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for sich goin's on, in broad daylight, in he had received some heavy “rib a little village like theirs was parfectly binders.” His two captors had not had scand’lous."

all the fun on their side either, for one I have no desire to defend the prac- of them had a lively “

under tice of poaching in any way, far from each eye, and the other mate had his it; for those who rear large quantities mouth so altered that his pronunciaof game have to pay a very heavy price tion was very much interfered with. for it. I have known some of the “ So you are here again, you rascal, keenest game preservers of the past are you?” Yes, I be, squire, but I time, before driving, and other to my wouldn't ha' come if I could ha’ permind objectionable practices were in wented it like.” vogue ; stern men they were in all 66 You told me the last time you were matters concerning poaching, but they here I should not see you again, if you never suffered from it to the extent could help it.” "I meant it, squire ; that some do now, not one quarter of 'tain't no fault o' mine as I'm here it; and for this reason, their keepers now.were good men like their masters. If After looking at the man and then at they found a poacher, one that they the two under keepers, with the greatknew to be one, they never tried to est difficulty keeping himself from smil. implicate a man in a hurry, or, as we ing, the squire replied that he supposed should express it, to make a job of it not. “What did he get for the last beforehand. “I have not found you affair ?” he asked. "Six months, at work, and I hope you won't give me squire, I'm sorry to say.” Here Ned the chance ; but you are trespassing, broke in with, “An' if I has another so you clear out,” was the sort of ex- dose like that, squire, I shan't be a hortation given.

trouble no more." A head keeper of this class, a man in • Are you married ? “No, squire, the full sense of the word - one of our but I be thinkin' on it." great animal painters painted the por- “Who are you courting, you rascal ? trait of his magnificent retriever, with Some decent girl, I'll be bound ; it

gena pheasant in his mouth, and presented erally is so." * Yes, squire, you're it to him — said one morning, “We right there ; she's a lot better than I have got Ned, squire.”

be, or she wouldn't be much." " Where is he?" "In the brew. 66 What shall

do with him, house, with two keepers looking after D—?but before the head keeper

could auswer Ned broke in, For 6. Confound the rascall bring him mercy sake, squire, make a under into the gunroom to me,” said the keeper on me. I bin a poacher, an' I squire. When he was presented there be one now, or else I shouldn't ba' bin - Ned” looked like some animated here. If ye will I'll sarve ye faithfull scarecrow ; his clothes had been liter- as a dog. Give me this one chance.” ally torn to pieces in the fierce struggle Looking bini full in the face for one that ensued before he was captured. moment the squire said, “I will." For fear the poor wretch might catch I saw Ned daily for months after the cold, through the general airiness of squire had taken him. He was a prime his vestments, his captors had given favorite with all, from the head keeper him a couple of “horns” of the gener- to the grooms in the hunting stable, ous home-brewed ale. From the way and he did his duty honestly and effiin which he occasionally placed his ciently. As the good old squire rehand to his side, giving himself a gen- marked, his doubtful investment had tle rub, it was quite evident also that turned out well.

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Fifth Series, Volume LXXXIV.

No. 2579. – December 9, 1893.

From Beginning

Vol, OXCIX.

579

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CONTENTS.
I. SOME DECISIVE MARRIAGES OF EN-

GLISH HISTORY. By S. Walpole, New Review,
II. A THREE-BOTTLE COMEDY. By W. E.
Norris,

Longman's Magazine,
III. "LAMB'S DUCHESS ;" MARGARET,
DUCHESS OF NEWCASTLE,

Temple Bar,
IV. ASPECTS OF TENNYSON. As the Poet of
Evolution. By Theodore Watts,

Nineteenth Century, .
V. THE BANDITTI OF CORSICA. By Caro-
line Holland,

Contemporary Review,
VI. OYSTER-CULTURE IN FRANCE,

Chambers' Journal, .
VII. THE FUEL OF THE SUN. By J. Ellard
Gore, .

Gentleman's Magazine,
VIII. NEGRO COFFEE,

Chambers' Journal, .

611

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postaye.

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Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

1

me.

MONTE OLIVETO.

Took me to France; a Spanish woman AMID an ashen silence that forbad

there The world, dwelt lordly hermits, who had Looked in my eyes, I saw her golden hair ; fought,

And since that day naught else I clearly Hated, and toiled too long. God's peace see, they sought

Your shadow comes between the world and Where yon white steep is yet with olive clad,

But if you stole my soul, you gave your As though of Athens' fallen queen they had own, One gift, who knew her not, but only A royal gift, and worthy of a throne. taught

Yet are you queen as ever ; but I stand, Their souls the lore that lived in pious Made equal by our love ; thus hand in thought

hand, And pictured mystery and vigil sad. And heart to heart, no phantom throne Knowledge withal she offered, such as between, shone

My only love, my wife ; yet France's queen. Of yore from Hellas. But the light was

JOHN FAIRFAX.

