offspring the whole permanent instinct human community in which the system of architecture and social polity of her of caste might become so stereotyped

the power of heredity cannot be as to eliminate the initial difference denied, because the facts do not admit between man and man in each class, of any other explanation, except on the and produce uniform types of workers, hypothesis of the existence of some soldiers, and the like. But in such a additional sense which, owing to the case, what is instinct but a degradation limitation of our own, we could by of intelligence, producing perhaps a no possible means comprehend. The higher level of work but a lower type growth of instinct, if the theory of its of mind. development given above is correct, should be a process of abnormal length, and it would almost follow that the antiquity of species could be estimated

From The Spectator. from the degree of perfection in which

HENRY G. WREFORD. instinct is exhibited. The difference MR. HENRY G. WREFORD, for fifty of structure and diversity of needs in years the Times correspondent in different animals, in some so simple southern Italy, deserves something and in others so complex, need not more than a passing word of comment. weaken this conclusion, if we only He was one of the few genuine heroes compare those in which the order of of the pen, the men who reflect lustre daily life is somewhat similar. The on the most ephemeral and least honlife-history of the hive-bee would seem ored of all serious professions. There to demand a far longer period for its have been and are among special correcomplex instinct to become stereotyped spondents plenty of brave men, who than the life-history of the solitary spe- have bebaved like volunteers in a forcies; and man, with his few forms of lorn hope, and have faced death in the instinctive action and reliance on indi- performance of duty with a daring unvidual intelligence, would be assigned inspired by the hope of honors or by

place among the latest developments that feeling of fidelity to a flag which, of nature. Our knowledge of the facts with so many otherwise commonplace of instinct is as yet too ill-assorted for natures, has operated like a religion ; the construction of more than a work- but Mr. Wreford had a courage which ing hypothesis as to its origin; and was in some respects beyond them all. until the question of the inheritance of He had contracted, early in his service acquired characteristics is more com- with the Times, a deep pity for the pletely answered than it is at present, people of Naples, who repaid him at the whole structure hangs on a doubt. first with incessant insult, and a deep ful link. But there is one point on horror of the foul Bourbon court, that which the theory of instinct which M. negation of God erected into a sysHoussay reproduces is eminently satis- tem," as Mr. Gladstone described it, factory, though he does not claim it as which at that time tyrannized over au argument for its value. It accounts their destinies. Most Englishmen, Mr. for the uniformity and subordination of Gladstone perhaps excepted, have forindividuals in the life of the social ani- gotten it; but there has never existed mals and social insects, which is almost elsewhere in Europe anything like this inexplicable on any other hypothesis. government, which defended itself with That thousands of beings so intelligent Swiss mercenaries, used as instruments as the bee can live together and exer- the wretched lazzaroni of the capital, cise an intelligence which is used solely and ruled the respectable classes like a for the good of the community, and pasha in Algiers or Tunis, punishing never for the personal advantage or the slightest opposition by imprisonaggrandizement of an individual, tran- ment, often lifelong, in duugeons which scends reason, as we understand it. were, without aid from rhetoric, deYet it is just possible to conceive a 'scribable as mere wells. Unless an



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ambassador, no man's life or liberty | Wreford been a Neapolitan, he would was safe if he were denounced by one have died in torture. The king, howof a myriad spies ; and for years even ever, who was by far the best-informed the pleasure-lovers of Europe avoided man in his dominions, understood perthe delicious kingdom like a lazar- fectly well that the kingdom of the house. Mr. Wreford set himself to Two Sicilies alone among European bring European opinion to bear on this kingdoms lay at the mercy of the Britden of horrors, and for seventeen years ish fleet; that two men-of-war would he persevered uvflinchingly in his cut him off from Sicily, and one call work. He was recognized after a little Naples into insurrection ; that he was while as one of the most “ dangerous » coldly disliked by the very pow.ers of opponents, as a man who was turn- which protected him ; and that, if ing all Europe against the king's gov- Switzerland recalled her children, he ernment;

