be, perhaps, best explained by the fol. this class of inmates is paid for at the lowing extract from a work of travels rate of twenty pounds a year, and is put written some years ago. The place de- on precisely the same footing as the scribed is an annexe of the great indus- rest, except that the boys are not set to trial and agricultural reformatory of field work. Even with such reservaMettray, near Tours: “M. Demetz's pet tion the probation is a hard one in the institution is his 'maison paternelle, a extreme. My driver to Citeaux inrefined sort of prison for the refractory formed me that he had recently consons of gentlemen. The building is ducted thither a widow lady with her attractive enough outwardly and looks son aged seventeen; also another widow like a pretty Swiss châlet, but in spite with an incorrigible lad somewhat of carpets and curtains the interior is

younger. The former declared it her gloomy. Unruly boys are sent here, intention to keep her son at the reformaunder the charge of a tutor, for terms of tory till he should be of age, unless he one or more months. They are kept turned over a new leaf.” hard at work, and during the hours of Without doubt the most important study the keys of their cells are turned function of the family council is the upon them, and they are watched choice of guardians, the “tutelle dative" through a pane of glass let in at the as opposed to the “tutelle légale,” the door. As a reward of good conduct former being accorded by this body, the more cheerful cells are given, looking latter being the natural guardianship of on to the garden, and adorned with pic- parents. The “tutelle légale” is obligatures, but the peephole and key are tory, no father being at liberty to reject never wanting.

the duty. So also is the “tutelle “ 'It is an admirable institution,' I dative;" no individual selected by a said, a little doubtfully, 'and must re- family council as guardian and being lieve parents and guardians of a good related to the family of the minor is at deal of responsibility; but it would liberty to refuse the charge; it is as never do to lock up English boys and much incumbent upon any French watch them at their lessons through a citizen as military service or the pay, peephole.'

ment of taxes. This is a most impor"'We had an English boy once,' said tant point to note. the superintendent, then stopped short. A few exemptions are specified in the

“ 'And how did the experiment an- code. Thus, the father of five legitiswer?'

mate children is exempt, also persons 'Very ill, I assure you. He burst having attained the age of sixty-five, or open the lock, defied his tutor-in fine, being able to prove incompetency from all but created a mutiny, and heartily illness. The following also may refuse: glad were we to get rid of him.'” ministers and members of the legisla

In quite another part of France, and tive body, admirals, generals, and many years after, I was again reminded officers in active service, preféts and of the prodigue and the provision made other public functionaries at a distance for him in the Code Civil. I quote a from the minor's home. short account written at the time :- The conseil de famille having named One curious feature of Citeaux (the a guardian, also

"tuteur great reformatory in the Côte d'Or) is subrojé” or surrogate, whose office is the reception of incorrigible youths be- not in any way to interfere with the longing to the middle and upper ranks. trustee, but to examine accounts and There are nine hundred boys in all here, watch over the interests in question. and about one hundred are neither On the subject of tutorial sphere and young criminals nor street vagabonds duty the law is explicit to minuteness. but boys with whom their parents or Generally speaking, he is expected to guardians can do nothing. At Citeaux act as a father towards his own child,

having care of his ward's moral and 1 Through Spain to the Sahara, London, 1868. ? Fraser's Magazine, September, 1880.

intellectual education, protecting his or



her interests, in fact, filling the place are fully set forth in the Code Civil; to of a second father. Whilst entrusted understand its scope and spirit we with the management of affairs as a must study the commentators. Readwhole, certain transactions lie outside ers in search of more copious and dehis control. Thus he is not at liberty tailed information are referred to the to accept a legacy for his ward without great work of the brothers Dalloz, in the consent of the conseil de famille. forty-four volumes, only of course acThis precautionary measure requires cessible in the British Museum and explanation. Sometimes the reversion public libraries of France. “Le Réperof property may mean very heavy legal toire de jurisprudence général," comexpenses and an enjoyment of the piled by Victor and Armand Dalloz, was same, a prospect too remote to be first published in 1836, but remains the counted upon. An instance of this has standard work of reference on legal come under my own observation. A questions. A handy and admirable boy, son of French friends of mine, was digest of the Conseil de Famille is to be left the reversion of an estate, the life found in the “Traité," by J.-L. Jay, interest being bequeathed to another. Bureau des Annales des Juges de Paix, His parents, somewhat reluctantly ac- Paris, 1854. Unfortunately, this book cepted the charge, paying a little for- is out of print, and only to be picked up tune in legal fees and duties for prop- on the quays or at bookstalls. erty most likely to come to a grandson. Among commentaries may be named No family council would have author. Duranton's "Cours de Droit Français," ized such a course in the case of a in twenty-seven volumes, Toullier's minor.