1 In one of his letters to Anne of Austria, MazaAnd pale the glory of the Parthenon.

rin says his greatest happiness when parted frons They only knew, with saints and sera- her consists in “reading the letters of a certain phim,

Spanish woman well known to you.” Mazarin was To wonder on the Mount and wisely not a priest, and there is but little doubt that

he was privately married to Anne ; indeed, her hymn

daughter-in-law, the second wife of the Duc d'OrOf man with God and God with man made leans, speaks of it as a fact.

one. Academy. GEORGE C. W. WARR.

dim,

WHITBY. MAZARIN TO ANNE OF AUSTRIA.

WHERE the grey Northern sea gnaws cliffs IN THE MOONLIGHT.

of shale, and the white waves You are a queen ; no noble name I bear Wrestle in hissing wrath with a brown, (Love, how the night wind stirs amid your irrepressible river, hair !),

Hilda, the saint, the princess, founded a Yet I am standing close beside you here,

fair stone cloister. The noblest names in France come not so What of her work remains — of the carven near.

stone and the wood-work? Sweet ! let me kiss away the cares that lie Haply a fragment here of a pillar with patUpon your heart ; know that only I,

tern enlacing ; Of all the world, stand near enough to see Naught in the desolate walls of the roofless How heavy a load a royal crown may be ;

ruin that after What do you murmur, that I share its Rose where her building had been, and now weight ?

itself is abandoned, Would I could bear it all for you, but fate Crowning with unintentional beauty the Has made me what I am. Can I repine

red-roofed houses, At lowly birth, with your hand clasp't in Which from the river climb, and cling like mine?

plants to the cliff-face. With my arm round you, and with lips close What of her work remains ? — who knows ? press’d

in the loves of the people ? Unto the head, now pillowed on my breast. Something, we doubt it not, from every Sometimes it frets me, we may never stand noble endeavor In the broad light of day, hand clasped in Down the ages descends, though none but hand.

God can distinguish. When shines the sun I stand behind the But the grey Northern sea still gnaws the throne,

cliffs, and the white waves But with the moonlight you are mine alone. Wrestle in hissing wrath with the brown, I am a mighty power ; men call me great, irrepressible river. Say I might wear the triple crown, but fate Spectator,

F. W. BOURDILLON.

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From The New Review.

HISTORY.

66

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tria, but with the marriages which SOME DECISIVE MARRIAGES OF ENGLISH have affected the destinies of England.

They will be found recorded iu every FORTY years ago a capable writer

history. But their significance has wrote a well-known book which he been insufficiently emphasized by alcalled “The Fifteen Decisive Battles

most every

historian. Yet they either of the World." Some of the battles which he there enumerated have un- enced many of the great events in our

directly occasioned or indirectly infludoubtedly exerted a powerful influence on the course of history. The defeat Ethelbert of Kent prepared the way

annals. The marriage of Bertha with of the Persians by the Greeks, the de- for the conversion of England to Chrisfeat of the Mahometans by Charles

tianity ; the marriage of Henry VIII. Martel, and our own defeat in our

with Anne Boleyn was one of the chief struggle with the revolted colonies in factors which determined the ReformaAmerica permanently affected the face

tion; the marriage of Emma of Norof the world. But many of the battles which are called decisive by historians the Conqueror an excuse for asserting

mandy with Ethelred the Unready gave have in reality decided nothing; and his claim to the throne of England; if Sir E. Creasy had looked a little be- the marriage of Henry I. with Matilda low the surface he possibly might have of Scotland reconciled the people to been attracted by a series of events the Conquest by restoring the line of which have proved more decisive than

Cerdic; warfare. For, though the marriages of Eleanor of Aquitaine made England

the marriage of Henry II. with kings usually engage only a secondary the first Continental power in western attention, it may be safely stated that Europe, and thus produced the long the decisive marriages of the world struggle with France ; the marriage of have had more influence on its fortunes Henry VII. with Elizabeth of York than the decisive battles.

