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was counted a traitor for his honest sioned a boat to follow him ; but his and loyal service to his king and coun- wife, being unwilling that he should try."

venture on so uncertain

a voyage, The next attempt to mend the fanıily " and, as the proverb is, seek a needle fortunes made by the marquis was in a bottle of hay,” he desisted from sending his sons under the charge of that design. Two members of the an appropriately named Mr. Loving — suite, less amenable to persuasion, to look for some “rich matches” which started in search of the prince, and had been suggested for them in En- were driven on the Scottish coast, to gland. But example, apparently, car- the peril of their lives ; only to hear on ried more weight with the young men returning to Holland that Charles was than precept. The father had married no further off than the Hague, where a girl young, lovely, but almost por- the marquis had joined him. tionless ; and the sons, although they The negotiations carried on there did not return to France, professed proving fruitless, as usual, the marthemselves in no lurry to wed the quis, who had again become very short heiresses of whom they went in search. of cash and wished to live in a more

In the spring of 1648, Henrietta private manner, dismissed most of his Maria desired the marquis and mar-retinue and set out for Antwerp, where chioness to follow her son to Holland, he took the house of “the widow of whither he went with the intention of a famous picture-drawer," no other taking command of the English ships than Rubens, whose museum the marwhich had revolted against the Parlia- quis afterwards purchased for £1,000 ; ment; and her Majesty became secu- but this was not until much more prosrity for the marquis's debts to enable perous days. On his arrival in Anthim to quit Paris with his suite.

was credited by the citizens day we left," writes his wife artlessly, for furniture, meat, and drink, and all “the creditors, coming to take farewell kinds of necessaries, which certainly of my lord, expressed so great a love was a special blessing of God, he being and kindness for hin, accompanied not only a stranger in that nation, but, with so many hearty prayers and to all appearance, a ruined man.” wishes, that he could not but prosper Here, the marquis's chief and fion his journey." No doubt the credit- vorite occupation was training horses, ors were sincerely anxious for the safe or “the manage," as his wife calls it. return of the party. One only fears He had eight beautiful creatures allothat their benisons may have been gether alloyed by certain sordid speculations in which he took so much delight and as to future payment in full.

pleasure that, though he was then in disIn Spain the travellers had a royal tress for money, yet he would sooner have reception. The governor of Cambray tried all other ways than parted with any met them at the head of a torch-light of them. For I have heard him say that procession, offered them the keys of good horses are so dear as not to be valued the city, and invited them to an enter

for money

so great a love hath my tainment. This being refused on the lord for good horses ! And certainly I have ground of fatigue, the governor sent a of them had also a particular love to my

observed, and do verily believe, that some liberal supply of provisions to their lord ; for they seemed to rejoice whensoever lodgings, and instructed the landlord to he came into the stables, by their trampling make no charge for whatever they action, and the noise they made. Nay, might have. " Which extraordinary civilities showed,” says the marchion

1 " The fleet did not come in,” says the mar

chioness. And the Royalist projects were set aside ess,“ that he was a right noble Span-on receiving news of the destruction of the Duke iard."

of Hamilton's army, and the capitulation of ColArriving at Rotterdam they heard chester, after which Margaret's gallant and beloved

brother, Sir Charles Lucas, lost his life, being senthat the prince had put off to sea, on tenced to death by court-martial, shot in the castle which the marquis hired and provi- yard, and buried in St. Giles's Church, Colchester.

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66

they would go much better in the manage the Sequestration Committee. They when my lord was by than when he was so ill-provided with money that absent. And when he rode them himself they had to wait in Southwark while they seemed to take much pleasure and Sir Charles's steward pawned his maspride in it. Of all horses my lord loved ter's watch to pay for their lodgings. Spanish horses and barbs best, saying that Proceeding then to other apartments in Spanish horses were like princes, and barbs

Covent Garden, the marchioness made like gentlemen, in their kind.

application, through Lord Lucas, for The Marquis of Newcastle's riding the customary share of her husband's school became one of the sights of estate (then estimated at upwards of Antwerp, and the citizens may have £22,000 a year, which would now, acbeen to some extent rewarded for their cording to Mr. Lower, represent at financial forbearance by its fame, and least £150,000 a year) allowed to the the number of visitors it attracted.

