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AN ANTIDOTE TO CARE.
SONNET. THINK that the grass upon thy grave is THE drops of water which have lurned the green ;
wheel Think that thou seest thine own empty Will ne'er come back to turn the wheel chair;
again ; The empty garments thou wast wont to The blossoms which have shed their rosy wear ;
rain The empty room where long thy haunt Will never more the Spring's sweet promhath been,
ise seal. Think that the lane, the meadow, and the Yet still the miller slowly grinds to meal wood,
His goodly stores of golden-tinted grain ; And mountain summit feel thy feet no And still the Spring returns to hill and more,
plain, Nor the loud thoroughfare, nor sounding And treads the dust to flowers beneath her shore ;
heel. All mere blank space where thou thyself Fear ye not, therefore, lest the cause ye hath stood.
love Amid this thought-created silence say
Should languish when your tender, toilTo thy stripped soul, what am I now and worn hands where ?
Are crossed in peace beneath the Then turn and face the petty narrowing
daisied sod !
The Means wax old, and perishable prove – Which has been gnawing thee for many a
The End endures eternally, and stands day,
Above the ages, face to face with God. And it will die as dies a wailing breeze
ELLEN THORNEYCROFT FOWLER.
Leisure Hour, Lost in the solemn roar of bounding seas.
PETRARCH TO DEATH (AFTER SONNET
It lies with Death to take the beauty of SONNET: A PEARL.
Laura, but not her gracious memory. (“I am inclined to believe that ... fiction is a Now hast thou touch'd thy stretch of
beautiful disease of the brain. Something, an incident or an experience, or a reflection, gets power, O Death ; imbedded, incrusted, in the properly constituted Thy brigandage hath beggar'd Love's mind, and becomes the nucleus of a pearl of
demesne romance." - See “Stories and Story-Telling," by And quench'd the lamp that lit it, and Andrew Lang, in the Idler for A ugust.) A LITTLE grain of sand, - a common grain Of all the flowers snapp'd with thy ragged That swelled th' uncounted millions of the teeth. shore,
Hollow and meagre stares our life beneath Drifted upon an oyster's marble floor, The querulous moon, robbed of its sovAnd there for years did secretly remain ;
ereign : Until (oh ! fair reward of toil and pain !) Yet the report of her, her deathless Men saw a radiance through the open
Not thine, O Churl ! Not thine, thou When it abandoned shelter, prized before,
greedy Death ! And, as a beauteous pearl, came forth They are with her in Heaven, the which
again. So, in the mind creative lies a thought, Like some brave light, gladdens exceedA common incident of every day,
ingly Till it becomes a pearl of fiction rare, And shoots chance beams to this our With subtle iridescent beauty fraught,
dwelling-place : Which, raised from depths of silence where So art thou swallowed in her victory.
And me her beauty whelmed in very sooth, Sets all the little gaping world a-stare. On me that last-born angel shall have ruth. Spectator. ALICE F. BARRY. Academy.
THE CITY OF YORK, 1
From The London Quarterly Review. dying away into woors and marshes,
the home of the beaver and wild fowl." No city holds higher rank among the Bunsen said that the Vale of York was historic towns of England than York. the most beautiful and romantic in the For six or seven hundred years — right world, save only that of Normandy. through the Roman, British, and early Little is known of the old Celts who Anglian times — it was really the cap- dwelt here, but relics of the stone, ital of England. But petty feuds and bronze, and iron ages have been found tribal jealousies combined with the which carry us back to days when a growing power of London to rob York number of small tribes roamed over of its earlier glory. It still held un- the eastern wolds, protected against disputed rank for many centuries after attack from their neighbors by rude the Norman Conquest as the capital of entrenchments. The tribesmen dwelt the North, but even that distinction in huts or in prahs, like the Maories of has now passed to the great commercial New Zealand, and hunted on the vast centres in Lancashire and the West plains or in the adjoining woods. It Riding. York, thus twice discrowned, seems probable that York was the capstill keeps its place as ecclesiastical ital of Cartismandua, the Brigantian head of the northern province, with a queen. It was about 70 A.D. that the record for educational and missionary Romans, who had established a footing work which forms one of the brightest in the south of Britain, marched against pages in the history of English Chris- the Brigantes. They knew well what tianity, and a stately minster which has advantage they would reap by making never failed to hold fast the admiration themselves masters of the tribal city, and affection not only of Yorkshire with its market and its established but also of all the north of England. fame. After a fierce struggle, Petilius Emperors and princes have long for- Cerealis subdued the country, so that saken the city, but the minster, with when Agricola came as legate, seven “its dignity and massive grandeur,” years later, he merely had to consolhas perhaps a more widely extended idate the work of his predecessor and reputation than any other English push his outposts farther north. A cathedral.
