

There appears to be a numerous group Another story, involving a species of transformation, was told me by Agun- the form of a man and marries a girl.

of stories in which an animal assumes daga, a girl from Sochi, near Blantyre, as follows:

1 Probably an unmeaning collocation of sylla

bles, such as often forms the refrain of a song. There was once a man, and he killed a

The bird sang and danced at the same time, and great bird, and skinned it, and put the skin is therefore said to have "danced” the song—for on the roof to dry. And the owner of the which I have been unable to find a meaning.

LIVING AGE. VOL. XII. 584

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Of course, in the "myth-making" stage found him out (that he was a lion), she ran of human development, the transaction away from that husband. would be regarded as perfectly possible

More elaborate is the tale of “The without the transformation, which, in

Girl and the Hyena," of which two, if two out of the three stories of this class

not three, versions have already been I have collected, is not expressly mentioned. But the details imply that the published. It is given in the second

volume of “Africana,” and also in a girl was at first ignorant of the bride

small book of Yao stories (now, I believe, groom's true character. The first I

out of print), collected by Mr. Macdonshall give is very brief. It was told me at Ntumbi (South Angoniland) by a girl in Yao and Mang'anja. These two ver

ald at Blantyre, where it is given both (Mbuya, daughter of Chipanga, the

sions-if my memory serves me-are head-man of Nziza), whose mother was

not identical, and the Mang'anja one, Yao, so that it may have come from the

of which I have a manuscript copy, is eastern side of the Shire. I translate as

not the same as the one in "Africana." literally as possible:

My version, dictated by a small boy of A person refused husbands—there comes twelve, from the neighborhood of a monkey, he takes off the skin from his Katunga's," differs considerably from body, and is changed into a

A all these:woman of the Angoni married the monkey,

There was once a woman who refused and hoed the crops, and his [the monkey's] mates came out of the bush, and ate the (all) husbands. There came a leopard; she crops in the garden of his mother-in-law, said, “I don't want (you)—no!” There and he went into the bush. It is finished.

came a rabbit; she said, "I don't want (you)-n0!" There came a hyena, and

he came to rub oil on his powder-horn inThis is evidently very imperfect, and

side.? And the woman came and said, I find I have failed to note down some

“This man is the one I want.”3 .. The explanations received later, which, I husband said, “My wife, let us go home.” think, were to the effect that it was the Her brother, who had sore eyes, followed irruption of the monkey's relations into after them, and they said, "Where are his mother-in-law's garden which be- you going?” He crouched down (and hid) trayed his identity. [Native custom and (then) followed them (again), and requires a newly married man to hoe a they said, “Where are you going?” Her garden for his wife's mother.] The brother arrived at the village, and (she) whole will become more intelligible if put him into the hen-coop. When the compared with the two following tales. night was dark, many hyenas came, and Perhaps they were intended (as the sang: Rev. D. Macdonald suggests in connec- Let us eat 'her (as) meat-(but she is not fat tion with "The Girl and the Hyena”) to (enough yet). warn girls against a too persistent and The brother heard it, and next morning, fastidious rejection of suitors. This is at daybreak, he said, “My sister, they say the story of “The Lion's Bride”-told 'Let us eat her, but she is not fat enough likewise by Mbuya:

yet.'” She said, "You lie.” He said,

“Yes! (it is true) let us twist a string, and A girl refused a husband, and she mar- when it is dark, we will tie it to your little ried a lion. And when she was going to finger.” And at night they tied it, and sleep in the house, she refused to undress; she feared his tail, [the only part of him

1 Or Port Blantyre, on the Sbire.

? I confess I do not quite know what to make of not metamorphosed ?] and she went to cut

this. The original has “Na ngo dzera kudzola it off. He said, “My tail cut off-I refuse it! (Or, "and he refused it.” Something hyena came in the guise of a hunter, and made

mafuta liwengwa lache pamtima.” Perhaps the appears to be wanting after this sentence.]

the borrowing of oil for his powder-flask the And she went to the house, and re

pretext for his visit.

