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perils which he had escaped. This | Newcastle," while later critics thought was the third brush that she had won so highly of her that, in "A Vision that season, she told bim, and he ob- of Female Poets : 1

?1 Shakespeare and tained leave to bave it mounted for Milton are represented as l'espectfully her.

helping her to alight from her Pegasus. It was

some months after these The imputation of insanity probably events that Lord Arthur, turning out troubled the duchess but little ; she

; of his club in Pall Mall, ran against Sir would console herself with the reflecThomas Clutterbuck, who said : tion that " great wits are sure to mad

“So you're to be congratulated, I ness near allied ;” and if, as some of hear. Well, she's a nice girl, and if a her biographers assert, her devoted man must needs marry, I don't know loyalty to her husband, in the extremely that he could do better than choose a disloyal court of Charles II., earned girl of that sort. For my own part, her the nickname of “Mad Madge,” I've come to the conclusion that the it becomes a title of honor. less one has to do with women the There is no indication of madness in more likely one is to enjoy life. It's the laurel-crowned and graceful portrait possible to get along quite comfortably prefixed to her “Description of a New without 'em, I can assure you.

Been World ;” simply robed, reclining easily consulting any more amateur vets in her chair, and absorbed in reflection, lately?"

she looks an ideal young Muse - grave, Lord Arthur made a retrospective calm, with firmly closed lips, rounded grimace. “I haven't had occasion to cheeks and chin, wavy hair flowing do so, l'm thankful to say,” he replied. over a beautiful throat, and large, dark, “Have you been making any more ex- earnest eyes. The engraving, pubperiments in the hair-restoring line?" lished in 1799 by Harding, is very fine.

“My dear fellow, you wouldn't be. It is obviously taken from the large lieve what a job I had to get rid of that family group representing the duchess infernal stuff! The end of it was with the duke and his children, which that I was obliged to have my head forms the frontispiece. ito. “Nature's shaved and go off on a sea-voyage for Picture drawn by Fancie's Pencil.”. three weeks. However, I'm my own The writings of the duchess in extenso master now, anyhow, which is more by no means commend themselves to a than can be said for you. I think, busy and practical age, but such of Fulton, we may as well draw a decent them as record her own and her husveil over the episodes of our visit to band's experiences can never lose their your future wife's family. It makes a interest; while shrewd observations good story, I admit, but one isn't justi- and poetic fancies are mingled with fied in telling tales about ladies, you even her wildest speculations. Two know."

comparatively recent editors have laid “ I suppose not,” answered the other, very judicious selections from her guiltily conscious of baving already told folios before the public, but there are his future wife all about it. “Good- still good gleanings left for those who bye!”

V. E. NORRIS. refer to the originals, though it must

be admitted that a great deal of chaff has to be winnowed away before the

precious grain is discovered. From Temple Bar. 1 Connoisseur, vol. ii., p. 265, edit. 1774. “ LAMB'S DUCHESS;

? “Lives of William Cavendishe, Duke of NewMARGARET, DUCHESS OF NEWCASTLE. castle, and his Wife,” edited by M. A. Lower, 1856;

and "The Cavalier and his Lady(Golden Treasury “ The whole story of this lady is a Series), edited by Edward Jenkins, which does not romance, and all she does is romantic,” give the life of the duke, but selections from the wrote Pepys of the subject of this pa- works of both, including the autobiography of the

duchess. In the passages quoted in this paper, Mr. per, whom some of her contemporaries Jenkins's plan of modernizing spelling and the use irreverently styled “Mad Madge, ofl of capital letters, has been adopted.

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Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas | lion was complete while Margaret was Luoas, was born at St. John's, near still a child, “ loved virtue, endeavored Colchester. She does not give the merit, practised justice, and spoke year, but it is supposed to have been truth; they were constantly loyal and about 1624. She was the youngest of truly valiant.” Both scholars and soleight children, of whom she writes, diers from early youth “there was not any one crooked nor their practice was, when they met together, any ways deformed, neither were they to exercise themselves with fencing, wresdwarfish nor of giant-like stature, but tling, and shooting ; for I observed they did every way proportionable, well-fea- seldom hawk or hunt, and very seldom or tured, clear complexions, brown hair, never dance or play on music, saying it sound teeth, plain speeches, tunable was too effeminate for masculine spirits.. voices — I mean not so much to sing, Neither had they skill or did use to play, as in speaking."