monument to a standard-bearer of the Mr. Raine has long been known as ninth legion, which is preserved in the one of the chief authorities on the York Museum, carries us back to these ecclesiastical history of York, and his days when Eburacum was emerging little volume is a workmanlike epitome from prehistoric obscurity under its of all that is best worth knowing about Roman masters. The name is somethe city. He says it “ stands near the times linked with Ure or Eure, a tribhead of a vale renowned for fertility utary of the Ouse, but this is a very and beauty. The site was in far-dis- doubtful derivation. The Danes cortant days a heath-covered moor, inter- rupted Eoferwic, as the Angles called laced with strips of pasture land, and it into Jorvik, whence comes our York. on the banks of a lidal river. Large The Roman camp of Eburacum occuwoods, of which the Forest of Galtres pied sixty-five or seventy acres on the was a remnant, were in close prox- left bank of the Ouse. As the imporimity, with patches of grass and tillage tance of the station became more man
ifest, fifteen to twenty acres 11. Historic Towns: York. By James Raine,
Cousiderable remains of the M.A., D.C.L., Chancellor and Canon Residentiary of York, and Secretary of the Surtees Society. lofty wall by which this camp was London : Longmans, Green & Co. 1893. 38. Bd.
66 It is built upon 2. Diocesan Histories : York. By George Ornsby, M.A., F.S.A., Canon of York and Vicar of Fish- piles, without ditches, and must have lake. London : Society for Promoting Christian been at least twenty feet in height, Knowledge. 38. 61.
fortified still remain.
with two bands of brickwork — a pleas3. Handbook to the Cathedrals of England: Northern Division : York, etc. With Illustrations. ant contrast to the cream-colored limeLondon : John Murray. 248.
stone of which it is constructed." A
large tower of many angles stood at / were found. Some of the bodies had each corner of the fortification. One been buried in urns, others in coffins of these multangular towers is still pre- of wood, brick, stone, tiles, or lead. served (Bygone Yorkshire, p. 98). It The Yorkshire Philosophical Society, has nine faces, and its walls are five which has done so much to search out feet thick. Later builders have added and preserve the antiquities of York, to its height, bu the Roman ork is has seven hundred funeral urns in its clearly traceable fifteen feet from the museum, and more than thirty large base. This is of rubble, faced with stone cists in its grounds. The auburn ashlar blocks of stone four or five hair of a young Roman lady was taken inches cube. There is also a band of out of her coffin with the pins of jet Roman brickwork laid in five courses. whicli she wore in her lifetime still Each brick is seventeen inches long, fixed in their place. eleven wide, two and a half thick. Two Roman legions were stationed at There were at least two guard-cham-York. The ninth or Spanisli legion bers in the tower, and on the walls the came under Aulus Plautius in A.D. 43 ; scribblings of the Roman soldiers may the sixth was brought from Germany still be traced. Two chief roads, fairly by Hadrian in 120. Its officers and represented by the present Petergate men were largely employed on garrison and Stonegate, ran through the camp. duty on the northern walls. The fact The old Roman high way, paved and that the south of Britain had long been concreted, has been discovered six feet pacified, whilst the north was never below Stonegate. Stations were estab- wholly subdued, made York the great lished in the surrounding district. Rich military centre in Roman times. It pavements, which have been uncovered was the store city where the emperors at Isurium, or Aldborough, seem to and their chief officers took up their show that this Brigantian town became quarters to face the restless tribes of the occasional residence of officers and the north. The second and twentieth wealthy men who wished to escape for legions were stationed at Caerleon and a little while from the bustle of the Chester, in Britannia Superior ; York capital.
