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powers which are described as the sim- the fact that stone, implements would ple machines. Here it may be ob-have been incompetent to fashion a served that whereas some of the lower wheel. The earliest Chaldean monuanimals do possess a kuowledge of in- ments bear sculptured representations dividual powers, yet, if those particular of rude wooden carts with two fixed powers fail, they are incapable of car- wheels drawn by a single ox; but these rying out their desires by other means. very sculptures themselves prove that. Monkeys, for instance, fetch them- metallic tools were in use at the time. selves cocoanuts and break them open The lever must be quite as old as the at the same time by running up the roller. When several felled poles lay palm-trunks and dropping the nuts to together helter-skelter, one of them. the ground. But if a nut should fall would most likely have one of its ends. intact, the monkey would not have the resting under another, and accidental cleverness to pick up a stone and break depression of the free end would reveal it; nor has it the aptitude to throw a the fact that heavy weights might be stone upwards, and so bring the nut to moved by pushing under them one end the ground. Both these actions would of a pole, and pushing under the pole imply the pre-requisite of au opposable another by way of fulcrum. The transthumb. Similarly, a beaver will drag a port of heavy weights, therefore, might tree-trunk to the riverside, that it may take place quite naturally amongst the be built into the beaver-dam ; but if men who preceded the metallic age by the trunk be too heavy, it will not have the use of poles as levers and rollers. the power to put one trunk on another, At that stage nothing in the way of a and so roll the trunk along.

crank or axle would have been known. It is in this capacity for inventive. The lever, like other powers, was of ness that the divergence of human course known long before its properties aptitude from that of auimals is to be had been investigated by the mathemafound. Thus, there is no record of any tician. It was, in fact, not until the brute creature ever deliberately and of time of Archimedes that the lever was set purposc transporting a weight from explained. one point to another by rolling it dowu It may be useful here to point out a hill. Yet the savage race does not that in the pre-metallic age, before exist which is incapable of this simple vails were possible, fastenings were exercise of the inventive mind. Again, effected by means of knots. The older there is no record of a savage who stone implements are distinguished would not be smart enough to drag one from those of the newer age by having trunk over a smaller one, and so lessen been lashed to a wood-shaft with leather the friction of transport. It may be thongs ; whereas, later on, men found taken for granted that the roller, in the out how much better it was to make a form of a pole from which lateral hole, either in the stone head or in the branches had been lopped by cutting, woodeu handle. The fact that stone breaking, or fire, was one of the ear- implements are found scattered singly liest mechanical inventions. It would here and there seems to suggest that not be long before men perceived that they had slipped by accident out of the by reducing the bulk of the trunk in shafts through unskilful tying ;: and the middle, the power of the roller was from this we may infer that the grannyincreased, because friction was re- knots and other uuscientific methods of duced, and in this way the middle part tying which children instinctively adopt of the roller would at length develop are a relic of the Stone Age fastenings. into the axle, and its two ends into From the position in which their rewheels. There is no evidence that mains are found, it may be said that trollies or carts of this rough pattern the Stone Age races of western Europe existed amongst the men of the Stone obtained their supplies of fresh water Age, and the theory that they had not from running streams and lakes. They yet been invented is strengthened by would therefore have no knowledge of

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Lines by Tom Sheridan,

447 artificial wells, which seem to have

From The Athenæum, been bit upon by Syriau nomads in

LINES BY TOM SHERIDAN. very early times. At first, perbaps,

SHERIDAN'S elder son Tom said vessels would be lowered by a thoug, many clever things, but he did not and then pulled up again; but if a pole strive to make his mark in literature. were placed across the well-mouth for Some letters from him are preserved purposes of safety, men would at once among the Sheridan papers at Frampsee the advantage of pulling the rope ton Court, Dorsetshire, and several against the pole. Later on, they would verses, which may be read with special acquire the means of fixing the pole in interest now, are appended to one of the holes of vertical boards, and so the them. They were written towards the pulley would arise. Even before this end of 1811 or at the beginning of 1812. invention, it is probable that men hit The subject was the total wreck of a upon the plan, when dragging a heavy man-of-war, about which the following weight by means of a leather thong, of particulars appeared in the “ Annual passing the thong round a handy tree. Register" for 1811 : The precise manner in which the