closed the War of the Roses ; the marThe empire of Charles V. is, per: riage of Henry VII.'s daughter Marhaps, the best example of the effect of such unions. Charles, on his paternal garet with James IV. led to the union

between England and Scotland ; the side, was the grandson of Maximilian

marriage of Mary, James II.'s daughof Austria and Mary, the daughter of

ter, with William of Orange gave direcCharles the Bold. From these grand-tion to the Revolution of 1688; and parents he inherited Austria, Burgundy, and Flanders. On the maternal elector of Hanover gave us kings with

finally, the marriage of Sophia with the side he was the grandson of Ferdinand

German interests, and consequently and Isabella, whose marriage had con

again involved us in Continental strugsolidated the houses of Aragon and

gles. Castile, and indirectly led to the union

1. When Bertha, the daughter of of all Spain in one monarchy. Thus

Charibert, married Ethelbert of Kent, the power of this great monarch had Christianity had been driven out of been built up by a series of marriages. England by the victories of the Saxons. It was the fate of Charles V. to strike Ethelbert himself was busily raising down the power of France at Pavia, his little kingdom into a formidable but no battle that he ever fought had

power. In the course of a few years, effects so enduring as the marriages he succeeded in extending his suprenieither of his paternal or his maternal

acy over eastern England from the grandparents.

Humber to the Channel. He became But we are concerned at the present thenceforward the most powerful monmoment not with the marriages which

arch in Britain. Possibly his growing built up the power of Spain and Aus

power suggested his ambitious mar1 Burgundy and Flanders had been united a cen: riage. His alliance with the Frankish tury before by the marriage of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, with the heiress of Louis, Count of kingdom must have increased his con

sideration both at home and on the

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Flanders.

Continent. But the chief consequences, cendency in England through the marof the marriage were not political, riage of Bertha, she lost her ascendency but religious. Charibert naturally stip-through the marriage of Anne Boleyn. ulated that his daughter, in her new It is no doubt, in one sense, absurd to home, should be allowed to profess say that England owes its reformed her own religion ; her chaplain was faith to the desire of Henry VIII. to admitted to her husband's court; a get rid of one wife and to wed another. ruined church was allotted to him for The Church of Rome was, on the conChristian worship. Thus, in the heart trary, in its decay ; reformers, both in of the little kingdom in which the England and on the Continent, were Saxons had first settled, amidst the exposing its corruptions; and the Refbarbarous worship of the Teutonic ormation would have come in England gods, Christianity found its representa- as it came in Germany and Scotland tive in a queen, lier chaplain, and her -if Henry VIII. had never cast his church. The little grain of mustard- longing eyes on Anne. All that it is seed was sown whose branches were to attempted to assert is that the cause cover the whole land.

which directly led to the Reformation While Bertha was sharing her hus- in England, and which governed its band's throne in Kent, Gregory the direction,' was the desire of Henry Great was noticing in the slave market VIII. to possess himself of Anne, and at Rome the fair-haired prisoners from the reluctance of Rome to release him Deira, whose name, whose country, from Catherine. Hence, if England and whose king suggested to him a owes to one marriage the fact that she series of historic puns. He meditated is Christian, she owes to another marthenceforward the conversion of En- riage the fact that she is Protestant. gland ; and years afterwards persuaded Thus, strange as it may seem to those Augustine to undertake the mission. who have never thought upon the subBut Augustine did not attempt to project, ler religious life has been moulded ceed to Deira, the country from which by the marriages of Ethelbert of Kent Gregory's fair-haired slaves had been and Henry VIII. brought. On the contrary, he trav- III. Very different were the conseelled, under the protection of the quences of the marriage of Emma of Frankish king, direct to the court in Normandy. Emma was the daughter which the daughter of the Frank was of Duke Richard II. ; she was thereliving. He naturally found a ready fore the sister of Duke Richard III. reception from the husband of a Chris- and of Duke Robert, whom his contian queen, and within a year of his temporaries knew as Robert the Devil, arrival Ethelbert embraced the new but whom history recognizes as the faith. But it is surely no illogical de Conqueror's father. She married Ethelduction from this narrative that the red in 1002. In a political sense the chief factor in Ethelbert's conversion marriage was a new departure. The was not Augustine's preaching, but his policy of the liouse of Alfred had been own marriage.1

to curb the Northmen of the Channel. II. If Rome first acquired her as- Confronted with the dangers of a Norse

invasion, Ethelred, on the contrary, 1 The conversion of northern England took the tried to win over the Northmen of same form as the conversion of Kent. Kent embraced Christianity in the last quarter of the sixth

Normandy to his own side, and the century. In the first quarter of the seventh cen-policy, so far as it went, was successtury Northumbria had succeeded to the supremacy. ful. In the Danish invasions of EnHer ruler, Edwin, was by far the most powerful gland which occurred an:l recurred in monarch who had ever reigned in England ; and he married Ethelburga of Kent, Ethelbert's daughter. the reign of the unready king, Sweyn Ethelburga carried her chaplain with her to the and his followers received no aid from North, just as her mother carried her chaplain their kinsfolk in Normandy ; and when with her to Kent, and through the persuasion of his queen and her chaplain Edwin, in his turn, the whole kingdom was practically sub

a

dued Ethelred sent his wife and her

embraced the Christian faith.

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