the author, who says, "I always alter when I add ; "so that nothing is finished till all is finished."* As a specimen, the Essay "Of Study," in the first edition ends with the words "able to contend." The edition of 1612 is the same as the former edition, but it thus continues "Abeunt studia in mores;" "nay, there is no stond or impediment in the wit, "but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exer"cises; bowling is good for the stone and reins, "shooting for the lungs and breast, gentle walking "for the stomach, riding for the head, and the like; "so, if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the "mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be "called away never so little, he must begin again ; "if his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differ

* "To Mr. Matthews; along with the Book De Sapientia Ve“terum.—I Heartily thank you for your Letter, of the 24th "of August, from Salamanca; and, in recompence, send you a "little Work of mine, that has begun to pass the World. They "tell me my Latin is turned into Silver, and become current. "Had you been here, you shou'd have been my Inquisitor, be"fore it came forth: but I think the greatest Inquisitor in Spain "will allow it. One thing you must pardon me, if I make no "haste to believe, that the World should be grown to such an "Ecstasy, as to reject Truth in Philosophy, because the Author "dissents in Religion; no more than they do by Aristotle or "Averroes. My great Work goes forward; and after my "manner, I always alter when I add: So that nothing is "finish'd 'till all is finish'd. This I have wrote in the midst of a "Term and Parliament; thinking no time so possess'd, but "that I should talk of these Matters with so good and dear a "Friend.-Gray's-Inn, Feb. 27, 1610."

ences, let him study the schoolmen, for they are Cymini sectores;' if he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call upon one thing to prove and "illustrate another, let him study the lawyers "cases; so every defect of the mind may have "a special receipt."

The next edition was in 1613.* It is entitled, "The Essaies


"Of Sr Francis Bacon Knight,

The Kings Aturney Generall.
"His Religious Meditations.

Places of Perswasion and Disswasion.
"Seene and allowed.

"Printed at London for Iohn Iaggard,†

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It is a transcript of the edition of 1612, with the erroneous entries in the table of contents of the two Essays "Of the Publique" and "Of Warre and "Peace," which are omitted in the body of the work; but it contains a transcript from the editions of 1597 and 1606, of the Essay " Of Honor and Re"putation," which is omitted in the edition of 1612.

In the year 1622 in his letter to the Bishop of Winchester, concerning his published and intended writings, he says, "As for my Essays, and some "other particulars of that nature, I count them but

There is a copy in the Bodleian, and I have a copy. †This is the same bookseller who published the edition of


"as the recreations of my other studies, and in that "manner purpose to continue them; though I am "not ignorant that those kind of writings would, "with less pains and assiduity, perhaps yield more "lustre and reputation to my name than the others “I have in hand; but I judge the use a man should "seek in publishing his writings before his death to "be but an untimely anticipation of that which is proper to follow, and not to go along with him,"

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The next edition, which is a small quarto of 340 pages, was in 1625*, and, on the 9th of April, 1626, Lord Verulam died.

It is entitled,

"The Essayes or Covnsels Civill and Morall, "Of Francis Lo. Vervlam, Viscovnt St. Alban.. Newly written.


"London, Printed by John Haviland for
"Hanna Barret. 1625."

The Essays contained in the volume now published are an exact transcript of this edition of 1625, except that I have added the note in

page 123. Of this edition, Lord Bacon sent a copy to the Marquis Fiat.+

There is a copy in the British Museum and at Cambridge, and the copies are not uncommon.

+ Baconiana, 201.-" A Letter of the Lord Bacon's, in French, "to the Marquis Fiat, relating to his Essays."

"Monsieur l'Ambassadeur mon File,

"Voyant que vostre Excellence faict et traite Mariages, "non seulement entre les Princes d'Angleterre et de France, "mais aussi entre les Langues (puis que faictes traduire non "Liure de l' Advancement des Sciences en Francois) i'ai bien

There is a Latin edition of the Essays consisting of the Essays in the edition of 1625, except the two Essays of Prophecies, and of Masks and Triumphs, which seem not to have been translated.

The nature of the Latin edition and of the Essays in general is thus stated by Archbishop Tenison.*

❝ voulu vous envoyer mon Liure dernierement imprimé que i' avois pourveu pour vous, mais i' estois en doubte, de le vous "envoyer, pour ce qu'il estoit escrit en Anglois. Mais a' cest' "Heure poure la raison susdicte ie le vous envoye. C'est un "Recompilement de mes Essays Morales et Civiles; mais telle❝ment enlargiés et enrichiés, tant de Nombre que de Poix, que "c'est de fait un Oeuvre nouveau. Ie vous baise les Mains, et "reste,

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"Vostre tres Affectionée Ami,

ex tres humble Serviteur."

"The same in English, by the Publisher."

My Lord Embassador, my Son,

"Seeing that your Excellency makes and treats of Marri"ages, not only betwixt the Princes of France and England, "but also betwixt their Languages (for you have caus'd my "Book of the Advancement of Learning, to be Translated into "French) I was much inclin'd to make you a Present of the "last Book which I published, and which I had in readiness for "you.

"I was sometimes in doubt, whether I ought to have sent "it to you, because it was written in the English Tongue. But "now, for that very Reason, I send it to you. It is a Recom"pilement of my Essaies Moral, and Civil; but in such manner "enlarged and enriched both in Number and Weight, that it is "in effect, a new Work. I kiss your hands, and remain Your most Affectionate friend and

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“The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, thougl a By-work also, do yet make up a Book of greate weight by far, than the Apothegms: And coming "home to Men's Business and Bosomes, his Lordship "entertain❜d this persuasion concerning them, that "the Latine Volume might last as long as Books "should last. His Lordship wrote them in the English Tongue, and enlarged them as Occasion serv'd, and at last added to them the Colours of "Good and Evil, which are likewise found in his "Book De Augmentis. The Latine Translation of "them was a Work performed by divers Hands; by "those of Doctor Hacket (late Bishop of Lichfield) "Mr. Benjamin Johnson (the learned and judicious

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Poet) and some others, whose Names I once heard "from Dr. Rawley; but I cannot now recal them. "To this Latine Edition, he gave the Title of "Sermones Fideles, after the manner of the Jews, "who call'd the words Adagies, or Observations of "the Wise, Faithful Sayings; that is, credible Propositions worthy of firm Assent, and ready Acceptance. And (as I think) he alluded more particularly, in this Title, to a passage in Ecclesiastes, "where the Preacher saith that he sought to find "out Verba Delectabilia, (as Tremellius rendreth "the Hebrew) pleasant Words, (that is, perhaps, "his Book of Canticles;) and Verba Fidelia (as the "same Tremellius) Faithful Sayings; meaning, it "may be, his Collection of Proverbs. In the next Verse, he calls them Words of the Wise, and so many Goads and Nails given "Ab eodem Pastore,"

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