Many natives on the river fused again to undress, and was going now possess guns. again to cut off (his tail); and when she 8 Something seems to have dropped out here.

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when the brother heard the hyenas sing. The people said, "Listen! up in the air ing “Let us eat her,” etc., he pulled the they are saying 'Chínguli changa, nde, string-Kwé! and his sister awoke, and nde, nde,'” etc. And they saw them fall heard them. And in the morning he said, down-vapa! And (the boy) said, “Be"You have heard them, my sister." And hold! my sister called me a sore-eyed one he said, “Brother-in-law, lend me an adze [reproached me with my sore eyes] (till) (nsompo) that I may cut a great piece of they said, 'Let us eat her, when she is fat.' wood to mend the grain-mortar." And And I have come home with her." he finished making it, and he put his sister's nsengroasa into the log, and fastened Katembo, though a very intelligent them tightly, and put his sister into the little fellow, seems to have missed some baskets, and said:

of the connecting links in this story, Chinguli changa, nde, nde, nde.

which will, however, become clearer by Mperekezéni, nde, nde, nde,

a comparison with Mr. Macdonald's Ku li amái, nde, nde, nde,

version, here following. The language Chinguli, chánga, nde, nde, nde. S of the latter differs, as well as the de(And the basket flew away with them,

tails. This may be accounted for, and) they fell on a tree. And the hyenas partly by a divergent system of orthogfollowed after them, and he said (as be- raphy, partly by dialectical difference fore), “My chínguli," etc. And they fell

the Mang'anja of the River people being down on his mother's mtondo,' and he said

considered purer than that spoken at again “Chínguli changa, nde, nde, nde, etc. Blantyre. Some of the phrases, too,

almost strike one as purposely sim1 In the original chinguli, augmentative of plified for the white man's benefit—thus nguli, which, according to Rev. D. 0. Scott's

ntanga la nkuku (by the by, it should be Mang'anja Dictionary, means (1)"a whipping-top," made and played with in much the same way as

ya not la), “the basket of the fowls," ours : (2) “a patch of wood to mend the mtondo instead of chipwere, the regular word grain-mortar,” I had the first meaning given me- for "coop,” used by Katembo. I forget how, exactly, and long vainly tried to make sense of the passage. As a round hole

There was once a woman, and she had a would have to be cut in the log, to make it fit the

daughter, and she said, "My child must top of the worn-out grain-mortar, this would serve as a convenient pretext for hollowing a

not marry (any) but a good man." And log to hold his sister.

there came a man and she refused him. ? Nsengua is a small flat basket. Two fastened Afterwards, there came another, and he together at one point of their edges, make a close said, “We have heard that this child of receptacle-the plural seems to show that this

yours refuses men.” Her mother said, kind is meant.

"Wait, I will tell her herself," and she 3 The meaning of this is :

went and told her, and (the girl) said, “I “My chingulinde, nde, nde,” (meaningless do not want him.” And after that a syllables]

hyena was changed, so as to be a man, and Accompany her (to the place)

(came and) said, “I want to marry.” And Where my mother is.” This and the previous song are always sung by the mother said, “I do not know-it may the narrator, and usually taken up by the listen- be she will consent." And she told her, ers. I cannot help wondering whether the mean- and the girl said, “Yes, I am willing to ingless “Ingle-go-jang, my joy, my joyof “Uncle take that man." And he said, “Let us go Remus," on p. 124 of Routledge's edition, can

to my home, and see my mother.” And possibly be a distorted version of this. It is true

they went away together (lit. they folthat it occurs in a totally different story-that of

lowed one another). And the woman had "Brer Bar” and “ Brer Bull-frog”—but the sense of the words once forgotten, they might easily be

6 An onomatopeic word expressing a sudden displaced. Most of the relics of African languages fall, as of a bird when shot. preserved in America,however, seem to point to the

O In the original Kaya, mwini ache-literally “I West Coast.