was in Britannia Iuferior. When DioEburacum, as the arsenal for the cletian and Constantine divided the north, was strongly fortified. To the country into four parts Eburacum west was a tidal river with an embank- was included in Maxima Cæsariensis, ·ment; to the east the natural drain was which extended from the Roman wall deepened at special points. On the in Northumberland to the Humber. south lay the docks, fortified on their The vicar, count, and duke of the Britoutward edge ; and on the north a moat ains probably had their official resior trench might have been easily drawn dence in Eburacum. The population from the Ouse. It is probable that must have been large and strangely these fortifications were erected by the varied, for the Roman army was formed ninth, or Spanish, legion in A.D. 108–9, on the principle of mixing strangers twelve years before Hadrian built his with strangers, so that there might be wall between the Solway and the North no temptation to combine against their Sea. Remains of large buildings, many masters. The Spanish legionaries tesselated pavements, and an extensive sighed in vain for the Peninsula. series of public baths, uncovered in 1841, show how important a centre
But here in Eburacum [Canon Raine Eburacum was in Roman times. This says] they would have a happier time than
in the camps in the north.
The air was testimony is confirmed by thic extensive
soft, the work was comparatively easy. cemeteries around the city. The tombs The rivers were full of fish, the forests of can still be traced for a mile from
game. Easy and safe roads linked EburaMicklegate Bar towards
Tadcaster, cum to the neighboring stations, and here whilst, in carrying out some railway and there, wherever you went in the counworks, several thousand Roman graves try, were the villas of the rich. There
must have been more than one country|erus heard of this treachery he sunhouse of the emperor at no great distance moned the prince and his supporters, from the city; and when Cæsar came back told them that the head made the geninto Eburacum he might look with just eral, not the feet, and ordered them to pride upon the strength and beauty of the march against the foe. As his comfortress, which was a sample of his power plaint grew more serious, the dying in every country in the world.
emperor pointed out to his sons how he Two bronze tablets in the York had strengthened the empire, and bade Museum carry us back to the days of them cherish the soldiers, by, whose Domitian. They have punctured in- help they could accomplish anything, scriptions to Oceanus and Tethys, and Thoughts of the vavily of earthly things to the gods of the general's prcetorium. filled the old emperor's heart. “I have Demetrius the Scribe, who presented been all,” he said, " and yet what betthese tablets, has been identified with ter am I for it?" He requested to see Demetrius the Grammarian, a native of the urn in which his ashes should soon Tarsus. Plutarch says that this scholar be placed. 6. Thou shalt contain,” he visited him at Delphi on his return said, “what the whole world could not from Britain, where he had been sent contain." On February 4, 211, he on official work by Domitian. Plutarch asked, “What
my calls him a holy man, and refers to his friends, that I can do for you ?” and study of the religion of Britain. Un- passed quietly away. A noble funeral happily, the results of his investigations pyre was erected outside the city ; on have not been handed down the centu- this Severus was laid in military dress. ries. The first incident of importance His sons set fire to it, and then headed connected with Eburacum which has the long procession of princes and solsurvived in any detail is connected with diers that rode around the pyre, after Severus. That emperor came from which they set out for Rome with the Gaul in 208 to assist his legate in repell- urn. Eburacum
familiar with ing the Caledonians. The emperor other masters of the Roman State. brought with him his two sons, Cara- Carausius, the sailor emperor, is said calla and Geta. A two years' campaign to have been killed there in 293. resulted in the temporary submission Constantius spent his brief reign in of the northern tribesmen. During York, where he died in 306. There these years the court was fixed at his famous son was proclaimed emEburacum. Papinian, the great jurist, peror. The tradition that he was born expounded and administered Roman here has been long disproved. He left law in the city. Meanwhile, Severus, this country soon after his father's who was suffering from a serious dis- death, and was never able to return. ease, grew rapidly worse. As he re- But York is rightly proud of its conturned from the north he was led by an nection with the first Christian emerror to the temple of Bellona, near the peror. north gate of York. Victims of an ill- Eburacum was a prosperous omened color were brought out for sac-city. Its bishop was present at the rilice. The emperor rejected them and great councils of Arles, Nicea, Sardica, made his way to the palace, but the Ariminum. A hundred years after the same dark-colored hostice followed him departure of Constantine, Honorius deto the very door. All men now pre- sired the British cities to look to their pared for
crushing disaster. own safety, as the hands of Rome were Trouble was not long in coming. The full with troubles nearer home. The Caledonians and Meatæ took up arms Britons were not slow to rise against again, and Severus girded himself for the Roman prefects and officers who
war of extermination. Meanwhile had not already been drawn away from Caracalla plotting against his the country, and amid such scenes the father. He induced the soldiers to curtain falls on Eburacum as a Roman salute him as imperator. When Sey-Icolony and depôt. London was even
then the chief trading city, but York head, and bade him remember that sign was the seat of government. "York, when the hour to fulfil his promise. and York alone, among the cities of should come. Such is the old story. -Britain, has been the dwelling-place of When Redwald refused to give up. the Cæsars of Rome.”
