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Every one acquainted with Newman's stand as naked as the statues of the
teaching was aware that he fully be- God of Light; but he might have added
lieved the doctrine-nay, that he had a converse assertion, viz., that a man's
expressed that conviction in nearly most sacred feelings should be shrouded
every volume published by him subse in a dimness like that of the same
quently to his conversion. Conse- God's Delphic laurel grove. There was
quently, when letter of his written to much in Newman which could only be
a private friend in Rome, and published made known to those deeply in sym-
without his knowledge, had been mis- pathy with him, and the disclosure of
understood, and had consequently pro- which to others could only have led
duced a considerable though transient them into error.
excitement, all such persons knew at What men felt most in him was his
once that what that letter contested extreme, though not self-engrossed,
was not the doctrine of the papal in- personality. It was a very human per-
fallibility, but the expediency of de- sonality, one that imposed upon him a
fining it at that particular moment. large share of human sensibilities, and,
When, some months later, the defini- perhaps by necessary consequence, of
tion was made, it proved to be a most sorrows, cares, and anxieties. He had
moderate one, and therefore much dis- also, it is true, a strong sense of hu-
appointed some so-called “Ultramon- mor; but in all serious matters his se-
tanes.” Several years later Newman, riousness was exigent, and nothing
in his “Letter to the Duke of Norfolk," came to him lightly, although he had,
replying to Mr. Gladstone's “Vat notwithstanding, a strength that raised
ican Pamphlets,” distinctly stated that him up under the weight of sadness.
the definition made by the council, so Silence and stillness but kindled more
far from being an extreme one, was a the internal fires; and a narrow limit
strictly moderate one. It therefore increased their force. His nature, one
belonged to that class of definitions

Built on a surging, subterranean fire, which, six months before it was put

That stirred and lifted him to high atforth, Newman had spoken of to me as

tempts, being perfectly correct. As he has been much misrepresented in this sub- was far more likely to be stimulated ject, I deem it a duty to him to record than kept down by the pressure of adthat conversation.

versities. He had vehement impulses To men who were acquainted with and moods which in his “Apologia". he Newman only through his books, it was calls "fierce;" and these were stung rather as a mind than as a man that he into activity in him, as in Edmund presented himself; but the converse Burke, by the sight of oppression or was the case with those who enjoyed injustice. But his temper was also . his intimacy. To them his great at- one that abounded in sympathy. He traction lay in what belonged to his was full of veneration. It was thus personal being, the strange force of that, as he tells us, the lightest word of which often made itself felt almost at his bishop in his Anglican days was a once, so entirely free was he from con- conclusive challenge to his obedience. ventionality. Amid the society of When some one pointed out Mr. Keble those with whom he was not in sym

to him for the first time, he looked upon pathy it is true that the shyness of his him with awe, and “when Mr. Keble nature bred a marked reticence, but, took his hand he seemed sinking into notwithstanding, with that reserve the ground.” He tells us also that the there was mixed a frankness. You "Christian Year" had largely helped to might be left with a restricted knowl- teach him two great truths to which edge, but not with an erroneous impres- he had always clung closely, and that sion.

he had ever considered and kept the W. S. Landor makes some one say day on which Mr. Keble preached the that the thoughts of a true man should

1 Philip van Artevelde.

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assize sermon in the university pulpit head to theirs they look like vegetables.” as the start of the religious movement What he was struck by was the inof 1833.

tense personality of Newman's faceIn others also be greatly valued ven- a still intensity. eration, and thought that even when a Newman's humanity was not more share it was still a thing entitled to marked by his relations with Mr. Keble sympathy. He told me that Mr. Keble than by his relations with Dr. Pusey. possessed that quality in an extreme In the early years of the “High and even unfortunate degree; that it Church” movement, to which he conhad always been directed especially tributed more than all its other supto his father; and that the thought that porters put together, he had no desire in becoming a Roman Catholic he to be its head, and was ever pushing would place a gulf of separation be Dr. Pusey into that position.

