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seventh canon of the Third Lateran Council, and from the third canon of the Fourth, which expressly declare the doctrine of the Church of Rome concerning the persecution and condemnation of heretics. (See pp. 182—184.)

But some will suppose that this persecuting spirit, with other of the awful characteristics of the Church of Rome, is surely confined to the ecclesiastics and the more ignorant part of the people. It would seem, however, that it is far otherwise. Respecting the spirit which actuated the Roman-Catholic Board in 1817, we have some curious and important information, Part I. p. 502.

Dublin Evening Post, December 6, 1817. Mr. O'Connell moved for a committee to disclaim the Rhemish notes; stated that an action was pending between Dr. Troy and a respectable bookseller; and that while the Board should not interfere with the subject of this action, “ they should not let the present opportunity pass, of recording their “abhorrence of the bigoted and intolerant doctrines promulgated in that work."... « There was not a moment to be lost.”.....“ He would not remain a Catholic one “ hour longer, if he thought it essential to the Catholic faith to believe that it

was lawful to murder Protestants, or that faith might be innocently broken “ with heretics. Yet such were the doctrines to be deduced from the notes to “ the Rhemish Testament.” Mr. O'Connell moved for a committee to disavow the notes. . Mr. Eneas M‘Donnell opposed the motion. Mr. Nicholas Mahon thought the business should be left to the clergy. Mr. O'Connell replied, that “if, under pretence of this being a polemical subject, you stop short, the

people of England will say that you had not the spirit or the liberality to “ condemn those very scandalous notes; that you got rid of them by a side“ wind.” In the end, a motion was put and carried, the words being amended thus : “ That a committee be appointed to draw up an address on the occasion of the late publication of the Rhemish Testament, with a view to have the same submitted to an aggregate meeting.”

Thus, after all this bluster on the part of this Goliath of the Roman-Catholic cause, a committee to disavow could not even be appointed. And even the committee which was appointed, it seems, took care never to present their report. This business was got rid of by a side-wind: and, with his usual consistency and faithfulness to his word, the liberal mover still remains a Roman Catholic, though the scandalous doctrines of the Rhemish notes may still

, with the greatest justice, be imputed to every member of his church !

But we fear the truth is, that the Roman Catholics generally are more intolerant and bigoted, more disposed to hate and persecute Protestants, at this day, than they were at the time of the Reformation. The persecutions and cruelties then exercised were more the acts of the bishops and pastors than of the people; who often, to a vast extent, sympathized with the martyrs, honoured them, and were excited by their sufferings to search the Scriptures, and consider the grounds of that faith VOL. III.--NO. IV.

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which supported them under all their trials. We suspect, that, if the same scenes of cruelty were re-acted in our times, there would be much more of a calm, deliberate approval, on the part of Roman Catholics in general; that multitudes of those classes who, at the time of the Reformation, shed tears in secret for the martyrs, and cursed their murderers, would now look on with savage exultation, and willingly assist in the work of torture. There was then a very general spirit of inquiry, which the Inquisition and the clergy found the greatest difficulty in suppressing; When Bibles were first put into the churches, multitudes thronged to hear or to read them. A great and effectual door was thus opened to the preachers of the truth, and vast multitudes embraced the doctrines of the Reformers. But we fear that now the bigotry more completely pervades all classes, from the highest to the lowest ; that the laity are much more disposed to despise, reject, silence, and persecute the preachers of the truth, thau then. If this be not the case, we are sure that a fearful burthen of reproach and guilt rests upon Protestants, that we do not make more strenuous and successful efforts for their conversion : for certain it is, that, where thousands were converted formerly, it is a great matter if we now can number tens. We suspect, indeed, that, in truth and fairness, the blame must be divided. The Protestants are more careless and indolent in preaching the. truth : but the Romanists are also more hardened against it : they have been trained up in a settled abhorrence to the very name and doctrines of Protestants, which they could not be till the character of Protestantism was fixed; and therefore we find them armed against conviction, and the force of argument and reproof, with brass and triple steel. And may we not learn, from the persecutions of the Jansenists in France, that the Papists are more violently hostile to all appearances of vital godliness, seen within the pale of their own church, than they were before the Reformation ? Many men of true and vital godliness, who appeared among them previous to that period, and whó might justly be considered of the same class as the pious Jansenists, not only suffered no persecution, but were held in honour —their persons, their opinions, their writings, were respected ;for instance, Anselm, Bernard, Bradwardine, and Wesselus of Groningen, for accounts of whom we need only refer to Milner. We do not think that the Roman Catholics were then so decidedly the adversaries of all righteousness as they are now. But we need not repeat what we have already said, in the conclusion of the Article on Quesnel, in our last Number. We set out with saying, that, in her doctrines, the arrogance of her claims, her manner of dispensing with all ties Divine and

human, and her persecuting spirit, the Church of Rome is unchanged. We could but give hints on each of those heads, to set our readers thinking. We hope they will pursue them; and we feel assured, that if they do, they will come, with us, to the conclusion, that, while in respect of all these errors she remains unchanged, she is also more hardened and obstinate in maintaining them.