"Droit civil Français,” in four volumes. Again, the guardian cannot purchase The works of Delvincourt, Proudhon, any part of his ward's estate or belong. Demolombe, Zacheriara, Rolland de ings. Nor can be re-invest stocks and Villaguers, may be mentioned inter alia. shares without authorization. On the Manuals of “Droit Usuel,” giving a expiry of his charge, that is to say, on brief outline of the family council, are the marriage or coming of age of the too numerous to mention, and may be minor, the property in trust has to be had from twenty-five centimes (see surrendered intact, all deficits made up Ecole Mutuelle) upwards. Thoroughly from his own.

to appreciate this domestic court of On this subject a French lawyer equity we must understand French life, writes to me: “It is extremely rare that fully realize the extraordinary closeany ward has occasion to complain of ness of kinship, the tenacity of blood and his or her guardian. During a legal name. The family council brings out experience of twenty-five years, the good side of such patriarchal feelserious matters of the kind have come ing, familiarity with French society will under my notice. Nevertheless, my ofttimes disclose the evil. For better, practice lay in a part of France where for worse, indeed, our neighbors may be folks are very fond of going to law. It said to inherit not only patronymic, will occasionally happen that some patrimony, and paternal honor, but the elderly trustee persuades his young entire family alike on father's and ward to marry him; these gentlemen mother's side. Hence the apparent have not perhaps been over pleased worldliness displayed in contracting with their success in the long run. marriage. Not only are material prosThey are too much of a laughing stock.” pects but moral antecedents religiously Legal coming of age, "l'émancipation,”


into. A blot the family brings the guardian's task to a close. escutcheon, a shadow of disreputableAccording to French law there are two ness will prevent alliances, however kinds of emancipation, the formal and approved of in other respects. the tacit; these matters, however, lie In spite of certain drawbacks there beyond the scope of my paper.

seems no reason why a modified Con. The functions of the family council seil de Famille might not prove bene



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ficial in England. The simplicity, the In the very moment of starting, when uncompromising economy of the system with thrilling distinctness the words of are highly commendable; the absolute endless hope fell on the air, another impossibility of risking uncertain voice broke in with infelicitous haste: charges is a feature that contrasts “When you've done, sir," it said, half favorably with our own legal procedure, aloud, "the corpse's brother wishes to But the self-incurred responsibility, speak to you." that enforcement of guardianship Eleanor Deerhurst had already obligatory on French citizens as mili- merged her identity in that of a mere tary service itself — here meet “corpse” to the undertaker, while to obstacles that might prove not easy to her brother she had become, in a wonovercome. In conclusion, I cite the derfully short space of time, simply words of an experienced French lawyer, “the remains.” Alas, poor humanity! no learned commentator, but an ordi- To the man who read the service of nary hard-working practitioner: "The solemn committal—"dust to dust"—to excellence of such a system is proved by the girl who listened, the scene was one fact, namely, the very small per- almost heart-rending. To him who centage of law-suits arising therefrom. followed it was indescribably perplexVery rarely it happens that a ward has ing. He had seen so little of Nell since any reason to complain of his trustees." she married Robert Deerhurst and We must bear in mind that inadmissl- went away with him into another bility for the charge of trusteeship is sphere and “beat” of life. really a disgrace, on a footing, indeed, He was only a man of the hod in with forfeiture of civil rights. Hence, those days. Robert Deerhurst was a doubtless, the high character of French clerk, who wore a black coat all day trestees in general.

long, and talked with infinite littleIt would be interesting to collect

ness of “laborers." Yet how curiously sketches of the family council from

cases reverse themselves in this world! novelists. This subject, however, we

Thomas Farrant was now a man of must leave.

wealth and substance, ample in perM. BETHAM-EDWARDS,

son, glossy and brilliant as to raiment. Officier de l'Instruction Publique de France.

