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tory of Zoroastrianism is the work of a the walk “round the sacred fire, indicwoman, and no picture, of women is ative of a desire to make religion the nobler and higher than that drawn in centre of their joint lives, with all that the Avesta.” She helped her husband fire symbolizes of purity and holiness to suppress evil and propitiate the and light. The liturgy is interesting gods ; she was trained in all truth, Ahura Mazda is invoked for happirighteousness, and justice, and after ness. Then follows the curious and this life was found worthy to be in- quaintly detailed marriage blessing, voked among the saints.

compassing many sides of life. A fool Of Zoroastrianism itself much has is evidently not easily suffered. “May been said and written ; we all know you be brilliant;" exhortations to virthat the sun and fire and light are to a tue and piety succeed this, with excelZoroastrian only the greatest exhibition lent maxims for daily life :

6 Do of the power of a deity. Pure Zoroas- nothing without mature considera. trianism is simply a beautiful form of lion ; Avoid being angry ; Theism. The Fire Temple, with its courteous, sweet-tongued, and kiud ;" priest forever feeding the sacred flame, “Do not indulge in scandal ; the incense of the people's prayers not quarrel with the revengeful ;' continually ascending to God, has no and, what certainly does credit to the touch of heathenism, or of anything appreciation of knowledge, “Do not but what is refined and beautiful. All co-operate with the ill- informed." that is wanted now is what Mr. Arnold “Speak in an assembly after mature calls Hebraism or Judaism ; we have consideration may be enjoined on ocenough of Hellenism and to spare. casions other than a marriage. Also, The unity of Zoroastriavism is notice- “ In no way annoy your mother.” able. The people did indeed divide Then are invoked the thirty angels for into Kudmis and Shehenshais, but the their respective virtues, and final blessdifference was only as to the date of ings that thoughts, words, and actions the last Persian king. It does uot ex- may be good dismiss the patient couple. ist in Persia, and even among Indian The funeral rites are peculiar to PerZoroastrians is of no practical impor- sia. The Parsees will not burn or bury tance whatever. The sects intermarry, their dead, because they cousider a and are on the friendliest terms, re- dead body impure, and they will not taining the distinction merely so as not suffer themselves to defile any of the to embarrass old records.

elements. They therefore expose their To view religion now in its concrete corpses to vultures, a methol revolting aspect and in its relation to the life of a perhaps to the imagination, but one Parsee. At a child's birth the protect- which commends itself to all those who ing angels are invokeil, prayers are are acquainted therewith. And, after offered in the Fire Temples, the astrol- all, one sees nothing but the quiet, oger is consulted, the child's name sug- white-robed procession (white is mourngested (for the goddess of Fate does ing among the Parsees) following the not write visibly on the blauk paper bier to the Tower of Silence. At the laid ready for its use beside the bed of entrance they look their last on the the young infant). Then comes the dead, and the corpse-bearers a caste time for bis adimission to the privileges of such carry it within the precincts, of his race ; the investiture with the and lay it down, to be finally disposed sudru aud kusti, already explained. of by the vultures which crowd the The next occasion for a ceremony is a tower. And why should the swoop of marriage — full, as all Easteru cere- a flock of white birds be more revoltmonies, of symbolism. It is worth ing than what happens in a grave ? noticing that the marriage knot is a Meanwhile, and for three days after, sevenfold. cord :- - seven being a sacred the priests 'say constant prayers for number among the Parsees; the con- the departed, for his soul is supposed cluding ceremony is also peculiar- not to leave the world till the fourth

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day after death. On the fourth day of a governing body, the Parsees sothere is the Uthauna ceremony, when licited government aid, and after much large sums of money are given away inquiry and discussion-two acts were in memory of the departed. The lit-passed — the Parsee Succession Act and urgy in use is a series of funeral ser- the Parsee Marriage and Divorce Act, mons by Zoroaster.