for aught I could hear, at cards or dice or Sir Thomas Lucas died when Mar: the like games ; nor given to any vice, as I

did know. garet was an infant, and she only knew him by reputation as a gallant and un

The daughters “were bred virfortunate gentleman ( which title," tuously, modestly, civilly, and honshe says, " is given and grounded by orably.” Lady Lucas, unlike those merit, not by princes; and 'tis the act mothers of the period, who by the tesof time, not favor"). 66 One Mr. timony of Lady Jane Grey and others Brooks " did him an injury; “my ruled by fear, and punished their

. father by honor challenged him, with shrinking chillren with “nips and valor fought him, and in justice killed pinches,” was both tender and firm. him," on which Lord Cobliam, who My mother (says Margaret] naturally did was the protector, and as some sup- strive to please and delight her children, pose the brother, of the fallen man, not to cross or to torment them, terrifying used his influence with Queen Eliza- them with threats or lashing them with beth to send Sir Thomas into an exile slavish whips ; instead of threats reason

and instead of which only terminated with her life. was used to persuade us,

lashes the deformities of vice were discovHe did not long survive his recall to England on the accession of James I. ered, and the graces and virtues were pre

sented to us. Lady Lucas is described by her daughter with love and veneration :

In like manner the wise mother re

frained from undue economy, never Her beauty was beyond the ruin of time.

o honest She had a well-favored loveliness in her restricting lier children in face, à pleasing sweetness in her counte- pleasures and harmless delights," lest, nance, and a well-tempered complexion, if she bred us with needy necessity, neither too red nor too pale, even to her it might chance to create in us mean dying hour, although in years; and by her thoughts and base actions, which she dying one might think Death was enamored knew my father as well as herself did of her, for he embraced her' in a sleep, and abhor." so gently as if he were afraid to hurt her.1

She brought them up “in plenty, After the death of Sir Thomas Lucas, not only for necessity, convenience, his widow "made her house ler and decency, but for delight and supercloister, enclosing herself, as it were, fuity . as for our garments, my therein, for she seldom went abroad mother did not only delight to see us except to church.”.

neat and cleanly, five and gay,

but Her whole life was devoted to the rich and costly. Maintaining us to the education of her children, and the height of her estate, but not beyond careful management of the estates it." wbich would ultimately become theirs. So excellent was her management, The sons of the house, whose educa- that, says Margaret : i The Cavalier and his Lady. Macmillan, 1872, Although after my father's death the


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estate was divided between my mother and

P. 49.



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her sons, paying a sum of money for por- by reason she and her children were loyal tions to her daughters either at the day of to the king, for which they plundered her their marriage or when they should come and them of all their goods, plate, jewels, of age, yet by reason she and her children money, corn, cattle, and the like — cut agreed with a mutual consent, all their down their woods, pulled down their houses, affairs were managed so well, as she lived and sequestered them from their lands and not in a much lower condition than when livings. In such misfortunes my mother my father lived, and was never in debt, was a heroic spirit, in suffering patiently being rather beforehand with the world, when there was no remedy, and being inbuying all with ready money, not on the dustrious where she thought she could help.

She was of a grave behavior, and such a For tutors, she says, in singing, danc-majestic grandeur continually hung about ing, writing and the like, they had “ all her that it would strike a kind of awe into

beholders, and command respect from the sorts of virtuosos,” but “rather for

rudest (I mean the rudest of civilized people formality than benefit," as Lady Lucas

-I mean not such people as plundered her thought the formation of her children's and used her cruelly, for they would have characters more important than accom- pulled God out of Heaven had they had plishments. Their pastimes were “to power, as they did royalty out of his read, write, work, and walk with cach throne). 2 other."

