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were being freshly raised against the himself with respect to the truth,” slave trade by Mr. Wilberforce and said, “thumb screws, and other instruothers. Thus, special notice comes to ments of torture, except the whip and be made of it in current publications, the stocks” (a considerate exception) and the “New Annual Register” un- " were utterly abolished, and he saw der the head of “ British and Foreign but little of that cruelty which was so History,” gives condensed reports of much complained of. He confessed,

, the debates to which it gave rise in however, that there was room for much Parliament.

amendment. Missionaries, he said, It was not, indeed, for the first time should be sent to instruct the slaves in that they were then held, a hundred religion; marriage ought to be encouryears ago. “On Monday, the 2nd of aged, medical societies instituted. April (1792), the House of Commons Premiums ought also to be given both resolved itself into a committee to con- to mothers and fathers of children." sider (again) of the circumstances of On the committee dividing, a motion the African slave trade.” It will be (supported by both Mr. Fox and Mr. remarked that the subject of debate Pitt) was carried by a majority of sixtywas not “Slavery." Mr. Wilberforce, eight, for a “gradual abolition" of the who opened it, “disclaimed any design traffic, and after two or three adjournof an immediate emancipation of the ments, it was proposed that it should negroes. They were far from being in cease at the expiration of eight years." a state for the reception of such an To this an amendment was moved that enjoyment. Liberty he considered as it should terminate in a year, and after the child of reason.' These are the more debates a compromise was reported words of the great philan- cepted by both parties that it should thropist in beginning his speech. It come to an end in “four." This was was the nefarious traffic, the importa- carried by a majority of forty. tion of any more negroes from Africa, The measure, however, met with less against which he then pleaded. In favor in the Upper House, several nosupport of his plea, “he observed the ble lords (including a bishop) urging number of slaves now in Jamaica only the expediency of hearing fresh eviwas three hundred thousand, while that dence. This was ordered to be heard of the whites was only twenty thou- at the bar, and thus, the registrar adds sand, and this alarming disparity they (this time showing a personal feeling wished preposterously to increase.” in the matter), “the advocates for the Then he proceeded to expose "the abuses of the slave trade sheltered absurd supposition that the trade was a themselves under the masked battery nursery for seamen, quoting authentic of form,”. hoping “that the popular documents, pleading also that the abo- fervor might abate upon the subject, or lition of the traffic woul} not injure some fortunate war, or other circumcommerce, and pressing the considera- stance, might opportunely occur to tion (which reads curiously to us now) defeat the hopes and frustrate the en" that when no more slaves were suf-deavors of the friends of mankind." fered to be imported, they must be well It was not (as we know) till 1807 that treated ; and by proper treatment they a bill for the abolition of the slave would multiply faster and be better trade passed both Houses successfully. servants."

In 1824 slave-trading was made a capThe greater part of his speech was, ital offence, mitigated in 1837 to transas might be supposed, devoted to an portation for life. Meanwhile, the exposition of the horrible cruelties“ Anti-Slavery Society" grew up, and

, seen in the kidnapping and transporta- a motion for the extinction of slavery tion of negroes. Then one member itself in the British dominions was after another defended the existing finally passed, and received the royal state of affairs ; and Mr. Vaughan, assent on the 28th of August, 1833. who had visited Jamaica, “ to certify As I take down the century-old vol.

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ume of the “New Annual Register" they were doing more than correcting from its shelf and turn over its pages an individually national injustice, or recording the utterances of men who saw that their movement was a step in were watching the French Revolution, the change which was differentiating and still sore at the rejection of British the Old World from the New, and setrule by their former American fellow- ting up a then undreamt-of test of the subjects, this matter of “slave traffic" relationship between one man and anseems to separate itself from the other other. The growth of this change is great questions of the day, and mark now, indeed, producing those phases of the progress of that human relation- democracy which have taken no final ship which radically distinguishes the shape, but are bewildering many, and East from the West, and may, indeed, utilize in their development, often unbe said to divide the Old World from consciously, the force of political bodies the New. We may call it the “ broth- which are assumed to be antagonistic. erhood ” of man. Its perception, as It is in the debates on the