How, then, comes it to pass that so many are deluded with the idea that a vast amelioration has taken place ? Three reasons, we conceive, may be assigned. First, that those persons who are thus deluded are persons of small judgment in such matters, and easily deceived. Would they have been able to discern the true character of the Church of Rome at any former period ? Would they ever have deemed themselves called upon to come out and be separate from her, and to protest against her abominations? We suspect that all those who take this mitigated view of the Church of Rome at present, would somehow

have contrived to take much the same view at the time of the Reformation. They would have gone, perhaps, with Erasmus, but never with Luther. They are, therefore, no judges in such a case. They are so easily and willingly deceived, that their judgment must go for nothing.-Then again, it must be remembered, in the second place, that we see the Church of Rome at present under forced restraint, especially in our own country. Divine truth, when powerfully set forth and proclaimed, has not only a converting, but also a restraining power; and where the heart is not changed (and therefore no real improvement effected), it will yet repress many outward enormities, and keep the wicked within the bounds of decency, in many respects. They dare not, for

shame, to run into the same excesses, when a pure standard is raised up and set before them, as when nothing of this kind is exhibited. But, more than this, the existence in Europe of so many powerful Protestant states has controuled the Papal power, and compelled the Church and Court of Rome to a moderation in the exercise of its authority, even in regard to Roman-Catholic states and kingdoms, which is not the result of any real improvement, but merely of fear and policy. The arrogant and tyrannical measures which were once adopted, would, under these circumstances, only serve to expel increasing multitudes from the pale of their church, and to drive them into Protestantism. So long as Great Britain remained a Protestant country, it was peculiarly the bulwark of the Protestant cause, and a continual check upon the ambition and insolences of Rome. Perhaps now we may learn, within a few years, how vast and

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important its influence was in restraining the tyranny under which Europe had groaned for ages, and would still have groaned, but for the mighty power and influence of this Protestant kingdom. But under this controul the real character of Popery remained unchanged. A tiger in a cage cannot do much mischief, but he remains a tiger still. Woe, then, unto them who have unbarred the doors of his cage! for they are guilty of all the enormities which he may hereafter commit. But a third cause of the delusion is, that the Church of Rome has become more specious and deceitful than before the Reformation. have briefly pointed out, that the mere existence of a great Protestant power in Europe must have greatly affected, yea, entirely changed, the policy of Rome. In fact, it has obliged it to substitute craft and policy for domineering insolence. But the attacks of the Reformers upon its corruptions in doctrine and practice, and the setting up of the standard of Evangelical truth in so large a portion of Europe, compelled the advocates of Popery to do their utmost in giving the most specious appearance to the doctrines of their church, and to exert all their ingenuity and subtlety in palliating and defending its errors, so as to make them plausible. We have referred to the Council of Trent, as the period when this politic and deceitful system was adopted by the Romish church. We might have gone a little further back : for it was in 1540, five years before the meeting of that council, that the order of Jesuits was established, for the express purpose of defending the Church of Rome against the attacks of heretics. What have been all along the principles of that order is in some measure known, insomuch that the name of Jesuit has become proverbial. Certainly its devotion to the Roman see, and the subtlety which many of its members have shewn, the perverted ingenuity and talent which they have exercised in putting a specious appearance upon abominations, have made that order a most useful servant to the Popish

We say, then, that since the time of the Reformation, and during that period in which Popery might seem to some to have been renouncing many of its grosser enormities, the fact is that all the abominations of Jesuitism have been added to its former unrepented atrocities ; and as it has become more specious, it has become in reality worse, and not better. We observe, too, that, though some Roman Catholics seem to have no liking to the Jesuits, and profess to be of another school, the Church of Rome generally has become more and more Jesuitical in its conduct and statements, ever since the period to which we have referred. And of this the Digest contains abundant proofs. We are not aware that any of the Roman-Catholic bishops examined are actually Jesuits, but certainly their conduct and answers throughout have been sufficiently Jesuitical. The Council of Trent used abundance of Jesuitical artifices on many points. For example, in the softened manner in which it stated the doctrine of indulgences, and those concerning saints and images : also, in the silence it observed concerning the supremacy of the Pope above general councils, and his personal infallibility; and in the dubious manner in which it expressed itself concerning some doctrines, respecting which Romanists were divided in opinion. All these things have served the purposes of deceit so far beyond what any mere human foresight could have conceived, that we do not hesitate to give the credit of them, not to the Pope, the cardinals, the bishops, or any or all the members of the council, but to the father of lies himself, under whose special direction and superintendence that council was convened and conducted. The Pope did his utmost to manage and controul it; but could not in all points make it serve his purpose : but it served Satan's purpose much more effectually than if this short-sighted mortal had carried every thing his own way. From that time to this there have been continual efforts made, by certain confidential writers of the Romish Church, to delude Protestants by means of softened statements of the most obnoxious of their doctrines, and to make us believe that the difference between Popery and Protestantism was not so great as the Reformers supposed or represented. But, strange to say, while some writers (such as Bossuet) were honoured and applauded by the Pope for such politic statements, other Roman Catholic writers, who made the same statements in simplicity and good faith, were censured and punished ! (See pp. 258–266.) What a horrible system of deceit does this indicate! Sometimes, indeed, we come to curious and important discoveries, by contrasting the declarations of the same individual under different circumstances. Take, for example, the following extract from the last chapter of the Digest, pp. 256-258.

cause.

Dr. Doyle's overture for the “re-union of the churches” is thus expressed in his letter to Mr. Robertson : 'I would presume to state, that if Protestant and Catholic divines of learning, and a conciliatory character, were summoned by the Crown to ascertain the points of agreement and difference between the churches, and that the result of their conferences were made the basis of a project to be treated on between the heads of the churches of Rome and of England, the result might be more favourable than at present would be anticipated. The chief points to be discussed are, the canon of the sacred Scriptures, faith, justification, the mass, the sacraments, the authority of tradition, of councils, of the Pope, the celibacy of the clergy, language of the liturgy, invocation of saints, respect for images, prayers for the dead. On most of these it appears to me

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