1865. Moreover, the Parsce MatrimoOf superstitions, the Parsees have nial Courts have taken the place of the had more than they retain. Connected old Panchayet in the matters they conwith burial is the popular conception as sider, and of the constitution and proto the efficacy of a dog's gaze after cedure of this court the curious will death. Dogs are sacred, and supposed find ample explanation in the report of to guide the souls of the dead to heaven, Sir J. Arnold's commission. and to ward off evil spirits ; hence it is It remains to add something by way customary to lead a (log into the cham- of apology. I have been bampered by ber of death, that he may look at the the thought that much that I can say corpse before it is carried to the Tower. must be common knowledge. More

Oriental scholars will miss the prom- over, I have tried to avoid what could inence of Parsee legislation. We have be found in books. All that was posno Manu and no Koran. The codes sible was to glance at the Parsees as prepared by the Prophet seem to have they appear in their daily life in India. been lost in early ages. Custom hias We find an anomalous little body of guided therefore, and the Panchayet people, with a history and a philosophy, had the final decision in disputes. The planted in a small corner of western first Panchayet was a self-constituted India — themselves in a way both Westcouncil of the influential members of ern and Eastern and thus forming a the community. It was the court of bridge between the continents. Westjustice in all causes, and any refusal to ern in progressive thought, in educaabide by its decrees was punished by lion, and in social customs ; Eastern in excommunication, and, what would location, in birth, in imagination, and have delighted Bentham, public beat- religion, and working in what was a ing with shoes. About the eighteenth foreign country in the most perfect century the Panchayet received govern- harmony with the people and their ment recognition, but it was recon- rulers. Always loyal to her Majesty's structed in 1787, in consequence of Empire, they may be said to be inquarrels and the oppression of the terpreters to the East of the Western members. In its new form it consisted spirit, while the most cordial relations of six priests and six laymen, and it exist between them and the other races worked vell. It passed regulations in India. Their religion has found about such matters as the manner of many expounders and defenders ; all mourning; e.g., they were not to cry must acknowledge its beauty, its freein assemblies, or beat their breasts, or dom from superstition, its high moral indulge in any excessive grief. So ideals, its charming symbolism. In with sumptuary regulations as to feasts education and social customs we find and fasts. Such a body depended for them almost European. its efficiency entirely on the strength And now the tale is told. We have of the members composing it. As seen the Parsee as he stands before the soon as the older ones died out, and priest in that early, solemn moment of weaker men came to rule, the Pancha- his life when he is named by the name yet ceased to have any effect. Persons of his Prophet; we have met him were respected in the distribution of in public and private life; we have punishment, and many wicked flour-watched as his hands were bound with ished unmolested. As a result it ceased that sevenfold cord; then, when the to exist in 1836, and has since then been last rites, came to be performed, we no more thau trustee for the charitable listened to the chanting of the funeral funds of the community. Thus bereft) dirge, and saw the white-robed procession winding to the Silent Tower; and, once reached so far westward, may rise as they lift him gently to where his to inspire her representatives in India foot has never trod, let us turn aside to with desire and strength, that we may the hearth and the sandal-wood, that effect our true destiny handed down to to Ahura Mazda may ascend from us us by the Prophet, through the ages. the prayer that the three days may not even to widen the skirts of light, and yet have elapsed, but that even now make the struggle with darkness narthe spirit of that dead Persia, which rower.


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An important Bulletin on the forest and about seven hundred and ninety tons of mineral wealth of Brazil has lately been pig-iron. The ore has about sixty-seven issued by the Bureau of the American Re- per cent. of iron. In Santa Caterina, not publics. The forests of Brazil abound in far from a harbor accessible to the largest woods of great value, some of the finest of vessels, are vast deposits of hæmatite, conwhich are said to be entirely unknown in taining, on an average, thirty per cent. of Europe. With regard to mineral resources, manganese, and twenty to thirty per cent. Brazil is not less fortunate. Scientific ex- of iron. In the State of Goyaz, as in Minas plorers have found great deposits of coal Geraes, are found enormous masses of the and iron, and have also proved that the ore itaberite.

Nature. country possesses copper, manganese, and argentiferous lead ore. There are also mines of gold and diamonds. Diamonds

RACE DEGENERACY. — The“ degeneracy are co-extensive with the gold deposits, of the race” is a favorite topic of the “silly and, like that metal, are most abundant in season.” Opinions are divided. The youtlı Minas Geraes, where they have been found and smallness of the modern British soldier since 1789. The most important locality are used as arguments in favor of degenknown for the production of these gems is eracy, whilst athletic records and the inthe district of Diamantina, in the above- .creased stature of women are urged as named state. They are found in Parana, proof of our improvement in physique. in the gravels of the river Tibagy, and in Probably the vigor of the upper and middle the bed of streams dry during the summer. classes is increasing, that of the working Since the discovery of diamonds at the classes being stationary, whilst a fringe is Cape of Good Hope, the Brazilian produc- deteriorating, owing to the modern crowdtion has greatly diminished. As regards ing of the agricultural population to the iron, the State of Minas Geraes abounds towns. From this fraction of the populawith it. It is not found in veins or strata, tion, apparently, a considerable percentage buried deep in the earth, but in enormous of our recruits are drawn. Any one who beds, often lying at the surface, or in saw the tennis tournament in Devonshire mountain masses. These vast deposits are Park, Eastbourne, must have been struck worked only by small scattered furnaces, by the extraordinary proficiency of the charcoal being used in the reduction of the