“wives of delinquents" but was absoNot only did foreign princes and distin- lutely refused, on the two grounds that guished strangers of all nations make a she was niarried after the sequestration, point of visiting the duke, but his Majesty and that her liusband had been “the [Charles the Second) and all the royal race greatest traitor in England,” that is to [writes the marchioness] with the excep say, she comments,

s the hopestest tion of Princess Henriette - that is to say the princess royal, the Duke of York, and man, because he had been most against

then." the Duke of Gloucester, being met one time in Antwerp, were pleased to accept of

In her short autobiography the mara small entertainment at my lord's house, chioness gives some quaint particulars such as his condition was able to afford of this visit to England, interspersed them ... and his Majesty did merrily and as usual with moral reflections and in jest tell me, That he perceived my analyses of her own character : lord's credit could procure better meat than Being accompanied by my lord's only his own.” ... These passages I mention brother, who was commanded to return, to only to declare my lord's happiness in his live therein or lose his estate, over I went. miseries.

But when I came there I found their hearts The patience of the generous citizens as hard as my fortunes, and their natures of Antwerp, with regard to a settle- as cruel as my miseries. For they sold all ment of accounts, showing signs of my lord's estate, and gave me not any part coming to an end, and money given by thereof, so that few or no other was so the queen and lent by other friends hardly dealt with. Indeed, I did not stand

as a beggar at the Parliament door, neither being exhausted, the Marchioness of

did I haunt the committees, for I never Newcastle and her brother-in-law, Sir

was at any but one as a petitioner in my Charles Cavendish, went to Englaud, life, which was at Goldsmiths' Hall, and I to endeavor to obtain some funds from received neither gold nor silver from them 1 His sister-in-law's description of this excellent to conduct me out of that ungentlemanly

... but I whisperingly spoke to my brother man is worth quoting: “He was nobly generous, wisely valiant, naturally civil, honestly kind, truly place, so without speaking unto them one loving, virtuously temperate. His promise was word, good or bad, I returned unto my like a fixed decree, his words were destiny; his life lodgings. was holy, his disposition mild, his behavior courteous, his discourse pleasing. He had a ready wit

There were evidently prototypes of and a spacious knowledge, a settled judgment, a our strong-minded and energetic advoclear understanding, a rational insight. He was learned in all arts and sciences, especially mathe-cates of women's rights, doubtfully rematics, and though his tongue preached. not moral garded by the more conservative of philosopliy yet his life taught it. Indeed, he was their sex, in Lady Newcastle's time; such a person that he might have been a pattern for she continues : for all mankind. He loved my lord his brother with a doting atfection, as my lord did him ; for The customs of England are changed as whose sake I suppose he was so nobly generous, 80 well as the laws, where women become carefully kind and respectful to me. ...I will build his monument of truth though I cannot of pleaders, attorneys, petitioners and the like, marble, and hang my tears as scutcheons on his running about with their several causes, tomb."

complaining of their several grievances,

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exclaiming against their several enemies, ( abroad, where the marquis also was bragging of their several favors they receive engaged on his first work on horsefrom the powerful. Thus trafficking with manship. idle words brings in false reports and vain

Lady Newcastle alludes to her husdiscourse. For the truth is, our sex doth band's encouragement of her literary nothing but jostle for the pre-eminence of words (I mean not for speaking well but pursuits when inscribing to him her

CCCXI. Sociable Letters,'

"1 to which speaking much) as they do for the preeminence of place.

But if our sex

he prefixed some highly commendatory would but well consider, and rationally verses. After deprecating some supponder, they will perceive that it is neither posed advice to engage in women's cuswords nor place that can advance them, but tomary work, such as “needlework and worth and merit. Nor can words or place cooking-work,” of which she confesses disgrace them, but inconstancy and bold- total ignorance, she adds :

For an honest heart, a noble soul, a chaste life, and a true-speaking tongue, is

But your lordship never bade me to work

and leave writing, except when you would the throne, sceptre, crown, and footstool,

persuade me to spare so much time from that advances them to an honorable re

my study as to take the air for my health.