And yet tween him and his father must have with that humility he united a strong rendered it difficult for him seriously belief in his own powers and a con

to ask himself the question viction that God had imparted to him a whether such a step had become a high and special mission. That conduty. With Dr. Pusey—“dear Pusey" viction must have been a great support be almost always called him—the ob- to him during all the numerous trials stacle to conversion was of another of his long life. One of the severest of sort. He remarked to me that with those trials came upon him towards many great gifts, intellectual as well the close of that life. During its last as spiritual, Dr. Pusey had this pecul. two years the state of his eyes rendered iarity, that "he never knew when he it impossible for him to say mass. barned,” the allusion being to a sport Few of his many afflictions pained him among children, when they have hid- so deeply. den something away and encourage Nothing more characterized Newthe searcher as he gropes his way

than his unconscious refinement. Dearer and nearer to it, “Warm," It would have been impossible for him "Hot," "You burn." Dr. Pusey, he to tolerate coarse society, or said, might see a doctrine with clear books, or manners seriously deficient insight, yet take no cognizance of in self-respect and respect for others. another proximate to it-indeed, pre- There was also in him a tenderness supposed by it. “For years," he said, marked by a smile of magical sweet"many thought Pusey on the brink of ness, but a sweetness that had in it Rome. He was never near it.” Thus, nothing of softness. On the contrary, strange as it seems, the two old friends there was a decided severity in his co-operated even in separation; they face, that severity which enables a stood at the two ends of the same man alike to exact from others, and bridge, and the one at the Anglican end himself to render, whatever painful of it passed the wayfarer on towards service or sacrifice justice may claim. the Roman end, though he always With his early conviction that he had strove to hold him back.

a mission, there had come to him the The intellectual ardor of Newman is “thought that deliverance is wrought curiously illustrated by a remark made not by the many, but by the few.” In by Mr. Woolner, the sculptor, when he his "Apologia” he says: “I repeated to contemplated the plaster cast which he myself the words which have ever been had made of Newman's bust as placed dear to me from my school days: Exat last in his studio when finished. He oriare aliquis. Now, too, Southey's turned to a friend and said, “Those

beautiful poem of “Thalaba,” for marble busts around us represent some which I had immense liking. of the most eminent men of our time, came forcibly to my mind.” The sayand I used to look on them with pride. ing, “Out of the strong came forth Something seems the matter with them sweetness,” was realized in Newman

When I turn from Newman's' more than in any one else whom I have




known. In other matters, also, appar plies, for the true Theist, nothing disent opposites were in him blended. paraging to true Theism. What it Thus while his intellect was pre-emi- teaches him is that the world cannot nently a logical one, and while it have remained what the Creator made seemed to him impossible or immoral it; that some dreadful catastrophe must to disown the authority of logic, when have overtaken it, and wrecked its plainly exercised within her legitimate chief of creatures, Man-viz., the Fall domain, yet no one felt more deeply —that, to keep due proportion, a second that both the heart and the moral mystery, not less wonderful than that sense possess their own sacred tribu- of a Creation must be true no less, viz., nals in matters of reasoning as well as an Incarnation, a Redemption, a De-. of sentiment. It was this conscious- liverance-in other words, that not ness which protected him from the only Theism is true, but that Chrisnarrowing tendencies to which the logi- tianity, the practical Theism, is its supcal passion, or habit, when acting by plemental truth. itself, so often leads. Many a vigorous Another most remarkable union in mind includes but a single section of a Newman of qualities commonly opmind like his. The logical faculty was posed to each other, was that of a in his case most fortunately supple- dauntless courage with profound mented by an expansive imagination, thoughtfulness. The men of thought which grasped thoughts immeasurably and study are often timid men, and, beyond the range of the mere logician. when not timid, are indolent and averse The largeness of his intellect thus, as to action, a thing which takes them out well as his reverence and humility of that region in which they can trust protected him from the scepticism im- themselves, and into a region in which puted to him by men who, in his place, their battle is a left-handed one. Men would have become not sceptics only, of this order may not on that account but unbelievers. It was that wide be consciously false to their convicimagination which made him grasp the tions; but they wish to serve Truth, a hidden but substantial analogies be jealous divinity, in their own way, not tween the chief schools of religious in hers; and they swerve aside from it thought in the nineteenth century and on specious pretexts, when approachthe corresponding schools in the fifth. ing near to that point from which the analogies which had never revealed conclusion must be rudely plain, and themselves to minds perhaps as logical where there can remain no other alteras his own, but which he could never native except that of avowed faithlessrepel, however much they distressed ness, or-serious inconvenience. In him. In Newman, again, above both Newman there existed the rare union the logical and the imaginative faculty of the contemplative mind and the hethere ever hung the spiritual mind, a roic soul. Otherwise he might have firmament full of light, though clouds pointed out its way to another generaat times overswept it. These were the tion; but he would not have "led forth characteristics of Newman which made the pilgrimage.” him write the memorable sentence: It would be a mistake to suppose that "No number of difficulties need produce Newman's imagination, religious as it a single doubt”-he meant doubt in a was, could spare no space for earthly mind capable of real convictions. His interests. Had its energies been thus mind swung through a wide arc and restricted, it would have dealt less vigughts apparently