and the devotees of that would be left face to face with subjects borrible court swore to have their re- who might adulate but could not devenge. He was shadowed perpetually fend him. He wanted no duel to the by spies; men suspected of sending death with either the Times or the information to him were treated like British Parliament, and as he was a criminals ; he was menaced with ruin dreaded master, Mr. Wreford just esby expulsion ; and the populace were caped. During the whole of this period, excited against him till it was unsafe half an ordinary generation, Mr. Wrefor him to enter Naples. Darker ford, though by no means a man of the threats, too, were levelled against him soldier type, but rather à retiring and by the zealots of the court party. He sensitive civilian, with a habit of dehimself showed the writer one proof pression - he had been, we rather positive that men who could not have think, at one time a Nonconformist been punished had proposed his assas- minister — held unswervingly on his sination ; that two plans at least for way, never concealing any truth he kidnapping him had been matured ; knew, and striking sometimes fearful and that on one occasion a plot for blows at a system which latterly he drowning him had been within an ace came to hate almost beyond reason. of success. During one gloomy six His courage may have been of the months he held his life, as he believed, passive type, but he faced death, or only from hour to hour, and owed it, worse, unfalteringly through years of as he thought, mainly to the protection feeble health, for the sake of men who of the British minister, and one or gave him nothing back, not even their two persons in a foreign embassy. In applause. He behaved, in fact, for reality be owed it, as after hearing his years as one of the bravest of mankind, narrative the writer could not but rec- and when at last the evil despotism feli ognize, to King Ferdinand, who was in a night as if struck down by the not the vulgar tyrant Englishmen be- God it had despised, the ease of its fall lieved, but a cool, shrewd cynic, who was in great part due to the horror of despised his subjects and most of his it which he had patiently spread through own agents, who was full of courage Europe, and which had at last reacted a quality in him which Mr. Gladstone on the monarchy itself.

He was once recognized publicly after his plain man, though a cultivated one, death — and who was so completely simple in thought and in the expression king of the old Bourbon type, that he of his thought, with perhaps a faint would not stoop to crime against a poor vanity in his own skill in gathering in. devil of a foreign correspondent who formation ; but he did a knight's ser, owed him no allegiance. Had Mr. vice for Italy and for the world.

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Fifth Series,

No. 2578. – December 2, 1893.


From Beginning







I. ATOMS AND SUNBEAMS. By Robert Ball, Fortnightly Review, .

Blackwood's Magazine,
Rees, .

National Review,
J. C. Bailey,

Temple Bar,
John W. Irvine,

Nineteenth Century,

Cornhill Magazine,
VIÍ. A Poaching Story. By A Son of the

English Illustrated Magazine,


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THE Vision,


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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postaye. Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post

office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


So in our world of doubt, and death, and WHEN men were all asleep the snow came

change, flying,

The vision of eternity is sweet, In large white flakes falling on the city The vision of eternity is strange ! brown,

MRS. JAMES DARMESTETER. Stealthily and perpetually settling and

loosely lying, Hushing the latest traffic of the drowsy town ;

TO Deadening, muffling, stifling its murmurs failing ;

I SANG to-night "The Arrow and the Lazily and incessantly floating down and Song" down ;

I have not sung it since I sang with

youSilently sifting and veiling road, roof, and railing ;

I sang, and wondered if the words were Hiding difference, making unevenness


And whether sometimes you — amidst the even,

throng Into angles and crevices softly drifting and

Who flatter sailing.

- love perhaps — but love not

long, All night it. fell, and when full inches

Or love all selfishly, as most men do.

Remember one, who did not care to sue It lay in the depth of its uncompacted lightness,

As they — preferring, whether right or Its clouds blew off from a high and frosty

wrong, heaven ;

To take what you should give, and ask And all awoke earlier for the unaccus

no more ; tomed brightness

Content to leave, if you would have it so, Of the winter dawning, the strange un

Your presence and continue, as before, heavenly glare :

His singing to the air - nor ask to know

The fate of one poor The eye marvelled — marvelled at the daz

ord, till death's

sweet shore zling whiteness ; The ear hearkened to the stillness of the The truth or falseness of the song shall

show. solemn air ;

Temple Bar, No sound of wheel rumbling nor of foot

falling, And the busy morning cries came thin


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“Dolce color dell' oriental zaffiro."
THE gross Etruscan felt within these skies

Only a fiery finger that pursued

His body till the glutton soul renewed SOMETIMES when I sit musing all alone

Its pastime in the painted tomb. Such lies The sick diversity of human things

Their augurs spake to Heaven. Otherwise

The seer of Florence saw, whose spirit, Into my soul, I know not how, there

thewed springs The vision of a world unlike our own.