The world, life, and his own endeavors, had made him abundantly blessed and superabundantly successful.

The world, the flesh, and the devil

had played falsely to Robert DeerFrom The Gentleman's Magazine.

hurst. He was dust long ago; and as THE SKY-PILOT.

for Nell-poor Nell!-she had become

“the remains.” BY MARY 8. HANCOCK.

Thomas Farrant thought of these CHAPTER I.

things as he followed, by virtue of be“I am the Resurrection and the Life.” ing the "corpse's brother,” side by side A voice broke into the pathetic silence with the quiet and sorrowful chief of the churchyard with the words of mourner. It was this chief mourner eternal hope and triumph; a lark car- that troubled Thomas now. olled somewhere out of sight in the "She's nobbut a slip of a gurl,” he summer sky; the glory of revivified na- told himself, “but what am I ter do ture was everywhere-in the budding wi' 'er? What'll she do along wi' the flowers and in the leafy trees. Long likes o' we?" grasses began to wave; the branches Mr. Farrant spoke in the plural, as cast pleasant shadows all around; and a rule-after the fashion of royaltyin the quiet walk a small procession but, as a matter of fact, his household followed Eleanor Deerhurst to her last began and ended with himself. lone resting place. Poor Eleanor Deer- “Ma hat covers ma fam'ly," he would burst!

say, with a smile of intense breadth



and still more intense shrewdness. and great words. In common with "An' what is us ter do wi' th' lass?" men of his kind, the more incompre

The “lass” was so unlike Thomas that hensible the words, the better he enhe might well ponder over her destiny. joyed them. But now they were only She was so dainty and so lovely, even too comprehensible. in her simple mourning apparel, that They made him think. she looked a strange contrast to the What had he ever done to help Nell in prosperous man at her side.

all those weariful years? Nell had been this sort of a girl, What had he ever done for anybody Thomas remembered; but Irene was but himself? even more spirituelle than her mother, “Us'll tak th' lass hame th' neet," he and Thomas was half afraid of her. said, pulling his coat over his sub

He was rich, but he lived in a queer stantial figure, and raising his eyes way of his own; it suited himbut heavenward, as if in an attempt at what about Irene?

self-justification. He hardly listened to the service, or “Thet's what us is goin' ter do noo." noted the pathos thrown into the beau- He glanced again at the girl; but tiful words by the fine tenor voice of with those words ringing in his ear the parson.

Parsons—like girls-were he felt impelled towards the right. not much in his way; and he did not “Us'll tak' her hame; we've said sae. care for them.

Noo what's amiss ?” Irene was desperately poor-a “pau. No one spoke, but still his conscience per" he would have called her if she was not quite clear. had not been Nell's child.

The parson

“Us'll ha' it oot wi’’im, by'm-bye,” he was in the same condition as a church muttered. If us tak's th' gurl, she'll

Thomas Farrant had not a ha' ter do better for hersel' than Nell soul above riches. They warmed him, did, for she's nought but th’ remains fed him, clothed him, comforted him; noo, an' she moight ha' bin wha she for what said he in his heart?

pleased. Eh, it's a wearifu' warld, an' "A fat sorrow is better than a lean

no mistake." The “warld" at that one, any day. Nell's legacy is nob- moment was radiantly, gloriously but skin an' bone grief, 'at can help beautiful-earth, air, sea, sky-as if no one." He wondered why he the promise of that eternal "change" coupled the parson and the girl to- were already coming to pass. But gether in thought-probably because Thomas knew not yet that we color our both were poor alike. He knew the worlds with the hues of our own natman loved the girl, but

ural sentiments. Beauty lies in the 'Behold, I shew you a mystery,'" eye of the beholder. read the parson.