stic often, orously with heaver subjects. Many seemed to him supplemental each to of his writings show how keenly he the other. Thus he tells us in his had studied human character, and the “Apologia" that the existence in the degree in which it affects that great world even of such sin and suffering as drama of providence called by sometimes seem to make it incapable of "History," in which whole nations have reflecting its Maker's countenance, im- their entrances and their exits, like act


ors on the stage of life. Nothing ex- conversion was to him an unusually cept his zeal for the highest spiritual painful one. That conversion meant truths could exceed the sympathy felt a separation from all whom he most by him with all that concerns the "Hu- loved and honored, and also, but only manities;" and I well remember the apparently, a desertion of what was look of stern disapproval with which then regarded by many as the battlehe spoke to me of the Abbé Gaume's field of principles, and as, in its place, theory of education, one that must at least an external fellowship with have excluded the Greek and Latin many to whom he had long felt a classics from the schools of Christian strong antipathy on the ground of their youth, or left them but a small place philosophic “liberalism," or of the part therein. Another able and excellent they took in political “agitation." Newman, Dr. Ward, would, I think, in that man was an intense loyalist, and he matter have sympathized with the had once deemed it a duty of loyalty abbé's opinions more than with New- for him, as a Churchman, to see matman's. I recollect once, when I had ters theological, as long as that was remarked in a letter to him on the possible, from an Anglican point of lamentable loss which the world must view. Eventually he had to choose have sustained if all the works of between thinking independently and Æschylus and the other Greek drama- discarding those great main principles tists had perished, as most of them which for so many years had been conhave, Dr. Ward's replying that in the solidating themselves both within his surviving works of those men he could intellect and his heart, but which, as really find almost nothing of a charac- he had reluctantly discovered, could ter to be call “ascetic,” and that there not be realized in England's Estabfore he could not see what loss would lished Church, and were realized, as have followed if the whole of them had they had ever been, in the Roman disappeared. Newman could heartily Catholic Church. admire, also, in spite of its limitations, Some persons have expressed surprise the heroism of the early world. His that a mind like Newman's should have admiration for the greatest of early he- been so slow in making that discovery. roes, Alexander the Great, was ar. They forget the difference “ 'twixt dently expressed in a letter to me on now and then.” They should rememmy sending him my drama bearing that ber that the wild cry of “The mass is name. It demanded, "Who was there idolatry!" had rung for several cenbut be whose object it was to carry on turies over the land, and that its civilization and the arts of peace, while echoes, though dying away in the dishe was a conqueror? Compare him to tance, had sounded in the ears of NewAttila or Tamerlane. Julius Cæsar man's generation. When passionate compared with him was but a party polemical errors have lived their time, man and a great general."