Take them out of the skirts Of these small furnaces there are five which handicap them, and ladies like Mrs. groups, producing about three thousand Hillyard and Miss Shackles would want tons annually, the product being used in few points from the best men. As it is, the surrounding districts in the manufac- they play half-volleys with equal skill. ture of articles of home consumption, such There is no evidence of degeneracy in lawn as hoes, shovels, picks, drills, nails, horse-tennis, at all events. One wonders with shoes, etc. In the State of San Paulo are what eyes our great-grandmothers would found deposits similar to the best Norwe- behold the cat-like activity of their degian ore; and one of the mines is worked scendants in the tennis courts ! Tennis, at by the government establishment near the all events, should send forward some excelvillage of Sorocaba. This establishment lent atavistic propensities into the future. has two furnaces, and produced in one year

European Mail.



Fifth Series, Volume LXXXIV.


No. 2582. - December 30, 1893.


From Beginning



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Fortnightly Review, .

By W. J.

Longman's Magazine,
By St. George Mivart,

Nineteenth Century, .

By George

National Review,

Temple Bar,

Title and Index to Volume CXCIX.


802 809 816





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Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.



Musing on bliss once theirs in very sooth GREEN cloister of our tranquil Academe,

Is sweet, and thoughts of vanished joys are What form is this that greets us as we

dear. pace Beneath your boughs, the genius of Hath noon less glory mused upon by night? the place,

Doth June's full heart with lessened fervor With soft accost that fits our musing

glow dream?

Remembered when the world is wan with Scholar, divine, or statesman would be- snow?

Are its warm roses petalled with delight That reverend air, that pensive-bril- Less fragrant, and their diamond dews less liant face

bright And lofty wit and speech of Attic Because in winter dark no flower may grace,

blow? Rich in grave ornament and noble theme : Doth music of moon-glamoured May-woods 'Tis he who played unspoiled a worldly

flow part,

Less rich to thought, when trees with rime Taught the town truth, and in a selfish are white ? age

Nay, memory and longing subtly weave Lured fops and toasts to heed a note New magic round the joys that are sublime,

more ; Who here had early learned the crowning Spring brightlier blooms by winter's dreamart,

watched fire ; To walk the world like Plato's monarch- Remembered joy in sorrow is reprieve sage,

To anguish ; long-dead days from happy Spectator of all being and all time.

yore Spectator. T. HERBERT WARREN. In dark hours rise, lest hearts with pain

expire. Murray's Magazine. MAXWELL GRAY.



dies ;


“Nessun maggior dolore Che ricordarsi del tempo felice Nella miseria,”

NECESSITY. Inferno. WELL might the memory of the “happy WHAT stern Necessity hath once ordained sighs,'

For mortal's share, The "much desire," whose fair, fruit- Let him not murmur, howsoe'er boding bloom,

strained, Set in the trembling kiss that held their His lot to bear.

doom, Burn fiercelier than the flame that never Nor Time, nor Chance, nor Laws, nor

Gods, nor Men, Those ever-linked souls, whom Dante's

Her voice can stay ; eyes,

Her icy finger points the way, and then Weeping, saw driven through the dawnless

Man must obey. gloom By hissing tempest; imminent sorrows And Love, and Hate, and Fear, and Joy, loom

and Pain, Less darkly than such thoughts of rapture She portions each ;

Nor vanished bliss will e'er restore again, And well might gentle Dante swoon with Whoe'er beseech.

ruth When one soul told and one soul wept to 'Tis weakness to resist her stern decree, hear

'Tis impious to rebel; The tale of happy hours aswerve from The strongest mind, the noblest heart has truth;

he, But to the guiltless, when all hopes are Who follows well. sere,

Temple Bar.

W. S.

rise ;

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