'We shall not all Then the last "Amen" was uttered, sleep, but we shall all be changed, in the gravediggers descended into poor a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, Nell's narrow bed, and began hastily at the last trump; for the trumpet shall to shovel in the earth. A small funeral sound, and the dead shall be raised in- was not very imposing to these creacorruptible, and we shall be changed. tures of habit. They felt sorry for For this corruptible must put on in- Irene--but they saw mourners every corruption, and this mortal shall put day; they knew that life ended here. on immortality.'

At their feet the dead lay by scores; These words brought back Thomas they spoke of comfortable and unconFarrant's thoughts. They were like fortable graves, and talked with unthe sonorous call to arms, to awaken- concealed delight of “beautiful ing to a final triumphant roll-call of corpse;" moreover, they had quickly nations, and individuals, and souls- taken the measure of Thomas Farrant, Nell's--and-his own.

and recognized that he was not one of And Thomas Farrant started.

“the quality." No sooner had they asHe liked great people, great things, certained this than they leaped down

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upon Nell, and shovelled away with a the flesh, are in joy and felicity, we will. There would be other burials re- give Thee hearty thanks,

He got quiring their aid presently; they must no further than this. He was returnmake haste. Nor did Thomas stay to ing thanks—what for? watch their proceedings.

Irene had lost a mother, and the “Us is goin' noo,” he said, taking the world had no more mothers to give parson aside for an instant. "Theer's her. nowt heer ter kape us.”

He had lost a dear, kind friend, who, He glared defiantly at the parson, out of poverty and pain, had taught and the younger man raised his head, him lessons of singular fortitude and and looked straight before him.

faith. Yet he returned thanks. “I shall never lose sight of her,” he “Mrs. Deerhurst had not, at any rate, said, in brave firmness. “Irene knows lived to hear all this," he murmured, that well enough.”.

and felt increasingly thankful. The girl had lingered for a moment, Irene had put her hand on his arm, but at the sound of her name she came and her influence restrained him still forward.

more. “Yes, I know," she answered quietly, “We've put th' remains comf'bly but quite as firmly. “I am waiting.” awa’, an' we've paid oop liberally, so

“Ye're nowt but a lass," replied Mr. we'll saay good-day ter ye, sir, an' Farrant, with a touch of anger, for thank ye fur the wurrds ye spoke ter which he had the grace-afterwards- 'er." to feel ashamed. “Ye're not o' age. A backward glance at poor Nell's An' us is rich. Us isn't loike yer grave showed that he meant the dead mither, or yer faither's folk naythor. mother, and by no means the living They're a puir lot, w'en a's sed and daughter. dune."

“Us is lossin' monney whiles “They are of gentle birth,” said the staays heer,” he added, as he took hold parson, with

stiffened back and of his niece's hand. “Look arter th' heightened color, for he had heard the coin, parson; fill ye'r pockets; siller is whole story from poor Eleanor Deer- th' best freen' ye kin hev!" hurst; but his words displeased the old And in the parson's ear every leafman.

bud on the swaying trees, every cow“Ay, thet's what ye think maisť slip hidden in the murmuring grass, aboot; but what’ll they do fur ye, d'ye every lark that trilled its gladness in think? Wull they tak’ Ireen, an' feed the face of heaven, kept repeating in 'er, an' dress 'er? Hoots! mon, they undying stanzas, “This corruptible dinna ken 'at she's 'een alive!"

must put on incorruption. This mor“We cannot talk of these things here tal must put on immortality." and now," said the parson hurriedly. The souls of the faithful waiting in “It's very inopportune, sir.”

the stillness for the trumpet-call to re"It's gangin' ter cost me a purty consciousness seemed to answer back toon,” responded Thomas, still more the words, “This mortal must put on angrily; and then he, too, stopped. immortality.”

In his ears there rose the echo of When he turned his head, Thomas those words, “In a moment, in the and his niece had gone. twinkling of an eye, shall be

Another man would have said, That changed.”

dream is over." In the parson's ears his own voice

The parson straightened himself, and was repeating other words.

looked manfully upward. “Almighty God,” he said to himself, "I can wait,” he said quietly. I “with whom do live the spirits of them am going to wait.” that depart hence in the Lord, and with

CHAPTER II. whom the souls of the faithful, after they are delivered from the burden of That summer passed away.




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