and died, so far as the intellect is conI have thus recorded some of those cerned, their angry ghosts continue yet traits that struck me as most remark- for a season to haunt the imagination. able in Newman's character. His We should also remember that when, career bore a singular resemblance to in the sixteenth century, the very idea that character. Till his forty-fifth of the Church seemed to have been year it was a disturbed one. If, as lie suddenly sponged out of the northern informs us in his “Apologia," his sub- mind (otherwise the practical reforms mission to the Roman Catholic Church then doubtless much needed must have imparted to his soul a profound and been sought in a General Council, not lasting peace, while (a fact admitted imposed by local authorities), and alike by friend and foe), far from chill- when, in the nineteenth century, that ing or contracting, it greatly stimu- idea had been partially restored, the lated his genius and energies, it is not last part of it to reappear was that of less true that the antecedent process of the Church's visible unity. The new



reformers thought it sufficient to resist “roturier,” wealthy merchant and small Erastian tyranny and to revive the shopkeeper, have taken part in these general teaching of Christian antiquity. conclaves, the exercise of such a func

It is easier to measure the swiftness tion being regarded both as a civic duty or slowness of purely intellectual move- and moral obligation. One object and ments than of mixed movements, in- one only is kept in view, namely, the tellectual and spiritual both, because protection of the weak. The law is in the latter case we have to deal with stript of its cumbrous machinery, above Grace and with Reason both; in the all, deprived of its mercenary spirit. former with Reason alone. Even in Not a loophole is left for underhand scientific enquiries, the philosopher's dealing peculation. Simplicity pace has not the regularity which be- itself, this system has been so nicely longs to that of the man of business devised and framed that interested or the man of fashion. The philosopher motive finds no place in it. Questions does not grudge the time he spends on of property form the chief subject of reiterated experiments, though he enquiry and debate, yet so hedged often asserts that, in the end, the great round by precautions is the fortune of discovery is reached by a bound, no minor or incapacitated that it incurs no

can say how. In Science that risk. And in no other institution is bound is commonly a flash of that ge witnessed to the same extent the unnius which is an inspiration in itself. compromising nature of French econIn the case of Religion it is often an omy. Justice here rendered is all but act of the highest Faith when to the gratuitous. humility and insight of Faith it has

According to the best authorities this added her courage.

elaborate code of domestic legislation is AUBREY DE VERE. the development of mediæval or even

earlier customs. Under the name of “l'avis de parents," we find family councils alike in those provinces having their own legal systems or “coutumes,"

and those strictly adhering to Roman From The National Review.

law. By little and little such usages THE FAMILY COUNCIL IN FRANCE.

were formalized, and so gradually be

coming obligatory, in the fact, if not in ITS HISTORY AND ORIGIN.

the letter, were regarded as law. The We cannot with any certitude deter- extra-legal character of the family counmine the origin of that extra-legal tri- cil is one of its most curious features. bunal in France, known as the “Conseil

Among the oldest documents referde Famille,” a domestic court of justice ring to the subject is an edict of the fifaccessible alike to rich and poor and at teenth century, signed by Réné, father nominal cost, occupying itself with of Margaret of Anjou. The presiding questions the most momentous as well judge is herein forbidden to appoint any as the minutest, vigilantly guarding the guardianship till he has heard the testiinterests of imbecile and orphan, out- mony of three syndics, as well as of the side the law, yet by the law rendered child's relations, concerning the trustees authoritative and binding. For hun proposed, their circumstances, position dreds of years the Family Council or in life, and reputation. The syndics, be informal Court of Chancery has thus it remarked, were rural and municipal acted an intermediary part; here sum- functionaries, replaced in 1789 by Statemoned by humble members of the third paid "juges de paix." Intermediaries estate to decide upon the guardianship between the law and the people, the of fatherless children, there convened syndics were elected by vote, their term in the Tuilleries on the occasion of an of office generally lasting a year. imperial betrothal. From the Middle The coutumes of Brittany and NorAges down to our own time, noble and mandy took especial care to define and


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