At this time, to the surprise and There was such perfect harmony in even grief of her family, Margaret, the family at St. John's that even after the youngest, shyest, and most studiseveral of its members were happily ous (or rather, perhaps, meditative, for married, they lived with Lady Lucas she admits that her có study of books when she was in the country; and was little,” though she would walk though in London they were "lis- alone for hours 6 in a musing, considerpersed into several houses of their ing, contemplative manner") of them own, yet for the most part they met all, announced her wish to join the every day, feasting each other like queen at Oxford, liearing that she had Job's children." In winter they made not the same number of maids of hovor parties to visit the theatres, or drove as formerly. The romantic and genabout London in their coaches " to see

erous spirit of her house prompted this the concourse of people, and in the impulse. She had not been attracted springtime to visit the Spring Garden, by court gaieties and splendor, but Hyde Park, and the like places, and when the throne was shaken her loysometimes they would have music and alty shone out. She could not fight for sup in barges upon the water."

the king like her gallant brothers, but I observed [continued Margaret] they did she could offer her dutiful service to seldom make visits, nor ever went abroad the queen, flying in distress from her with strangers in their company, but only enemies. themselves in a flock together, agreeing so Lady Lucas understood her child, well that there seemed but one mind and did not oppose her resolution, amongst them.

And not only my own although she let her go withi pain. brothers and sisters agreed so, but my But the brothers and sisters were less brothers and sisters in law. And their

say's children, although but young, had the like easily reconciled, " by reason," agreeable natures and affectionate disposi- Margaret, "I had never been from

home and seldom out of their sight." tions. The civil war broke up this happy might lead her to act to her own disad

They feared that her inexperience circle. Lady Lucas was forced from

" which indeed I did," she

vantage, her house, says her daughter,

confesses, “ for I was so bashful when i Lord Lucas married the daughter of Sir Chris- out of my mother's, brothers and sistopher Neville ; Sir Thomas Lucas, the daughter of ters’ sight, whose presence used to give Sir John Byron (an ancestor of the poet); the daughters married Sir Peter Killigrew, Sir William The Cavalier and his Lady. Macmillan, 1872, Waller, and Şir Edmund Pye.

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PP. 48, 49.

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me confidence, thinking I could not doing, as had scarce ever been known amiss whilst auy one of them were by, in England.” Ben Jonson's masque, for I knew they would gently reform" Love's Welcome at Welbeck,” was me if I did.” This reserve and self-written for this visit, and “Love's cistrust made Margaret, with all her Welcome at Bolsover,” for “a more beauty and talent, unpopular in the stupendous entertainment, to the king queen's circle. She was studying char- and queen, given in the following year, acter, observing and pondering, and in which no man ever after in those days her grave young mind reprobating levity imitated.” 1 The two visits cost the and worldliness ; and the courtiers who host £20,000. felt those serious eyes upon them tried In 1638, the then Earl of Newcastle to avenge themselves by turning her was summoned to court and made privy into ridicule. “ Being dull,” by which councillor, and governor to the Prince she apparently means quiet, “fearful of Wales. and bashful,” she says she heeded only Strong personal regard, combined “ what belonged to my loyal duty and with the principle of loyalty, attached my honest reputation insomuch him to the Stuarts at all costs and as I was thought a natural fool.” hazards ; but it is not possible here to

This state of things became so pain- follow in detail the series of sacrifices ful to young Mistress Lucas that she and exertions on behalf of Charles soon wished to return to her mother, which, from 1641 to 1644, dissipated, or to one of her married sisters, Lady his fortune and nearly broke his heart. Pye, with whom she often lived when His second wife adds many picturesque in London, and whom she “loved with touches to her narrative of this period, a supernatural affection.” But Lady such as “the dismal sight of the horse Lucas disapproved of a step which of his Majesty's right wing, which, out would have looked like caprice or irres- of a panic fear, had left the field and olution, and counselled her daughter to run away with all the speed they remain, “though I put her to more could ; and though my lord made them charges than if she had kept me at stand once, yet they immediately took home, and she maintained me so that themselves to their heels again, and I was in a condition rather to lend killed even those of their own party than to borrow, which courtiers usually that endeavored to stop them ;” and are not."

In obedience to her moth- an encounter with a Scots regiment of er's advice, Margaret Lucas, instead of foot, “in which my lord himself killed returning home, accompanied Henri- three with his page's half-leaden sword, etla Maria to France, and so decided for he had no other left him; and her own fate, there meeting her future though all the gentlemen in particular husband.

offered him their swords, yet my lord William Cavendish was born in 1592 refused to take a sword of any of (his wife, with her persistent disregard them.” 2 He was a gallant soldier, and of dates, does not mention the year), a most zealous and indefatigable serand on leaving Cambridge, having been vant of the king ; but the royal cause made a Knight of the Bath at sixteen, was hopeless, and, according to Clarenaccompanied Sir William Wotton when don, “transported with passion and sent as ambassador to the Duke of Sa- despair,” at the way in which the army voy. Returning to England, he mar- he had with such difficulty raised had ried Elizabeth Basset of Blore, “by been “thrown away,” he left England whom was added a great part to his after the battle of Marston Moor. His estate."