66 slave Mr. Wilberforce said of liberty, is the trade" in Parliament, which rank child of reason ; it grows slowly, and among discussions whose issues have can come to its full fruit only after passed away, that I see the germs of loag and patient use of the best facul- that great movement which is changing ties which we possess. Glimpses, an- the world of men, not in that which gry, distorted, imperfect, have been professes to be a chronicle of “ Prinhad of it under circumstances of op- cipal Occurrences,” and records only pression, leading to fierce revolutions the murders, shipwrecks, fires, execuor hasty legislation which upset the tions, robberies, marriages, battles, and balance of progress, but the perception births (natural or monstrous), which of it creeps onwards into light, mark- are common to the future and the past. ing more and more clearly the distinction between the old and new order of social life. There have been some things common to all conditions of

From The Gentleman's Magazine. society in the history of mankind.

WESSEX PHILOSOPHY. Whether nations have been civilized or To add a new province to literature savage, men have built and fought, is no mean achievement, and this Mr. they have married, and been given in Hardy has done. The easy course for marriage. But, once upon a time, the plain man who commences novelist there was no state of humanity in is to make his tale a tale of one or which some section did not claim the two cities already known to geography. right of possession or supreme com- For greater freedom, he may lay his mand over another, in the shape of scene " at the town of in Blankslavery, serfdom, or some limited form shire ;” but the streets of that town of of essential superiority which excluded happy endings are deep-worn with the the admission of real brotherhood.' It feet of earlier generations of novelists. is in the East that we may now see the It is a fortunate inspiration which cregreatest inability to realize it ; but once ates a “ local habitation and a name this blindness was spread over the out of the void. The architect of whole earth, and affected the West Thrums may well be proud of his even after centuries of Christianity. achievement. The deviser of Barset

When, therefore, I turn over the shire, with its pleasant parsonages and leaves of the century-old volume before its cathedral city, the scene pot of one me, I do not see among the “ Principal but of several stories, stands — mainly Occurrences of the year the an- by virtue of that county — almost in nouncement that one more step had step with the greatest novelists of the been taken in recognizing the brother- Victorian age. But to create Wessex hood of man.

Even those who were was a yet greater task. For Mr. Hardy taking it perhaps hardly realized that has not merely given the world a new

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province ; he has peopled it with a ter to the old faith I was born in. race new to literature.

Yes; there's this to be said for the The agricultural laborer has played Church, a can belong to the but the smallest part in fiction. But in Church and bide in his cheerful old Wessex all the population lives by the inn, and never trouble or worry his land. They have the right savor of mind about doctrines at all. But to be the soil. It is a land of villages. Of a meetinger, you must go to chapel in most of these might said what Mr. all weathers, and make yerself as franHardy says of Little Hintock; they are tic as a skit. Not but that chapel6 of those sequestered spots outside the members be clever chaps enough in gates of the world, where may usually their way. They can lift up beautiful be found more meditation than action, prayers out of their own heads, all and more listlessness than meditation ; about their families, and shipwracks in where reasoning proceeds on narrow the newspaper.' premisses, and results in inferences They can — they can,' said Mark wildly imaginative." The villagers Clark, with corroborative feeling ; but “belong to that class of society which we Churchmen, you see, must have it casts its thoughts into the form of feel- all printed aforehand, or, dang it all, ing, and its feelings into the form of we should no more know what to say to commotion." Yet it is possible to a great person like the Lord than babes glean some fragments of philosophy unborn.' from the felicitous perversions and ap- Chapel-folk be more hand-inpropriate absurdities of their conversa- glove with them above than we,' said tion.

Joseph thoughtfully. The two centres of village life are "Yes,' said Coggan. . We know the church and the inn; and round well that if anybody goes to heaven, these crystallizes the villagers' philos- they will. They've worked hard for it, ophy. The combined effect of the two and they deserve to have it, such as institutions is seen in the immortal Mr. 'tis. I'm not such a fool as to pretend Poorgrass.

that we who stick to the Church have Well, I hope Providence won't be the same chance as they, because we in a way with me for my doings,' said know we have not. But I hate a feller Joseph, again sitting down. I've who'll change his old ancient doctrines been troubled with weak moments for the sake of getting to heaven.'lately, 'tis true. I've been drinky once

But the attachment of the peasants this month already, and I did not go to to their church does not blind them church a' Sunday, and I dropped a to the imperfections of their pastors. curse or two yesterday ; so I don't Mrs. Dewey complains that the new want to go too far for my safety. Your vicar calls at unseasonable hours. Her next world is your next world, and not husband, more tolerant, discusses his to be squandered off-hand.'