bis guest, Æthelfrith marched on East The Britons were now left alone to Anglia with a large army. He was deface the Picts and Scots as well as to feated and slain near Retford in 617. Lold back the advancing tide of Saxon Eadwine now became king. Eoferwic invasion. We know little of the years (i.e., York) was his capital. As he that followed. Mr. Freeman says : passed to and fro a standard of purple “We might freely give up much about and gold floated over his head, whilst a other places to get in exchange a single tuft of feathers fastened to a spear was ray of light to throw on the struggle borne before him.
66 With him," says which made Eburacum English.” The Green, “ began the English proverb so fact that even in the seventh century often applied to after-kings : - A woman the independent British kingdom called with her babe might_walk scathless Elmete comprised a great portion of from sea to sea in Eadwine's day.'. the West Riding, points to struggle Peaceful communications revived along and compromise. Ælle was the first the deserted highways ; the springs by king of Deira. Eburacum, now known the roadside were marked with stakes, as Eoferwic, was his capital. On his and a cup of brass set beside each for death in 588, Æthelric, king of Ber- the traveller's refreshment.” Eadwine nicia, united the two provinces under became over-lord of the five Englishı the name of Northumbria. Under realms of Mid-Britain. Being left. a Æthelfrith, its next prince, Northum-widower with two sons, he made overbria enjoyed great prosperity. This tures to Eadbald of Kent for a marriage prince finally broke down the power with his sister Ethelburga. The overof the Britons by luis great victory at tures were at first rejected on the Chester. It was at this time that Pope ground that he was a heathen. But Gregory designated London and York Eadwine pledged himself to grant as archbishoprics of equal dignity. Ethelburga and her retinue the free This was in anticipation of the day exercise of their religion. He even when York should become a Christian hinted that he himself might listen to city. Eadwine, the son of Ælle, was its teachers. The new queen brought now an exile, under the protection of Paulinus as her private chaplain. Bede Redwald, king of East Anglia. Æthel- pictures him, on good authority, as a frith tried to bribe this king to slay the man above the average height, slightly refugee, but the remonstrance of Red- stooping, with raven-black hair, worn wald's queen worked on his better face, and a nose high and curved like nature, and he refused to commit so an eagle's beak. He seemed to in. foul a dced. Æthelfrith now tried spire veperation and awe in all who threats. Redwald's resolution wavered looked upon him. Eadwine did not as he remembered the power of the yield to the new religion without a Northumbrian king. It is said that struggle, but Paulinus took advantage while St. Eadwine was musing over of three great blessings — the king's the dangers that surrounded him, a preservation from an assassin, the birth stranger suddenly appeared, who hinted of a daughter, and a great victory over at the possibility of his regaiving his the West Saxons — to plead the cause father's throne, and meeting one who of Christianity. Whilst Eadwine was should teach him a better life and purer still undecided, Paulinus laid his hand code than any of his ancestors had upon his head and asked if he rememknown. Eadwine promised to listen bered the sign. The king now listened to such a teacher if only he could see with new interest. He called together the way to recover his father's throne. the leading men of his kingdom, and The visitor laid his hand upon his found a powerful ally in the chief priest