Honors were heaped upon wife had died in 1643, and he was only him by King James and his successor, which, however, entailed costly recog- 1 Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. 1., nition, for when the latter monarch p. 167. went to Scotland, he was entertained at garet, Duchess of Newcastle, edited by Mark An-,

2 Life of William, Duke of Newcastle, by MarWelbeck “in such an excess of feast. 'thony Lower. Russell Smith, 1872, pp. 61-63.

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accompanied by his two sons, his orable, being placed upon merit. Which brother, Sir Charles Cavendish, and affection joyed at the fame of his worth, some friends. All the money with was pleased with delight in his wit, was. which his steward could provide him proud of the respect he used to me, and was ninety pounds, and it is not sur-triumphed in the affection he professed for

Those affections he hath confirmed to prising to learn that on landing at Hamburg he had to dismiss some of his me by a deed of time, sealed by constancy, servants and to travel by wagon instead his promise ; which makes me happy in

and assigned by an unalterable decree of of coach. However, he managed to despite of Fortune's frowns. obtain more money with which in the following year he proceeded to Paris, And fortune frowned darkly on the where he immediately 6 went to tender early days of the marriage, for Marhis humble duty" to Queen Henrietta garet tells us that her husband, having Maria. There le for the first time iet no estate or means left to maintain the young maid of honor, of whose himself and his family, was necessibeauty and talents he had heard much tated to seek for credit, and live upon from her eldest brother, Lord Lucas, the courtesy of those that were pleased bis friend and comrade. The duke to trust him. Which though they did or rather, as he was then, the marquis for some while, and showed themselves

was handsome, with a dignified and very civil to my lord, yet they grew noble carriage, and a thoughtful, ami-weary at length.” To such straits able expression ; his reputation for were the bride and bridegroom then chivalrous and self-sacrificing loyalty reduced that their steward announced had preceded him. His behavior, says that he was not able to provide a dinMargaret, was such “ that it might be a ner for them, the creditors being repattern for all gentlemen. Courtly, solved to trust them no longer. On civil, easy and free, without formality this, obscrves the patient bride : “My or constraint, and yet hath something lord, being always a great master of his in it of grandeur, that causes an awful passions, showed himself not in any respect towards him." They were

manner troubled, but in a pleasant mutually attracted at once, and after manner told me that I must of neceshe had stayed in Paris some little time, sity pawn my clothes to make as much "he was pleased,” she says simply, money as would procure a divner.” “ to take some particular notice of me, The poor young wife had to confess and express more than an ordinary that her scanty wardrobe would not affection for me, insomuch that lie answer the purpose, and asked her proposed to choose me for his second waiting-maid to pawn some small wife," and in her autobiographic toys” which she had given her. This sketch 2 she adds :

was done, and, fortified by the meal, Though I did dread marriage, and

the marquis presented himself before shunned men's company as much as I

his creditors, and, “ by his civil deportcould, yet I could not nor had the power to ment and persuasive arguments,'inrefuse him, by reason my affections were duced them not only to furnish him fixed on him, and he was the only person I with goods, but to lend him money to ever was in love with. .. Neither title, redeem the pledged toys." The wealth, power, nor person, could entice me marchioness then sent her waitingto love ; but my love was honest and hon- maid to England, lo ask Lord Lucas to

Partly by pawning his late wife's jewels. He forward her slender dowry, reduced by had, is one of the Royalist leaders, been excluded the losses to which her family had been from pardun by the Parliament, and his estates had subjected. Thither also the marquis been confiscated. They were in part restored to him (strange to say) after the return of Charles the despatched his son's tutor, to endeavor

to raise funds amongst his friends, but * For the future it seems unnecessary to distin- Mr. Benoist effected little, “.by reason guish between short passages taken from the lives of the duke and duchess. Both are contained in everybody was so afraid of the Parliaone volume of the “Library of Old Authors." ment they durst not relieve hiw who


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