Rathmilton, December 6th : his Majwedge was invented cannot be shown. esty's ship Saldanha, one of our finest Perhaps some archaic workman, ham- frigates, commanded by Captain the Hon. mering away at a block of wood with a W. Pakenham, brother to the Earl of Longflint knife, found the knife enter the ford, sailed from Cork on the 19th of wood and become fixed. In the effort November, to relieve his Majesty's ship to wrench it out, the block would split. Endymion off Lough Swilly. Having

While the engineer of to-day is a reached the harbor, she again sailed on the being of a very different stamp from 30th, with the intention of proceeding to the engineer of the long-ago, the differ- the westward. On the evening of the 4th ence is one of degree rather than kind. of December it blew the most dreadful hur

ricane. At about ten o'clock at night, Modern mechanical activity has shown

through the darkness and the storm, a, itself not in the invention of new ma- light was seen from the signal-towers, supchines so much as in the application of posed to be on board the Saldanha, passing new prime movers. The tendency of rapidly up the harbor. When the daylight the time is to replace the prime movers appeared the ship was discovered to be a of the early ages by others involving complete wreck. in Ballyna Stokes-bay. less human waste. The classic trireme Every one of the three hundred souls on was to all intents and purposes a ship board had perished, and all the circumpropelled by a compound engine, whose stances of her calamitous loss had thus cranks were human elbows, and whose perished with her, The bodies of Capt. pistons were human arms.

A rower

Pakenham and about two hundred of the would not miss his stroke more fre- crew are said to have been washed ashore,

and were interred in a neighboring burying quently than the needle of a sewing ground. machine misses a stitch. But the comparative costliness of men as prime

The late Mr. Richard Brinsley Sherimovers has been amply demonstrated dan, the son of Tom and the squire of by the calculation that, to do the same Frampton, has written concerning the number of units of work as that


letter which accompanied the lines, duced by the motor of a Cunarder no that “it was addressed to Mrs. Mary fewer than a quarter of a million row

Moucrieff, of Pitcathley House, Bridge ers would be required.

of Earn, when he was in delicate But enough has been said to show health, and wintering with Lord Ponthat, before the age of iron, men had sonby, at Ventnor, in the Isle of made considerable progress in mechan- Wight, about the year 1812." The ical invention, and it needed only the letter runs thus : introduction of that metal to enable

Ventnor, New Inn, Thursday. them to carry out the principles already MY DEAR MADAM, - I have taken the known to gigautic issues.

liberty of sending you a few stanzas I wrote

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on the loss of the Saldanha to show you “Rule Britannia" sung the crew, how Ossian has been plundered (though When the stout Saldanha sailed, most unconsciously on my part) in another And her colors as they flew, instance, but if you recollect the circum- Flung the warrior cross to view stances attending that ship's wreck, you Which in battle to subdue will see that the image was unavoidably

Ne'er had failed. suggested by the facts, & I doubt not

Bright rose the laughing morn Campbell might with justice plead the

(That morn which sealed their doom), same reason. - Plagiarism is much oftener

Dark and sad is her return, involuntary than critics are willing to ad

And the storm-lights faintly burn mit, in this I think you will agree with me.

As they toss upon her stern For my own part I am always ready to

Mid the gloom. gather the Flowers I meet with in Poetry, without either turning up my nose at the

From the lonely Beacon's height herbage which may surround them, or im- As the watchmen gazed around, agining too nicely whether they were trans- They saw that flashing light planted or indigenous. — My Vanity will Drive swift athwart the night, not let me conclude without adding a word Yet the wind was fair and right or two in behalf of my own offspring.— The

For the Sound. perversion of the text of “Rule Britannia”

But no mortal power shall now is obvious - my only excuse is that I felt at

That crew and vessel savethe moment indignant, at the thoughtless

They are shrouded as they go & extravagant sentiment, with which it is

In a hurricane of snow, so often accompanied. - The lines are of And the track beneath her prow too lawless a character to bear the test of

Is their grave. criticism, & I have purposely left them, with many Blemishes, obvious even to my

There are spirits of the Deep self, rather than pretend to more than I

Who, when the warrant's given, intended, I think too that compositions

Rise raging from their sleep of this Description often lose in spirit what

On rock or mountain steep they gain by correctness. They were

Or 'mid thunder clouds that keep

The wrath of Heaven. written from the feelings of the moment & at the moment :- 30 judge of them. I hon

High the eddying mists are whirl'd, estly own I like them myself. – Mrs. Sher

As they rear their giant forms, idan would have paid her respects to you See ! their tempest-flag's unfurl'd, to-day, had the weather permitted, you

Fierce they sweep the prostrate world, would have been at no loss to entertain

And the withering Lightning's hurl'd her, as you cannot love Flowers, more than

Thro' the storms. she does. - I beg my best compliments to Mr. Barwis, & remain Dear Madam, your

O’er Swilly's rocks they soar, obt Sert,

Commissioned watch to keep ;

Down, down with thund'ring roar,
The exulting Demons pour ;

The Saldanha floats no more

On the deep ! “Britannia rules the waves

The dreadful 'hest is past; Heard'st thou that dreadful roar ?