The truth is, my lord, I cannot work — I She adds that she was herself natu- mean such work as ladies use to pass their rally too bashful to push her way time withal. But yet I must ask your amongst this jostling crowd of claim- leave to say that I am not a dunce in all ants

employments, for I understand the keeping not that my bashfulness is concerned with

of sheep and ordering of a grange indifferthe qualities (or rank) of the persons, but ently well, although I do not busy myself

much with it, by reason my scribbling takes the number ; for were I to enter into a company of Lazaruses I should be as much out away the most part of my time. Perchance of countenance as if they were all Cæsars some may say that if my understanding be or Alexanders, Cleopatras or Queen Didos. most of sheep it is a beastly understanding. But the best of it is, most commonly My answer is, I wish men were as harmless

as most beasts are, then surely the world it soon vanisheth away, and many times before it can be perceived ; . and the

would be more quiet and happy than it is. best remedy I ever found is to persuade

In this book her aim is, she says, myself that all those persons I meet are bounder the cover of letters to express wise and virtuous. The reason I take to the humors of mankind, and the acbe this : that the wise and virtuous censure tions of man's life by the correspondleast, excuse most, praise best, esteem ence of two ladies, which make it not rightly, judge justly, and speak modestly — only their chief delight and pastime, where fools and unworthy persons are apt but their tie in friendship, to discourse to be bold, rude, uncivil in word and action,

by letters they would do if forgetting or not well understanding the

they were personally together.” She company they are with.

quaintly adds that she has chosen this A year and a half the marchioness form rather than the dramatic because remained in England, a quiet and anx- “ I have put forth twenty plays already, ious time, during which her great which number I thought to be suffipleasure, next to visiting her brothers cient.” The imaginary correspondents and sisters, was hearing music at the write to each other about visiting, house of Mr. Lawes, the composer, and dress, study, and their friends' affairs the friend of Milton. “Else I never in a fashion reminding one of some stirred out of my lodgings,” she says, of the letters in “The Tatler" " and seldom did dress myself, taking “Spectator.” The marchioness no delight to adorn myself since he I eminently practical, and did not symonly desired to please was absent, al- pathize with those who hope to win though report did dress me in a hun- heaven merely by “much speaking." dred several fashions. She occupied

As for Lady P. Y. [writes one of the herself mainly with writings both in prose and verse begun while living

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1 Published in 1664.

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friends] who you say spends most of her | News of the indisposition of the martime in prayer, I can hardly believe God, quis finally hastened his wife's return who knows our thoughts, minds, and souls, to him ; his brother intended to accombetter than we ourselves, can be pleased pany her, but his own increasing illwith so many words. One act of up- ness prevented him. Sir Charles had right justice or pure charity is better than a book full of prayers.

compounded for his estates at a heavy

Indeed, every goo deed is a prayer, for w

do good for cost, and was enabled to assist his God's sake, as being pleasing to him ; a

brother most generously, but did not chaste, honest, just, charitable, temperate long enjoy his own comparative proslife is a devout life; and worldly labor is perity. Almost the first news which devout, as to be honestly industrious to get, reached the marchioness after her reand prudent to thrive, that one may have turn to the Continent was that of his wherewithal to give. 1

death. " An extreme affliction,' Nor did she approve of political says, “ both to my lord and myself, for women, considering that their influence they loved each other entirely. In was entirely mischievous.

truth, he was a person of so great I perceive that the Lady N. P. is an actor

worth that not only his friends, in some State design, or at least would be but even his enemies did much lament thought so (she writes] ; for our sex in this his loss." age is ambitious to be State ladies, that Commenting on the pursuits of the they may be thought to be wise women. marquis and marchioness during their But let us do what we can we shall prove residence abroad Sir Egerton Brydges ourselves fools, for wisdom is an enemy to asks : our sex, or rather our sex is an enemy to

What can be more amiable and virtuous wisdom. It is true we are full of designs and plots, and ready to side into factions, than a resort to the consolations of litera

After the enjoyment but plotting, designing factions belong noth- ture in such a state ? ing to wisdom. .. I wish for the honor of high rank and splendid fortune, noble is of our sex that women could as easily make the spirit that will not be broken by the peace as war, though it is easier to do evil grip of poverty, the expulsion from home, than good, for every fool can make an up

and kindred, and friends, and the desertion roar such as the wisest can hardly settle of the world ! Under the gloom of such into order again.2

oppression to create wealth and a kingdom

within the mind, shows an intellectual When the second year in England

energy which ought not to be defrauded of entered upon the marchioness its praise. grew anxious to rejoin her husband.

One consolation possessed by the I became very melancholy (she says] by reason I was from my lord, which made my marquis was his firm belief in the apmind so restless that it did break my sleep proaching restoration of monarchy in and distemper my health. With which, England.