56"I believe ye to be a chapel-mem- ".. His sermon was well enough, a ber, Joseph. That I do.'

very excellent sermon enough, only he "Oh, no, no! I don't go so far as couldn't put it into words and speak it. that.'

That's all was the matter wi' the ser"For my part,” said Coggan, “I'm mon. He hadn't been able to get it staunch Church of England.'

past his pen.' 'Ay, and faith, so be I,' said Mark Well, ay, the sermon might be Clark.

good enough, for, ye see, the sermon of "I won't say much for myself ; 1 Old Ecclesiastes himself lay in Old don't wish to, Coggan continued, with Ecclesiastes' ink-bottle afore he got it that tendency to talk on principles out.?" which is a characteristic of the barley- Mellstock village, the home of this corn. • But I've never changed a acute critic, was, in the matter of single doctrine ; I've stuck like a plas-church attendance, a shining example

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among the villages of Wessex ; a vir- | Wessex beverage. In the West cider tue which it owed chiefly to the attrac- held sway; but elsewhere the favorite tions of the old-fashioned string choir liquor was Casterbridge ale, of which it which, until Parson Maybold displaced was said that “anybody brought up it, exclusively occupied the gallery — a for being drunk and disorderly in the position which commanded a bird's-eye streets of its natal borough had only to view of human frailty.

prove that he was a stranger to the “ The gallery looked down upon and place and its liquor to be honorably knew the habits of the nave to its re- dismissed by the magistrates, as one motest peculiarity, and had an exten- overtaken in a fault that no man could sive stock of exclusive information guard against who entered the town about it ; whilst the nave knew nothing unawares." It was doubtless this liquor of the gallery people, as gallery people, which was the standard in the county, beyond their loud-sounding minims and inspired the indignation Mr. Spinks and chest notes. Such topics as that felt at watered cider, which uvhappily the clerk was always chewiog tobacco was found to be too common. except at the moment of crying Amen; poor liquor,' said Mr. Spinks, makes a that he had a dust-hole in his pew ; mau's throat feel very melancholy, and that during the sermon certain young is a disgrace to the name of stimdaughters of the village had left off milent."" It must have been this caring to read anything so mild as the Casterbridge ale which overcame Mr. marriage service for some years, and Poorgrass upon a memorable occasion. now regularly studied the one which So much was he affected that Gabriel chronologically follows it ; that a pair Oak accused him of being as drunk as of lovers touched fingers through a he could stand : knot-hole between their pews in the “No, Shepherd Oak, no! Listen manner ordained by their great exem- to reason, shepherd. All that's the plars, Pyramus and Thisbe; that Mrs. matter with me is the affliction called a Ledlow, the farmer's wife, counted her multiplying eye, and that's how it is I money and reckoned her week's mar- look double to you -I mean you look keting expenses during the first lesson double to me.'

- all news to those below -- were stale 666 A multiplying eye is a very bad subjects here."

thing,' said Mark Clark. From the church to the public-house 666 It always comes on when I have is a natural transitiou in the villages. been in a public-house a little time,' The inn, indeed, has entered into the said Joseph Poorgrass meekly. “Yes ; whole life of the people. In Tess's I see two of every sort, as if I were time even the off-license had become some holy man living in the time of so accustomed as to lead to a recognized King Noah and entering into the ark. modification of social habits ; and it .. Y-y-y-yes,' he added, becoming was in the bedroom at Rolliver's that much affected by the picture of himself the villagers, who found it too laborious as a person thrown away, and shedding a task to reach the fully licensed house, tears ; 'I feel too good for England ; I the Pure Drop, assembled — “ being a ought to have lived in Genesis by rights, few private friends asked in to-night to like the other men of sacrifice, and keep up club-walking at my own ex- then I shouldn't have b-b-been called a pense. But Tess lived a generation d-d-drunkard in such a way!' later than the other heroines of Wes- "I wish you'd show yourself a man