All is silent as the grave; Hark! 'tis bellowed from the caves

One shriek was first and last, Where Lough Swilly's billow raves,

Scarce a death-sob drunk the blast And three hundred British graves

As sunk her towering mast
Taint the shore.

'Neath the wave. No voice of life was there

“ Britannia rules the waves !” Tis the Dead who raise that cry —

Oh ! vain and impious boast ; The Dead – who heard no prayer

Go, mark, presumptuous slaves, As they sank in wild despair,

Where He who sinks or saves, Chaunt in scorn that boastful air

Scars the sands with countless graves Where they lie.

Round your coast !

Fifth Series,
Volume LXXXIV.


No. 2577. - November 25, 1893.


From Beginning


I. BIOGRAPHY. By Leslie Stephen,

National Review,
II. A HARD LITTLE Cuss. By Mrs. H. H.
Penrose. Conclusion,

Temple Bar,



III. DRAKE's Voyage ROUND THE WORLD, Longman's magazine,

459 471

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Spenser Wilkinson,


Roylance Kent,



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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents,


Sing, little bird in the willows, low by the My queen is tired and craves surcease

edge of the river, Of twanging string and clamorous brass ; A song that ripples and leaps as the I lean against the mantlepiece,

waters leap in a spring ; And watch her in the glass.

The wind breathes low in the grass where

the threads of the gossamer quiver, One whom I see not where I stand

And all the sunlit moorland is silent to Fans her and talks in whispers low;

hear you sing. Her loose locks flutter as his hand

Sing that life is glad, and fair are the land Moves lightly to and fro.

and the sea,

The wonder of stars in the night, and He begs a flower; her finger-tips

the noontide's golden glory, Stray round a rose half veiled in lace;

Ours is the joy of the present, we care not She grants the boon with smiling lips,

what is to be, Her elear eyes read his face.

And the past is dim as a dream, or a

half-remembered story. I cannot look, my sight grows dim

DUNCAN J. ROBERTSON. While Fate allots unequally,

Longman's Magazine.
The living woman's self to him,
The mirrored form to me.


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SHE is dressed, like the early Springs,

In the daintiest pink and white ;

From her mischievous hand she flings

Pink-petaled lawn-daisies, the spright! LIFE and death, and the power of love, and The daisies are spells, and after the strength of laughter ;

She's cast them and knows that I'm Music of battle, and ships that sail away bound, to the west ;

The ring of her delicate laughter All that hath gone before and all that fol

Breaks into bright ripples of sound. loweth after ; The mad, blind struggle for gold, and the So now I'm her poor captive knight, restless seeking for rest,

Unable to cope with her art ; The brain reels round with them all, and Henceforth, with her baby-feet light, weariness is their name;

She will walk rough-shod o'er my heart. Come to the long, low moorland and Spectator,

E. M. R. hear, ere the winter win it, Where the broom like a sunlit beacon

flashes in golden flame, The music of wind and water, of the bee

IN THE VALLEY. and the mountain lipnet.

MYRIAD birds in the thicket sing, Blue is the sky overhead and purple the Glancing and flitting on eager wing ; heather about us,

Leaves are green on the branches still, Far on the dim horizon the white sails But the autumn airs breathe chill.

gleam in the haze, One is the dream within and the song that But the birds in the valley still sing on

Spring is over and Summer gone, is ours without us,

To the broad brown hills and the quiet The joy of the sunsteeped present, struck

free from the whirl of the days. Hark! how she sings in the fern, a pas

Though Winter is drawing nigh. sionate song of content,

The slow wind sighs and the skies are The wren, now hanging a moment where

grey, the fox-glove's bells are shaken, But the little birds pipe so shrill, so gay ; Now by the water's edge the iris bowed as So sweet to-day are the songs they sing she went,

They will waken the banished Spring. Weaving her melody out of the sweets by

GRAHAM R. TOMBON. the way she has taken.

National Observer,


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