By trial, soared unto the heights and

viewed O stable Zion, perfect, endless, one, The azure light that fell from Paradise. Why hauntest thou a soul that hath no For, lo ! Italia, risen from the Hell wings ?

Of heathen gods and temples, dead and I look on thee as men on mirage-springs, bare, Knowing the desert bears but sand and Awoke and mounted to the ardent air ; stone.

By Roman virtue purged and taught to

dwell Yet, as a passing mirror in the street Aloof from earth, she read with chastened

Flashes a glimpse of gardens out of range eye Through some poor sick-room open to the A holier religion in her sky. heat ;


From The Fortnightly Review. the combustion of that great sphere of ATOMS AND SUNBEAMS.

fuel could generate. We know, howIn recent years an important change ever, that the sun has been radiating has taken place in the manner in heat, not alone for thousands of years, which many physical problems are ap- but for millions of years. The existproached. The philosopher who now ence of fossil plants and animals would seeks an explanation of great nat- alone suffice to demonstrate this fact. ural phenomena not unfrequently finds We have thus to account for the exmuch assistance from certain remark- tremely remarkable circumstance that able discoveries as to the ultimate con- our great luminary has radiated forth stitution of matter. Many an obscure already a thousand times as much heat question in physics has been rendered as could be generated by the combusclear when some of the properties of tion of a sphere of coal as big as the molecules have been brought to light. sun is at present, and yet, notwithNo doubt our knowledge of the natural standing this expenditure in the past, history of the molecule is still vastly physics declares that for millions of wanting in detail. It must, however, years to come the sun may continue to be admitted that we have traced an dispense light and heat to its attendant outline of that wonderful chapter in worlds with the same abundant prodinature which is specially serviceable in gality. To have shown how the apparthe question which I now propose to ent paradox could be removed is one of discuss.

the most notable achievements of the The problem before us may be stated great German philosopher. in the following terms. We have to What Helmholtz did was to refer to illustrate how the sun is enabled to the obvious fact that the expenditure maintain its tremendous expenditure of licat by radiation must necessarily of light and heat without giving any lead to shrinkage of the solar volume. signs of approaching exhaustion. It This shrinkage has the effect of abwill be found that the atomic theory of stracting from a store of potential enthe constitution of matter exhibits the ergy in the sun and transforming what mechanism of the process by which it takes into the active form of heat. that capacity of the great luminary for the transformation advances pari supplying the radiation so vital to the passu with the radiation, so that the welfare of mankind is sustained from loss of heat arising from the radiation age to age.

is restored by the newly produced heat Let me here anticipate an objection derived from the latent reservoir. which may not improbably be raised. Such is an outline of the now famous Those who have paid attention to this doctrine universally accepted among subject are aware that the remarkable physicists. It fulfils the conditions of doctrine first propounded by Helmholtz the problem, and when tested by arithremoved all real doubt from the mat- metical calculation it is not found wantter. It is to this eminent philosopher ing. we owe an explanation of what at first But the genuine student of nature seemed to be a paradox. He explained loves to get to the heart of a great how, notwithstanding that the sun in- problem like this ; he loves to be able diates its heat so profusely, no indica- to follow it, not through mere formulæ tions of the inevitable decline of heat or abstract principles, but so as to be can be as yet discovered. If the sun able to visualize its truth and feel its had been made of solid coal from centre certainty. He will, therefore, often to surface, and if that coal had been desire something in addition to the burned for the purpose of sustaiving bare presentation of the theory as the radiation, it can be demonstrated above stated. It may be no doubt sufthat a few thousand years of solar ex- ficient for the mathematician to know penditure at the present rate would that the total potential energy in the suffice to exhaust all the heat which sun, due to the dispersed nature of its

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