In earlier times it was only at of spirit, and not sit whining there l' the inn that the peasants “sought 6. Show myself a man of spirit ? beatitude,” and, like John Darbeyfield, . . Ah, well ! let me take the name endeavored “ to get up their strength.” of drunkard humbly — let me be a man The attempt was excusable before the of contrite knees let it be! I know days of the seven men of Preston, on that I always do say " Please God” account of the peculiar potency of the afore I do anything, from my getting

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up to my going down of the same, and word of sin ” to a bare poor initial. I am willing to take as much disgrace Henchard, the mayor of Casterbridge, as there is in that holy act. Hah, yes ! found the abbreviation detestable. He

But not a man of spirit ? Have exhorted the witness to " out with the I ever allowed the toe of pride to be word like a inan,” or leave it out altolifted against my person without groan- gether; yet it is to be feared that so ing manfully that I question the right must have vanished the point of old to do so ? I inquire that query boldly !' conversation as of a modern play. It

"We can't say that you have, Jo- was a small matter ; for the virtue of seph Poorgrass,' said Jan emphatically. abstinence from speech — not

666Never have I allowed such treat- flashes of silence, like Macaulay's ment to pass unquestioned ! Yet the but silence profound and unbroken on shepherd says in the face of that rich all subjects was deeply appreciated testimony that I am not a man of Under the Greenwood Tree. spirit! Well, let it pass by, and death «« Yes ; Geoffry Day is a clever man is a kind friend !'»

if ever there was The native of Wessex boasted a anything, not he!' very talented constitution,” and even

666 Never.' Casterbridge ale did not permanently ««• You might live wi' that man, my affect him. Very different, indeed, sonnies, a hundred years and never from the morning headache of the know there was anything in him.' town toper was the recollection of that Ay; one o' those up-country Louale, now extinct, lost in the multitude don ink-bottle fellers would call Geoffry of modern hop substitutes. 66. So I a fool.' used to eat a lot of salt fish afore go- "6Ye never find out wbat's in that ing,' said Mr. Coggan once, in recollec- man ;

Silent ? Ah, he is tion of his courtship, and then by the silent ! He can keep silence well. time I got there I were as dry as a That man's silence is wonderful to limekiln so thorough dry that that listen to !' ale would slip down — ah, 'twould slip

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much sense in it. down sweet! Happy times I heavenly Every moment of it brimming over times ! Such lovely drinks as I used with sound understanding.? to have at that house.?Coggan was "A can keep a very clever silence a connoisseur of intoxication. 6. For — very clever truly,' echoed Leaf. "A a drunk of a really noble class,' he con- looks at me as if a' could see my tinued, that brought you no nearer thoughts running round like the works the dark man than you were afore you of a clock.' begun, there was none like those in 66 • Well, all will agree that the man Farmer Everdene's kitchen. Not a can pause well in conversation, be it a single damn allowed ; no, not a bare long time or be it a short time.'» poor one, even at the most cheerful For more enlivening diversions than moment when all were blindest, though this Carlylean gospel of nothingness, the good old word of sin thrown in the Wessex folk turned to dancing, here and there at such times is a great music, and those pageants of still life, relief to a merry soul!'

those universal occasions for the dis""True,' said the maltster. Nature play of emotions which in less acute requires her swearing at regular times, forms ever private — weddings, or she's not herself ; and unholy excla- christenings, and funerals.

66. Dancmations is a necessity of life.'ing,' said Mr. Spinks, 'is a most

This, doubtless, is the root of the strengthening, enlivening, and courtmatter; the basis of the whole phi- ing movement, especially with a little losophy of expletives. Yet, even in music added.'” And dance they did ; Wessex, modern squeamishness was not your formal square dance or your invading ; so that the policeman in the gliding waltz, nor your stage minuets, witness-box reduced the “good old but the good, honest, and perfectly

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