The only one I can call to mind just do not know-(she is) the owner"—i.e., “I have now is the word goober, for ground nut (“Uncle nothing to do with it-she will arrange the matter Remus,” p. 115), which is the Fiote (Lower Congo) for herself." Kaya is more nearly equivalent to nguba: in Mang'anja it is ntedza.

the Spanish Quien sabe?" than to a simple “I do * The large mortar, cut out of a solid log, used

not know,” sometimes it has the force of for pounding grain.

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a brother, and she said to him, “I beg of hyena were-wolf. Concerning you, my brother, that you will not follow wizards (afiti; sing. mfiti). I may here me—you have sore eyes. They arrived note a few fragments of information at the village, and the brother slept in the obtained directly from. natives. Boys hen-coop. In the middle of the night, the are afraid to go out at night, lest they husband awoke and said, “I am going to should meet afiti. The mfiti wanders eat my wives.” And her brother heard about roads or paths, carrying a bright him. And in the morning, when it was

light, which he extinguishes on the light, he said, “My sister, did you hear approach of a human being. He can that your husband is going to eat you (as) make himself as tall as the house and meat?” And the woman said, "No, I

become small again. Sometimes you did not hear him." And he said, “Just wait a little (?); to-day I am going to look wake at night, and see one standing by for a piece of string, and I shall tie it to your bedside; then, if you boldly defy your little finger.” And he tied it to his him and say you will find him out by sister's little finger, and he said, “If I day and make him drink mwabvi, he will hear (him saying) that he will eat you, I disappear and do you no harm; but you will pull the string, and you will wake and must have a stout heart (kuu limba hear the words your husband says.” And mtima) to do this. More than one boy when he pulled the string, afterwards the professed to have seen a mfiti inside his woman said, "Yes, my brother, it is not hut at night. He was “just like oura lie. To-day I have heard him, but what selves” (chimodzimodzi ife tomue—that shall we do?" And the man (i.e., her

is to say, a "black" man) but quite brother) said, “I know I will borrow an

naked, without even a tewera round his adze (nsompo), and cut out a tree.” And waist. They were, however, too much he borrowed an adze and hollowed out a

frightened to survey him carefully, and tree, and put his sister into it, and it flew, speedily hid their heads under their and went on high, and sat in a tree. And the hyena said, “Mother, I told you, and blankets. Nchafuleni, already referred you refused; I said 'Let us eat her; be to, is the authority for the statement that, hold, now, how she goes away home.” if you meet a mfiti on the road by night, And the brother said, "My sister, you had and speak to him, you are struck dumb. a bad heart-you wanted to drive me This is not exactly a parallel case to away, saying, 'You shall not come (with Moris and the Wolf. Old Silimani, the me), you have sore eyes.' But to-day you occupant, in 1894, of the "leper's hut" on shall see your mother."! And they came the outskirts of the Mission grounds, out at her mother's village. And they averred that he sometimes heard the said, “Tell us where you went,” and he afiti passing his dwelling by night, said, “My sister—they were going to eat "but,” said he, “they cannot kill a man her, and I helped her to escape.” And her unless Mulungu gives them permismother said, “This my child was diso- sion.” The blaze of a bush fire one bedient. When men came (asking) that evening on the slope of Nyambadwe we might give her in marriage, she re

(the flames of which rose to an extraorfused. But you accepted the hyena, and you drove away your brother, and he dinary height) was by him attributed saved you.

to afiti, but he did not enter into details. See!-you have (again), you went very far astray (?), but In the Chipeta burying-ground, which do not begin (to act in this way) again."

is hidden in a nkalango, or thicket (some

distance to the right of Sclater Road, as This tale connects itself with the you come from the Mission), I saw widespread superstition of the wizard

4 As a serious theft took place at Blantyre, 1 Katembo's version shows that the brother shortly after two distinct alarms of this kind disregarded this request.

among the boys, it is probable that some one found 2 I.e., hollowed out (ku semera), as in making a it to his advantage to play on their superstitious canoe. This is done with an adze.

fears. The native burglar is said to discard every 3 He says "your mother" (amako), not “our scrap of his not too abundant clothing, and oil mother (amatu)-possibly because they were chil- himself all over, so that he may not be easy to dren of the same father by different wives.

hold, if caught.

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