" Whensoever,” says his growing impatient of a longer delay, I re- wife, “I expressed how little faith I solved to return, although I was grieved to had in it he would gently reprove me, leave Sir Charles, he being sick of an ague saying I believed least what I desired

yet Heaven knows I did not think his most, and could never be happy if I life was so near an end, for his doctor had endeavored to exclude all hopes and great hopes of his perfect recovery. So I entertained nothing but doubts and made haste to return to my lord, with whom

fears." I had rather be as a poor beggar than to be mistress of the world absent from him, when the marquis followed his king to

The hopes were realized in 1660, Heaven hitherto hath kept us, and though Fortune hath been cross yet we do submit, London, so transported with joy at reand are

content with what cannot be turning to his native country that his mended, and are so prepared that the worst first supper at Greenwich

" seemed of fortunes shall not make us unhappy, more savory to him than any meat he however it doth pinch our lives with pov- had ever tasted, and the noise of some erty.

scraping fiddles he thought the pleas1 Pages 120, 121. 2 CCXI. Letters, pp. 12, 13. antest harmony that ever he had drinks two good glasses of small beer, and a little glass of sack in the middle of his dinner; whicb

was

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heard." His sons received him with Although his patience and wisdom is joy, but his poor wife was left in Ant- such that I never perceived him sad or diswerp as a pawn for his debts until contented for his own losses and misforhe could compass money to discharge tunes, yet when he beheld the ruins of that them .... and certainly my lord's af- park. I observed him troubled, though he fection to me was such that it made did little express it, only saying he had

been in hopes it would not have been so him very industrious in providing much defaced as he found it, there not those means.

being one timber-tree in it left for shelter. Soon after she joined him in England However, he patiently bore what could not the faithful pair, now become duke be helped, and gave present order for the and duchess, retired to Welbeck, to dis- cutting down of some wood that was left cover their actual position, and see him in a place near adjoining, to re-pale it, what remained to them, or could be and got from several friends deer to stock recovered, of their once princely for it. Thus, though his law-suits and other tune. It was a melancholy. survey.

unavoidable expenses were very chargeable The Duke of York restored such por- to him, yet he ordered his affairs so pru- · tions of the lands, as, having been dently that by degrees he stocked those

lands he keeps for his own use, and in part purchased by the regicides, had been

repaired his manor-houses, Welbeck and given to him by his brother the king, Bolsover. and they brought in about £730 a

Very quaintly and prettily, with the year:

most perfect faith in, and admiration But those which had been alienated by for her husband, the duchess goes on the duke's sons, or by officers in trust, even to describe and enumerate his acts of when they had acted without his sanction, gallantry in war and wisdom in peace, he could not recover. The duchess com- his cheerful sacrifices for his king, his putes that he lost in this way lands worth

and “his blessings ; ” amongst £50,000, and he was obliged to sell others

which latter she specifies : to the value of £60,000 to pay debts contracted during the war and exile. His That he made him happy in his marriage ; woods had been cut down, his houses and for his first wife was a very kind, loving, farms plundered, and he had lost sixteen and virtuous lady, and blessed him with years' rents. The total of his losses is esti- dutiful and obedient children, free from mated by the duchess to be about £940,000.1 | vices, noble and generous both in their

natures and actions ; who did all that lay £941,303, she calls it, with commend- in their power to support and relieve my able minuteness, in her life of the lord, their father, in his banishment. duke. Their two houses, Welbeck and Bolsover, were much out of repair, and extreme temperance,2 and quotes

She then speaks of his active life nothing being left in them “but some few hangings and pictures which had some of his sayings and opinions, been saved by the care and industry of proudly remarking that two at least (on

6 whether it is possible to make men by the duke's eldest daughter." Of his

art fly as birds do,” and “on witcheight parks only Welbeck remained,

craft”), uttered in conversation with the others were totally defaced and

Hobbes, so pleased that learned philosdestroyed, both wood, pales, and deer."

opher that he included them in his own Clipston Park, seven miles in extent,

works.

- In a monarchical governs wherein he had taken much delight ment,” said the duke, “ to be for the formerly, it containing the greatest and tallest tiinber trees of all the woods he for when head and body are divided,

king is to be for the commonwealth, had ... watered by a pleasant river the life of happiness dies, and the soul full of fish and otters," and well stocked with all kinds of game, was laid waste ; 2 “He makes but one meal a day, at which he and, says his wife :

glass of sack he also uses in the morning for his 1 Dictionary of National Biography. London. breakfast with a morsel of bread. His supper con1887, vol, ix., p. 368.

sists of an egg, and a draught of small beer."

losses,

2

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